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The role of ontologies in machine-machine communication

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Conferencia de Posgrado impartida por la Dra. Asunción Gómez Pérez el 18 de Junio de 2015

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The role of ontologies in machine-machine communication

  1. 1. The role of Ontologies in Machine-Machine communication A. Gómez-Pérez Universidad Politécnica de Madrid asun@fi.upm.es Acknowledgements:
  2. 2. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 License • This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial – Share Alike License • You are free: - to Share — to copy, distribute and transmit the work - to Remix — to adapt the work • Under the following conditions - Attribution — You must attribute the work by inserting • “[source http://www.oeg-upm.net/]” at the footer of each reused slide • a credits slide stating: “The role of Ontologies in Machine-Machine communication” by A. Gómez-Pérez ” - Non-commercial - Share-Alike 2
  3. 3. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 A world of digital data Heterogeneous Formats Providers Domains Languages Licenses
  4. 4. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 Towards a machine-machine shared understanding 4 Ontologies Knowledge level Data level Linked data
  5. 5. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 Scenario “Barrio de las Letras” “Cervantes“ “Lope de Vega “Transport public services” “Accessibility constraints” “Games D. Quijote”
  6. 6. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 Data distributed … 6
  7. 7. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 … in heterogeneous formats … In boards 7 The Web (Human readable format) The Web (Human & Machine readable formats) Web Services As Web files ( (XML, HTML, CSV, etc.)
  8. 8. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 The problem: lack of interoperability Publish Extract Publish Extract Publish Extract I want to publish data in an interoperable structure and format I use GTFS I use my own CSV structure I provide a web service Build an app that is available all over the world 8
  9. 9. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 USE URIs + RDF José Twin Stroller Boardgames API Mirasierra Ventisquero de la Condesa Yes CSV Mega Games Ventisquero de la Condesa Yes CSV Mega Games D.Quijote Game MG 29,95 HTM L José Mobility Impairment hasImpairment twin stroller requires Boardgame likes Mirasierra address Ventisquero de la Condesa AccesoSillaR uedas hasAccessibility Mega Games address hasAccessibilityWheelchairAcce ssibility Ventisquero de la Condesa Mega Games D. Qujijote Game is a Boardgame sells API RDF CSV RDF CSV RDF HTML RDF
  10. 10. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 Link your multilingual models and data José Tween Stroller Boardgames Mirasierra Ventisquero de la Condesa Yes Mega Games Ventisquero de la Condesa Yes Mega Games D. Quijote game MG 29,95 API CSV CSV HTM L José Mobility Impairment hasImpairment Tween Stroller requires Boardgame likes Mirasierra address Ventisquero de la Condesa Acceso SillaRuedas Mega Games address hasAccessibilityWheelchairA ccessibility Mega Games D. Quijote Game is a hasAccessibility Boardgame Ventisquero de la Condesa sells API RDF CSV RDF CSV RDF HTM L RDF Language mismatch Conceptual mismatch
  11. 11. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 Ontologies help .. 11 Impairments Subclass of Subclass of Subclass of WheelchairA ccessibility AccesoSillad eRuedas Equivalent Terms Equivalent classes if Mobility constraints
  12. 12. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 WheelchairA ccessibility Ventisquero de la Condesa Boardgame Link your models and data José Tween Stroller Boardgames Mirasierra Ventisquero de la Condesa Yes Mega Games Ventisquero de la Condesa Yes Mega Games D. Quijote Game MG 29,95 API CSV CSV HTM L José Mobility Impairment hasImpairment Tween Stroller requires Boardgame likes Mirasierra address Ventisquero de la Condesa hasAccessibility Acceso SillaRuedas Mega Games address Ventisquero de la Condesa hasAccessibilityWheelchairA ccessibility Mega Games sells D. Quijote GAme is a Boardgame API RDF CSV RDF CSV RDF HTM L RDF Equivalent classes if Mobility constraints
  13. 13. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 Make complex queries Where can I buy the Don Quijote game? Which are the most accessible routes for Visiting the Barrio de las Letras? Expansion pack for D.Quijote game Take metro line 9 and in 35 minutes we can demo it to you! Or better take bus 231 because it is sunny and you can take a glance at the outdoor art exhibition in Plaza de Castilla MG
  14. 14. A. Gómez-Pérez. . The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 Challenges 1. Building shared models (Ontologies) 2. Aggregating data from different formats and sources (Linked data) 3. Dealing with licenses (Licensed ontologies and LD) 4. Solving multilingualism problems (Multilingual Ontologies and Linguistic Linked Data) 5. The process and uses 14
  15. 15. A. Gómez-Pérez. . The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 Challenges 1. Building shared models (Ontologies) 2. Aggregating data from different formats and sources (Linked data) 3. Dealing with licenses (Licensed ontologies and LD) 4. Solving multilingualism problems (Multilingual Ontologies and Linguistic Linked Data) 5. The process and uses 15
  16. 16. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 Challenge1: Building Ontologies
  17. 17. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 Definition of Ontology “An ontology is a formal, explicit specification of a shared conceptualization” Studer, Benjamins, Fensel. Knowledge Engineering: Principles and Methods. Data and Knowledge Engineering. 25 (1998) 161-197 Abstract model and simplified view of some phenomenon in the world that we want to represent Machine-readable Concepts, properties relations, functions, constraints, axioms, are explicitly defined Consensual Knowledge Ontologías
