Supportive and motivating environments in schools


Published on

The conference Developing Strength and Resilience in Children, 1-2 Nov. 2010 in Oslo.

1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Supportive and motivating environments in schools

  1. 1. Main factors to make wellbeing and learning a reality Anne G. Danielsen (PhD) Oslo, 2010
  2. 2. 1. Background 2. Outcomes: Wellbeing and learning 3. Aim 4. Theoretical perspective 5. Previous research 6. Research questions 7. Methods 8. Results 9. Conclusions 10. Implications Anne G. Danielsen
  3. 3. Anne G. Danielsen
  4. 4. a risk or resource for students’ wellbeing (Samdal, 1999) Anne G. Danielsen
  5. 5.  Subjective wellbeing  Positive development in children and youth  Focus on ◦ Developing strengths ◦ Positive responses to adversity ◦ Strenghtening important institutions  Complements, does not replace, risk behaviour- and disability-approaches  Main purpose: Identitfying supportive and motivating factors that may relate to  wellbeing and learning of students (Danielsen, 2010). Anne G. Danielsen
  6. 6.  (a) positive subjective experiences, ◦ like subjective wellbeing , self-determination, self- efficacy and self-regulated learning (academic initiative)  (b) positive personality – a perspective on human beings as self-organizing, self-directed, adaptive entities, ◦ e.g. self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000) and social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1997), and  (c) positive institutions ◦ e.g. schools, bringing out the best in positive character and subjective experiences (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000). ◦ School setting: the major extra-familial environment Anne G. Danielsen
  7. 7.  Belonging at school: ◦ economic or educational success as adults ◦ long-term health and wellbeing (OECD, 2004)  Success in education: ◦ individuals’ opportunities to live a successful life (Ottawa Charter to Health Promotion, 1986; Masten & Coatsworth, 1998; OECD, 2004).  Individuals’ wellbeing and learning ◦ prerequisite for societies to achieve sustainable socio-economic and democratic development (OECD, 2004) Anne G. Danielsen
  8. 8.  Chapter 9a. The pupils’ school environment  Section 9a-1. General requirements  All pupils attending primary and secondary schools are entitled to a good physical and psychosocial environment conducive to health, wellbeing and learning. Anne G. Danielsen
  9. 9. Subjective Wellbeing  Quality of life or “happiness”  people’s own evaluations of their lives, both affective and cognitive Anne G. Danielsen
  10. 10.  life satisfaction, as for school students in Norway, and  school satisfaction, considering school as one of the important life domains of wellbeing ◦ such as work, family, friends, or community (Huebner, Suldo, Smith, & McKnight, 2004a; Huebner, Valois, Suldo, Smith, McKnight, Seligson et al., 2004b). Anne G. Danielsen
  11. 11.  an important cognitive aspect of subjective wellbeing (Huebner, Valois, Paxton, & Drane, 2005)  views of life conditions and wellbeing experienced and assessed by the individuals themselves (Huebner et al., 2004)  global, cognitive judgments of one’s life (Pavot, Diener, Colvin, & Sandvik, 1991)  a person’s evaluation of various areas of his or her life (such as the school context) Anne G. Danielsen
  12. 12.  A right to feel good about themselves and the institutions in which they function (Verkuyten & Thijs, 2002)  An important outcome of schooling in itself  An affective variable, students’ enjoyment and evaluation of their school experiences (Huebner & Gilman, 2006)  Social belonging and inclusion (PISA-studies; educational policy documents)  Liking school: (Health Behaviour in School-aged Children-studies)  Disaffection with school may reflect alienation or disconnection from school and withdrawal from school activities Anne G. Danielsen
  13. 13.  Engagement in challenging, task oriented behaviour (Larson, 2000)  Self-regulated learning; motivational processes ◦ Goal setting, effort, positive beliefs, valuing learning (Schunk & Zimmerman, 1997)  Obtain better results (more likely)  Become lifelong learners (more likely)  Major new goal of education (OECD, 2004)  Contribution to creating a good life (Report No. 16 [2006-2007] to the Norwegian Parliament) Anne G. Danielsen
  14. 14.  a critical developmental period in shaping patterns of mental health (WHO, 2000) and  health enhancing-behaviors (Larson, Wilson, Mortimer, 2002).  Both growth and problems are potential outcomes of the adolescent period, depending on the kind of care and opportunities that adults and institutions afford (Roeser, Eccles, Sameroff, 1998).  improving a student’s school initiative may prevent student boredom, disaffection, and drop-out from school (cf. Finn, 1989; Fredricks et al.).Anne G. Danielsen
  15. 15. Apply a positive psychological perspective School-related factors Lower secondary schools, i.e. grade 8-10 relate positively to students’ Life satisfaction, School satisfaction and Academic initiative Anne G. Danielsen
