"Developing Strength and Resilience in
Children"
1-2 November 2010
Day 2 9:00 – 11:00
Solution-focused anti-bullying:
How ...
sue@young .karoo.co.uk 2
You may need to tell me to slow down!
Listen out out for anything that may need
translating…
If y...
sue@young .karoo.co.uk 3
sue@young .karoo.co.uk 4
Hull
• City port in North East of England
• One of the most deprived local authorities in
England...
sue@young .karoo.co.uk 5
Where are you now?
• On a scale of 1 to 10
• Where 10 is: I know a lot about solution
focused stu...
sue@young .karoo.co.uk 6
Aim
• “Show and tell!”
• Solution-focused anti-bullying
• Working with school staff, or maybe a
g...
sue@young .karoo.co.uk 7
Bullying research
Traditional projects led by „experts‟ – Dan Olweus in
Norway was the first - of...
sue@young .karoo.co.uk 8
Traditional anti-bullying projects:
Dan Olweus in Norway & Sweden
(Bergen Project 1983 & several ...
sue@young .karoo.co.uk 9
Traditional projects trying to reduce bullying
Lots of bullying, all the time …
10
5
1
sue@young .karoo.co.uk 10
How effective are they?
• Outcomes are disappointing, despite the hype!
• Schools often drop out...
sue@young .karoo.co.uk 11
Meta-analysis of projects
“Only one program [Olweus] yielded significant
reductions in victimisa...
sue@young .karoo.co.uk 12
Researchers (not the only ones!) tend to congratulate
their intervention for any success and bla...
sue@young .karoo.co.uk 13
New ideas about change
• Steve de Shazer & Insoo Kim Berg –
Solution-Focused Brief Therapy
• Dav...
sue@young .karoo.co.uk 14
Solution-focused practice
• Describing the preferred future
• Recognising the successful past
• ...
sue@young .karoo.co.uk 15
Problem-solving
Define the problem
What is bullying?
Assess
How much do we have?
Select a remedy...
sue@young .karoo.co.uk 16
Solution-focused scale:
How we want school to be instead. Our best hopes for
relationships in sc...
sue@young .karoo.co.uk 17
Describing the preferred future
Move into small groups of 3/4… Parents… teachers…
pupils… head-t...
sue@young .karoo.co.uk 18
Priorities and feedback
• Review your list together and agree the two most
significant
• Feedbac...
sue@young .karoo.co.uk 19
Into pairs!
• Stand up
• Find someone you don‟t know, introduce
yourselves
• Move two chairs so ...
sue@young .karoo.co.uk 20
• Guided solution-focused interview
• The questions are displayed
• Interviewer, listen for any ...
sue@young .karoo.co.uk 21
Given all the existing constraints ( of funding, staffing,
buildings, pupil intake )….
“On a sca...
sue@young .karoo.co.uk 22
Given all the existing constraints (of funding, staffing,
buildings, pupil intake….)
On a scale ...
sue@young .karoo.co.uk 23
Working with class groups
• Outcomes for projects report schools as a whole, rather
than classes...
sue@young .karoo.co.uk 24
Classroom work
What do staff do already that promotes
friendly and supportive relationships in t...
sue@young .karoo.co.uk 25
Groups of 4/5
Friendship Week
• The government in England recommends all schools
have an “Anti-B...
sue@young .karoo.co.uk 26
Gossip praise!
• Stand up
• Find someone not in your group
• Tell each other the idea you have h...
sue@young .karoo.co.uk 27
What is the difference between activities for
• anti-bullying week … and
• friendship week… ??
W...
sue@young .karoo.co.uk 28
Discussions about bullying
Don‟t do it!
sue@young .karoo.co.uk 29
Solution-focused practice
• Describing the preferred future
• Recognising the successful past
• ...
sue@young .karoo.co.uk 30
SF anti-bullying discussions
• Describing the preferred future:
– How do they want the class to ...
sue@young .karoo.co.uk 31
sue@young .karoo.co.uk 32
Steve de Shazer & Insoo Kim Berg
Discovered the
solution-focused
approach…
– figured out what
th...
sue@young .karoo.co.uk 33
Solution-focused schools
Where school staff figure out what they are doing when
they succeed…rec...
sue@young .karoo.co.uk 34
What’s different?
• Anti-bullying focusing
on POTENTIAL
• Appreciates what staff
and students ar...
sue@young .karoo.co.uk 35
Thank-you
To tell me about something you are doing,
or if you think I may be able to help in any...
sue@young .karoo.co.uk 36
Arizona Project – Olweus program
http_gwired.gwu.pdf : S Black, (2007) Evaluation of the Olweus ...
sue@young .karoo.co.uk 37
Arizona Report: Olweus Bully Victim Questionnaire© (BVQ)
Student-reported bullying increased 10%...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Solution focused anti-bullying

