The dome hill (piltideta)


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The dome hill (piltideta)

  1. 1. THE DOME HILL (TOOMPEA) Henrik Salum
  2. 2. EARLY HISTORYA limestone cliff (appr. 48 m)Kalev’s grave (legend)11th c. – a wooden fortress (to protect the port)Crusades (Drang nach Osten)1219 – King Waldemar II of Denmark • Dannebrog • Danish King’s Garden
  3. 3. Danish King’s Garden
  4. 4. DESCRIPTIONSince 1219 the seat of power for foreign forces(Denmark, Germany, Sweden, Russia)Noblemen, clergymen, a small number of artisans6 June 1684 – a fire destroyed most of the buildings (exceptfor the fortress)The Dome Hill and the Lower Town autonomous up to 1877
  5. 5. THE SMALL FORTRESSCastrum minus– the southernmost part (the Dome Hillcastle)13th c. – a stone fortress (Volquin) built by theBrotherhood of the Knights of the Sword14th c. – re-built as a convent-type castle with a courtyard(the Livonian Order)
  6. 6. THE DOME HILL CASTLEFour towers originally - Tall Hermann (50m), Landskrone, Pilsticke, Stür der Kerl (no longer there)16th c. – the castle lost its defensive role (each rule rebuilt itas a representative building)18th c. – Catherine II ordered a palace to be built for hergovernor (architect Johann Schultz, late baroque)
  7. 7. THE DOME HILL CASTLE1920-1922 – re-built as a parliament building (architectsHabermann and Johanson)1918 – the Estonian flag1940-1989 – the flag of the Estonian Soviet SocialistRepublic1989 – the Estonian flag
  10. 10. PARLIAMENT
  11. 11. THE RUSSIAN-BYZANTINE ALEXANDER NEVSKY CATHEDRALBuilt in 1894-1900 (architect Mikhail Preobrazhensky)Meant to overshadow everything elseAlexander Nevsky - the Prince of Novgorod, military victories over the Swedish and German forces (13th c.)
  12. 12. THE BIG FORTRESSCastrum majus – the northern part of the Dome HillDefences built in the 14th c., demolished after the fireThe radial network of streets (13th c.), still unchanged
  13. 13. THE DOME SCHOOL (TOOMKOOL )Founded in 1319 (Erich Menved – king of Denmark)Since 1765 belonged to the KnighthoodFamous students: Karl Ernst von Baer, Adam Johann vonKrusensternRe-built in the 19th c.Voldemar Panso
  14. 14. ST MARY’S GUILDFounded in 1407A religious organisation until the 16th c.Became a guild of artisans after the ReformationThe guildhouse built in 1517The current façade from the 19th c. (neo-classicism)
  15. 15. The Dome School St Mary’s Guild
  16. 16. THE KNIGHTHOOD BUILDINGThe Knighthood – a governing body of noblemen ofGerman origin (from all over Estonia)Partly neo-renaissance (19th c.), partly baroque (older)
  17. 17. NOBLEMEN AND THEIR CITY RESIDENCESCountry mansions in summerIncome – land property, distilleries, army generalsCity residences in winter • Entertainment • Classicism from the 19th c.
  18. 18. CITY RESIDENCESThe residence of von TollThe residence of von Uexküll • “Stadtluft macht frei!” (City air makes free). • Beheaded on 7 May 1535 at Harju GateThe residence of von Ungern-Sternberg • Historicism • The origin of the name (legend)
  19. 19. CITY RESIDENCESThe residence of von Kaulbars – the most strikingexample of neo-classicism (architect Carl Ludwig Engel) • Hexastyle Ionic portico facing the Lower Town • The courtyard facing the Dome Hill (Parentum voto ac favore – with parents’ good wishes and favour) • the office of the Chancellor of Justice
  20. 20. CITY RESIDENCESThe residence of von Stenbock (Stenbock Palace) • Originally meant as a courthouse and prison • Ordered by the Russian state • Debts – the building given to Jakob Pontus Stenbock (residence) • Architect Johann Mohr, built 1787-1792 • Houses the Estonian government
  21. 21. The residence of von Toll
  22. 22. The residence of von Uexküll
  23. 23. The residence of von Kaulbars
  24. 24. Stenbock Palace
  25. 25. WHY DOES TALLINN LIMP?The Long Leg • One of the first paved streets (14th c.) • A wall built in the 15th c. (half of the street – the Dome Hill, half of it – the Lower Town)The Short Leg • A thick wooden door with iron bolts (the Dome Hill vs the Lower Town) – belonged to the Lower Town • Built as a staircase in the 19th c.
  26. 26. The Long Leg The Short Leg
  27. 27. ST MARY’S CATHEDRAL (THE DOME CHURCH)The junction of eight streetsPatron saint – St Mary the VirginBuilding started in the 13th c. (one of the oldest)First mentioned in 1234 (a bloody confrontation betweenthe Danish feudals and the Brotherhood of Swords)Re-built as a basilica in the 1430s (Gothic style)
  28. 28. ST MARY’S CATHEDRAL (THE DOME CHURCH)Heavily damaged in the fire (1684)Spire and helmet – baroque (1779)Until 1565 a Catholic cathedral, since then a Lutheranchurch
  29. 29. ST MARY’S CATHEDRAL (THE DOME CHURCH)Otto Johann Thuve (the Don Juan of Tallinn)The altar – 1696, Christian Ackermann, baroqueThe altar painting – 1866, Christ on the Crucifix byEduard von GebhardtThe pulpit – 1686, Ackermann, baroque (the statue ofMoses, paintings of apostles and evangelists)
  30. 30. ST MARY’S CATHEDRAL (THE DOME CHURCH)Tombstones and monuments • The family loge/box of Manteuffel (18th c.) • The family loge/box of Patkul (18th c.) • Sarcophagus of Carl Heinrichson von Horn and his wife (slab – 1601, Arent Passer’s workshop) • Sarcophagus of Otto von Uexküll (slab – 1601, Arent Passer’s workshop) • Sarcophagus of Pontus de la Gardie (16th c., Passer, renaissance)
  31. 31. ST MARY’S CATHEDRAL (THE DOME CHURCH)• Monument for Oloff Ryning zu Toresio (Hans von Aken)• Tombstone of Caspar von Tiesenhausen and his wife Märta Oxenstjerna (Arent Passer)• A marble obelisk for Ferdinand von Tiesenhausen (“From father to son”)• Unfinished sarcophaguses for Fabian von Fersen and Otto Reinhold von Taube (17th c., Johan Gustav Stockenberg)
  32. 32. ST MARY’S CATHEDRAL (THE DOME CHURCH)• A mable statue for Samuel Greigh (1788, Giacome Quarenghi, neo-classical)• Monument for Adam Johann von Krusenstern (1848, Johann Gottfried Exner, pseudogothic)• Two tombs for the butchers’ corporation and the shoemakers’ corporation (18th c.)• Tombs of the Taube family (16th c.)• 107 coat of arms epitaphs (Elert Thiele, Ackermann and his workshop)