  16. 16.  Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000)  What are  supportive and motivating environments in schools  according to self-determination theory? Anne G. Danielsen
  17. 17. Warmth vs Hostility Structure vs Caos Autonomy- Support vs Coercion Self- determined Motivation - Engagement Life satisfaction School satisfaction Academic initiative Relatedness Competence Autonomy Supportive and Motivating Environments Active en- couragement Student needs Student motivation Outcomes Anne G. Danielsen Figure 1
  18. 18.  Relatedness; belonging and feeling connected to others  Competence; to control outcomes and to experience effectance, such as having a sense of mastery over one’s capacity to act in the environment  Autonomy; to be agentic, to feel like the “origin” of one’s actions, and to have a voice, initiative, input or choice in determining our own behavior (Ryan & Deci, 2000; Deci & Ryan, 2000). Anne G. Danielsen
  19. 19.  Interpersonal involvement  Competence-involving structure  Autonomy-support Reeve (2002); Reeve et al. (2008) Anne G. Danielsen Warmth vs Hostility Structure vs Chaos Autonomy- Support vs Coercion
  20. 20.  Interpersonal involvement (Reeve, 2005)  The creation of social bonds ◦ a) the other person cares about my welfare ◦ b) the other person likes me (Baumeister & Leary, 1995)  Support for relatedness provided by teachers ◦ a sense of being close to students, ◦ a sense of warmth, affection, and acceptance of students (Reeve, 2006; Reeve et al., 2008) ◦ pedagogical caring (Goldstein, 1999; Wentzel, 1997; Noddings, 2005). ◦ can be important to students’ development of secure relations to adults (Furrer & Skinner, 2003) Anne G. Danielsen Warmth vs Hostility
  21. 21.  Competence-involving structure  Continued feed-back provided by teachers:  clear expectations, optimal challenges, and timely, informative, consistent, sensitive, and responsive feedback (in contrast to chaos or laissez-faire)  suggestions for how future performance can be improved, may ◦ reduce perceptions of uncertainty ◦ help the student in developing a sense of perceived control over possible stressful circumstances (Rosenfeld et al., 2000, Hattie, 2009; Hattie & Timperley, 2007; OECD, 2005; Reeve, 2002). Anne G. Danielsen Structure vs Chaos
  22. 22.  Autonomy-supportive teachers ◦ help students develop a sense of congruence between their classroom behavior and their inner motivational resources ◦ provide students with high-quality interpersonal relationships (Reeve, 2002).  Responsive, supportive, motivate through interest, asking students what they want (Reeve; Reeve & Jang, 2006). ◦ enhanced motivation, engagement, learning, and psychological wellbeing (Reeve & Halusic, 2009) Anne G. Danielsen Autonomy- Support vs Coercion
  23. 23.  two independent contextual variables ◦ can be complementary and mutually supportive  Teachers can ◦ provide little or much competence-involving structure  Teachers can ◦ be controlling or autonomy-supportive  “A lack of structure yields not an autonomy-supportive environment but instead one that is permissive, indulgent, or laissez-faire” (Reeve, 2006, p. 231). Anne G. Danielsen
  24. 24. Anne G. Danielsen
  25. 25.  Most young adolescents report  relatively high levels of life satisfaction (Currie, Gabhainn, Godeau, Roberts, Smith, Currie et al., 2008).  11, 13 and 15-year-old school-students in 41 countries and regions across Europe and North America.  social support from family, teachers, and peers is associated with perceived life satisfaction (Diener & Fujita, 1995). Anne G. Danielsen
  26. 26.  School may be one of the life domains with the largest impact on students’ life satisfaction (Huebner, Laughlin, Ash & Gilman, 1998)  Literature in this area is scant (Suldo, Riley, & Shaffer, 2006).  Knowledge about the impact of school satisfaction on students’ life satisfaction:  important for understanding how school- related resources influence (and change) health and well-being. Anne G. Danielsen
  27. 27.  if the school context  provides social support for  relatedness,  competence and  autonomy (Baker et al., 2003).  Associated with increased school satisfaction  In accordance with self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000) Anne G. Danielsen
  28. 28.  Large cross-country differences in the prevalence of students reporting to like school (Currie, et al., 2008).  Female students tend to report higher levels of school satisfaction than males do, but  this gender gap narrows between ages 11 and 15.  Compared with other countries; ◦ Norwegian students tend to report very high levels of liking school (Currie et al.) and also a very high sense of belonging to their school (ILS, 2006). Anne G. Danielsen
  29. 29.  -such as  perceived teacher support  care, understanding, fairness, and friendliness,  appear very influential on  students’ school satisfaction (Rosenfeld et al., 2000; Reddy, Rhodes, & Mulhall, 2003; Hamre & Pianta, 2006; Skinner et al., 2008). Anne G. Danielsen
  30. 30.  Youth initiative  studied in different social contexts,  structured voluntary activities, but also in  school, family, and when students spend time with peers in more unstructured ways  during schoolwork, students report low intrinsic motivation. (Larson, 2000; Hansen et al., 2003; Larson et al., 2005) .  academic initiative was not previously examined Anne G. Danielsen