1,739 views

Published on

How to work successfully in schools to address the problem of bullying by Consultant Sue Young.
The conference Developing Strength and Resilience in Children 1-2 Nov. 2010 in Oslo.

Published in: Health & Medicine
  • Be the first to comment

Solution focused anti-bullying

  1. 1. "Developing Strength and Resilience in Children" 1-2 November 2010 Day 2 9:00 – 11:00 Solution-focused anti-bullying: How to work successfully in schools to address the problem of bullying Sue Young
  2. 2. sue@young .karoo.co.uk 2 You may need to tell me to slow down! Listen out out for anything that may need translating… If you are unsure, no doubt there‟s others, so please just interrupt me…
  3. 3. sue@young .karoo.co.uk 3
  4. 4. sue@young .karoo.co.uk 4 Hull • City port in North East of England • One of the most deprived local authorities in England • Twice the national average unemployment, children in care, etc • 90 schools - 75 „primary‟, 15 „secondary‟ • Anti-bullying coordinator & behaviour support manager to 2007 • Now independent, solution-focused practice in schools
  5. 5. sue@young .karoo.co.uk 5 Where are you now? • On a scale of 1 to 10 • Where 10 is: I know a lot about solution focused stuff! ( & sf anti-bullying). • And 1 is: I’ve heard a bit about it….. • Where are you now? • 1 – 3 ? • 4 – 6 ? • 7 – 10 ?
  6. 6. sue@young .karoo.co.uk 6 Aim • “Show and tell!” • Solution-focused anti-bullying • Working with school staff, or maybe a group of staff • Working in classes with pupils
  7. 7. sue@young .karoo.co.uk 7 Bullying research Traditional projects led by „experts‟ – Dan Olweus in Norway was the first - often University staff, based on theories about bullying: – What is bullying? – Who are bullies and why? – Who are victims and why? – Where and when does it happen? – How often does it happen? – What are the consequences? – What is effective in reducing bullying?
  8. 8. sue@young .karoo.co.uk 8 Traditional anti-bullying projects: Dan Olweus in Norway & Sweden (Bergen Project 1983 & several others) Peter Smith in England (Sheffield Project 1991) • Survey of bullying, before & after intervention Raising awareness of the problem: • Training for staff about bullying • Meetings & information about bullying for parents • Teaching pupils about bullying: assemblies, class discussions & activities • Strategies to deal with incidents “Whole-School Policy”
  9. 9. sue@young .karoo.co.uk 9 Traditional projects trying to reduce bullying Lots of bullying, all the time … 10 5 1
  10. 10. sue@young .karoo.co.uk 10 How effective are they? • Outcomes are disappointing, despite the hype! • Schools often drop out, or don‟t implement fully • Any reduction can be short term • Sometimes leads to an increase in bullying • No clear evidence for what works
  11. 11. sue@young .karoo.co.uk 11 Meta-analysis of projects “Only one program [Olweus] yielded significant reductions in victimisation and bullying, while the other 13 yielded either negligible changes or increases on these outcomes” (Smith, Cousins & Stewart, 2005, p. 744; Smith, Schneider, Smith & Ananiadou, 2004). Olweus‟ Bergen results have never been replicated, despite many attempts…
  12. 12. sue@young .karoo.co.uk 12 Researchers (not the only ones!) tend to congratulate their intervention for any success and blame the schools for any failure… e.g. lack of time and commitment, pressure from too many initiatives, changes in staff, lack of leadership… They don‟t seem to consider blaming their project! • Schools without support from researchers often appear to do better! • So who are the experts in anti-bullying? Time to do something different?!
  13. 13. sue@young .karoo.co.uk 13 New ideas about change • Steve de Shazer & Insoo Kim Berg – Solution-Focused Brief Therapy • David Cooperider – management consultancy – Appreciative Inquiry Factors that help bring about change with individuals also work in organisations