  31. 31. Anne G. Danielsen
  32. 32. Psycho- social support from parents, teachers and classmates Students’ Life Satisfaction Support in the school environment School satisfaction Perceived competence General Self-Efficacy Student outcomes S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n t h e o r y Academic Initiative Figure 2
  33. 33.  1. To what extent is support in the school environment related to students’ perceived life satisfaction, school satisfaction and academic initiative?  2. To what extent do perceived teacher support, perceived classmate support, and perceived student autonomy relate to students’ self-reported academic initiative at the individual and at the school class levels? Anne G. Danielsen
  34. 34. 1: Danielsen, Samdal, Hetland, & Wold, 2009; The Journal of Educational Research, 102, 303–318. 2: Danielsen, Wiium, Wilhelmsen, & Wold, 2010; Journal of School Psychology, 48, 247-267. 3: Danielsen, Breivik, & Wold, in press; Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research. Anne G. Danielsen
  35. 35.  nationally representative samples of 13 and 15 year-olds,  the sixth and seventh World Health Organization (WHO) survey of  Health Behavior in School-aged Children (Currie et. al., 2004; Currie, et al., 2008). rriet Anne G. Danielsen
  36. 36.  National ethical approval was obtained from the Regional Committee for Medical Research Ethics (REK). Data collection  Teachers, or other specially trained personnel, supervised the students’ self-completion of the questionnaires in the school classrooms Anne G. Danielsen
  37. 37.  Descriptive analysis  Structural equation modeling (SEM)  Two-level modeling  Multiple-group analysis Anne G. Danielsen
  38. 38.  The sample sizes were large  The samples were nationally representative (Currie et al., 2001).  The results can be generalized to the Norwegian populations that were studied Anne G. Danielsen
  39. 39. Anne G. Danielsen
  40. 40. Anne G. Danielsen Preliminary results
  41. 41. Classmate support Teacher support Parent support School satisfaction Perceived competence General Self- efficacy - Life- satisfaction .14 .23 .55 .19 .05 .27 .18 .43 . .25 . .47 . .43 .37 .16 .16 . Figur 2. Structural model of relationships between support in the school environment and students’ perceived life satisfaction (paper 1) Anne G. Danielsen .68
  42. 42. (a) Student level (b) Class level Teacher support Classmate support Student autonomi Teacher support Classmate support Academic Initiative Academic Initiative Figure 3. Two level analysis. Dependent variabel: “Academic Initiative”. PCAS: Combined Teacher support and Student autonomy (paper 2) .86** * .32*** .13**.43*** .75*** .47*** R2=.88*** .37 .18 .83*** .85*** PCAS Student autonomi R2=.16*** Note: ***p < .001 **p < .01 Anne G. Danielsen PCAS
  43. 43. Anne G. Danielsen
  44. 44.  pedagogical caring and  perceived competence are related to  academic initiative and  life satisfaction  in 13- and 15-year old students. Anne G. Danielsen
  45. 45.  - in consistency with previous US studies (Rosenfeld et al. 2000; Reddy, Rhodes, & Mulhall, 2003; Hamre & Pianta, 2006)  This result is in accordance with self-determination theory;  social contexts that support the needs of relatedness, competence, and autonomy are associated with psychological well-being (Ryan & Deci, 2000). Anne G. Danielsen
  46. 46.  The students’ perceptions of  pedagogical caring and autonomy support (PCAS) from their teachers were  strongly related (.86) to self-reported academic initiative at the class level.  Students’ perceptions of teacher support  varied considerably between school classes.  Some school classes provide more favourable environments for the development of academic initiative than do others. Anne G. Danielsen
  47. 47.  the findings furthermore support  the existence of a relational zone (Goldstein, 1999), and the importance of  pedagogical caring (Wentzel, 1997; Noddings, 2005),  relatedness (e.g. Furrer & Skinner, 2003; Skinner, Furrer, Marchand, & Kinderman, 2008), and  emotional support (Malecki & Demaray, 2003) in the learning environment. Anne G. Danielsen
  48. 48.  crucial to human life, both to nurture a global need to belong and to provide more situational or task specific support (cf. Baumeister & Leary, 1995).  Because relatedness is likely to facilitate  internalization of the value of schoolwork,  relatedness may facilitate students’ engagement with school and  have a positive influence on students’  initiative for those school tasks that initially are not intrinsically motivated. Anne G. Danielsen
  49. 49. Anne G. Danielsen
  50. 50.  By supporting students’ experiences of relatedness, competence, and autonomy in schools,  a developmental pathway to psychological wellbeing and increasing learning may open.  Self-determination theory:  interpersonal involvement,  competence-involving structure, and  autonomy-support  are crucial and mutually supportive factors Anne G. Danielsen
  51. 51. Anne G. Danielsen