  14. 14. sue@young .karoo.co.uk 14 Solution-focused practice • Describing the preferred future • Recognising the successful past • Appreciating existing strengths • Doing more of what works
  15. 15. sue@young .karoo.co.uk 15 Problem-solving Define the problem What is bullying? Assess How much do we have? Select a remedy Consult an expert! Review Reassess the problem Solution-focused Describe the preferred future What do you want instead? Recognise success What are you doing already that works? Appreciate strengths How did you manage that? Do more of what works… Notice it working…!
  16. 16. sue@young .karoo.co.uk 16 Solution-focused scale: How we want school to be instead. Our best hopes for relationships in school… Reduction in bullying (Aspiration??) Lots of bullying, all the time… 10 5 1
  17. 17. sue@young .karoo.co.uk 17 Describing the preferred future Move into small groups of 3/4… Parents… teachers… pupils… head-teachers… visitors… other staff? Imagine you visit a school tomorrow… What will you see that tells you it is a friendly, supportive and safe community, a 10? Go round the group – each person in turn, one idea each • The first thing I would notice that would tell me this is a friendly school is... • Another thing I would notice about a supportive school.. Someone make a list as you go. Keep going round… What else? What else? What else?
  18. 18. sue@young .karoo.co.uk 18 Priorities and feedback • Review your list together and agree the two most significant • Feedback • Notice if the same ideas occur in more than one group… • The differences that makes all the difference! • What else do you notice that‟s interesting?
  19. 19. sue@young .karoo.co.uk 19 Into pairs! • Stand up • Find someone you don‟t know, introduce yourselves • Move two chairs so one person can see the display over the shoulder of the other • Sit down
  20. 20. sue@young .karoo.co.uk 20 • Guided solution-focused interview • The questions are displayed • Interviewer, listen for any strengths or skills, either explicit or implicit, in what your partner says. • Interviewee, try to answer the questions as fully as you can • Talk about a school you know well
  21. 21. sue@young .karoo.co.uk 21 Given all the existing constraints ( of funding, staffing, buildings, pupil intake )…. “On a scale of 1 to 10… Where 1 is nothing is done to make your school a friendly place to be… 10 is as friendly as you can imagine your school being… • Where is your school now? • What makes the school so high (and not one less)? • How do staff encourage friendship already? + + • What else helps make it so friendly? + + • How do pupils help to make it as friendly as it is? + • How do parents help? (NB NOT why is it not higher?)
  22. 22. sue@young .karoo.co.uk 22 Given all the existing constraints (of funding, staffing, buildings, pupil intake….) On a scale of 1 to 10….Where 1 is nothing happens to make your school a supportive place to be…. 10 is the best you can imagine your school being…. • Where is your school now? • What makes the school so high? – (and not one less)? • What else do staff do to support pupils? + + • How do pupils support each other already? + + • How do you support pupils? + + + • How do you know this helps? (NB NOT why is it not higher?)
  23. 23. sue@young .karoo.co.uk 23 Working with class groups • Outcomes for projects report schools as a whole, rather than classes • Some evidence to suggest this is misleading • The difference in bullying may be as large between classes in schools as between schools • Recent review of projects suggested that class intervention more important than whole school
  24. 24. sue@young .karoo.co.uk 24 Classroom work What do staff do already that promotes friendly and supportive relationships in the classroom? Recognising existing strengths / skills • Birthday cards • Secret friends • What else??
  25. 25. sue@young .karoo.co.uk 25 Groups of 4/5 Friendship Week • The government in England recommends all schools have an “Anti-Bullying Week” • How about “Friendship Week” instead ! • In groups make a list of 20 possible suggestions as if it were next week… the smallest things you can do to promote a friendly atmosphere in school… • Each person choose one activity they liked best
  26. 26. sue@young .karoo.co.uk 26 Gossip praise! • Stand up • Find someone not in your group • Tell each other the idea you have heard that you think is best… • Point to the person who said it !
  27. 27. sue@young .karoo.co.uk 27 What is the difference between activities for • anti-bullying week … and • friendship week… ?? When people use their own experience and ideas to build on what they do already it is more likely to bring about sustainable change
  28. 28. sue@young .karoo.co.uk 28 Discussions about bullying Don‟t do it!
  29. 29. sue@young .karoo.co.uk 29 Solution-focused practice • Describing the preferred future • Recognising the successful past • Appreciating existing strengths • Doing more of what works
  30. 30. sue@young .karoo.co.uk 30 SF anti-bullying discussions • Describing the preferred future: – How do they want the class to be? • Recognising the successful past: – What have you done well today? • Appreciating existing strengths: – Complimenting, appreciating each other • Doing more of what works: – What would you like to do more next week?
  31. 31. sue@young .karoo.co.uk 31
  32. 32. sue@young .karoo.co.uk 32 Steve de Shazer & Insoo Kim Berg Discovered the solution-focused approach… – figured out what they were doing when therapy succeeded and then did more of it!
  33. 33. sue@young .karoo.co.uk 33 Solution-focused schools Where school staff figure out what they are doing when they succeed…recognise their own successful past Where staff and pupils are given the time and encouragement to describe their own preferred future and build on their strengths Those of us who support schools can help by appreciating the existing skills in schools and encouraging them to do a little more of what works already.
  34. 34. sue@young .karoo.co.uk 34 What’s different? • Anti-bullying focusing on POTENTIAL • Appreciates what staff and students are doing already in schools • SF strategies for whole school, classroom & individuals • Now in Swedish!!
  35. 35. sue@young .karoo.co.uk 35 Thank-you To tell me about something you are doing, or if you think I may be able to help in any way: sue@young.karoo.co.uk
  36. 36. sue@young .karoo.co.uk 36 Arizona Project – Olweus program http_gwired.gwu.pdf : S Black, (2007) Evaluation of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program: How the program can work for inner city youth. “ Bullying Incident Density (BID) BID decreased 25.5 percent in all schools [9 schools, there were actually13 in the project but 4 had incomplete data]. Schools with high fidelity [4 schools] demonstrated an average 21.5 percent reduction in BID while schools with low fidelity [5 schools] demonstrated an average 35 percent reduction in BID ”
  37. 37. sue@young .karoo.co.uk 37 Arizona Report: Olweus Bully Victim Questionnaire© (BVQ) Student-reported bullying increased 10% , from 39%… at baseline reporting victimization to 43% of students in Year Four (at the level of twice a month or more often). Changes ranged from a 40% increase in bullying to a 12% decrease When schools were separated into high fidelity vs. low fidelity groups, schools with 75% or more implementation [4 out of 13 schools] demonstrated a 5% reduction in bullying [Actual figures given: +7, +2, -12, -10 ] . Schools with low fidelity (< 75% fidelity ) [5 out of the 13 schools] demonstrated a 14% increase in bullying [Actual figures given: +28, -5, -3, +4, +40 ] .

×