  18. 18. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 Ontologies: Model and Data • An ontology: - Provides terms in a particular domain • Implemented in OWL or RDF(S) • Tools: Protégé; NeOn, .... Ontology Instances Knowledge Level Data Level Concepts Taxonomies Relations Attributes Axioms Instances of concepts Instances of relations Instances of attributes
  19. 19. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 19 Ontologies to be understood by humans SIOC Ontology
  20. 20. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 Ontologies for machines: Foundations Unique identifiers: URI identify or name a resource RDF(S) models El QuijoteCervantes Is creator of WorkPerson Is creator of Is a Is a http://datos.bne.es/resource/XX1718747 http://datos.bne.es/resource/XX3383563 http://datos.bne.es/def/C1005 http://datos.bne.es/def/C1001
  21. 21. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 Foundations: Linking classes Models alignment using Owl EquivalentClass Place of birth EquivalentClass Municipality http://dbpedia.org/resource/Municipalities_of_Spain http://geo.linkeddata.es/ontology/Municipio Municipio Same As http://dbpedia.org/page/Alcal%C3%A1_de_Henares Alcalá de Henares Is a http://geo.linkeddata.es/resource/Alcalá de Henares Alcalá de Henares IS A http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/PersonPerson http://schema.org/PersonPerson EquivalentClass Person http://datos.bne.es/def/C1005
  22. 22. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 22 The model (Ontology) and the data for humans 22 Work Idiom translation Year Publication date Library Located at Person Is creator of Has subject El Quijote Cervantes Is creator of Catalán translation 1960 Publication date BNE Located in Has subject Vida de Cervantes Ontology Data birthPlace Place birthPlace Alcalá de Henares
  23. 23. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 23 http://iflastandards.info/ns/fr/frbr/frbrer/C1001 http://iflastandards.info/ns/fr/frbr/frbrer/C1002 translation Año Publication date http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/Organization Located in http://iflastandards.info/ns/fr/frbr/frbrer/C1005 Is creator of Has subject http://datos.bne.es/resource/XX3383563 http://datos.bne.es/resource/XX1718747 Es autor http://datos.bne.es/resource/XX1924295 translation 1960 Publication date BNE Located in Has subject http://datos.bne.es/resource/bimo0002045496 Vida de Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra Don Quijote de la Mancha Cervantes Saavedra, Miguel de Catalán Ontology Datahttp://datos.bne.es/# Language work Biblioteca Person http://geo.linkeddata.es/ontology/Municipio birthPlace http://geo.linkeddata.es/resource/Alcalá de Henares birthPlace The model and the data for Machines
  24. 24. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 Key aspects of Ontological Engineering • The model - Single versus network of ontologies? - built from scratch or reusing knowledge-aware resources? - Are mappings used for solving conceptual mistmaches? Instances • Where are the data/instances? • Are instances distributed or centralized? • Have instances a very high rate of changes? • Heterogeneous provenance of instances • Degrees of data quality • Permissions
  25. 25. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 Ontology development Reuse Linked Open Vocabularies
  26. 26. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 Challenge 2: Linked Data
  27. 27. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 Linked Data: why it is important? • Facilitate data integration - From heterogeous sources - In different formats - Different granularity - In different languages - From different countries © Slide adapted from “5min Introduction to Linked Data”- Olaf Hartig
  28. 28. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 LD domains in August 2014 Media Geographic Life Sciences PublicationsGoverment Social Networking Cross-domains User Generated Content Linguistics
  29. 29. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 Data for machines: Foundations Unique identifiers: URI identify or name a resource RDF(S) models El QuijoteCervantes Is creator of WorkPerson Is creator of Is a Is a http://datos.bne.es/resource/XX1718747 http://datos.bne.es/resource/XX3383563 http://datos.bne.es/def/C1005 http://datos.bne.es/def/C1001 Equivalence links to other datasets Same As http://viaf.org/viaf/17220427 Cervantes Same AsSame As http://dbpedia.org/resource/Miguel_de_Cervantes Cervantes Data navigation
  30. 30. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 Linked Data without ontologies http://www.server1.org/resource/Cervantes http://www.server2.es/resource/Cervantes http://datos.bne.es/resource/XX1718747 http://d-nb.info/gnd/11851993X http://geo.linkeddata.es/page/resource/Municipio/Cervantes Same as Same as Same as Same as URI URI URI URI URI 914 296 093 276,4 km² Phone Size 1547 #People 1547 Date of Birth Author D. Quijote Cervantes (person)
  31. 31. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 Linked Data and ontologies http://www.server1.org/resource/Cervantes http://www.server2.es/resource/Cervantes http://datos.bne.es/resource/XX1718747 http://d-nb.info/gnd/11851993X http://geo.linkeddata.es/page/resource/Municipio/Cervantes Same as Person rdf:type rdf:type Retaurant rdf:type Street rdf:type Municipality rdf:type URI URI URI URI URI 1547 Date of Birth Author D. Quijote Cervantes (Person) Asunción Gómez-Pérez W3C @ Spain – 2013 Madrid, 18th December
  32. 32. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 Linked Data allows uniform access 1. Agree on Ontologies for describing metadata and domain data 2. Unified and standardized language for describing resources ( RDF(S)) 3. Unified and standardized query language (SPARQL) 4. Standardized non-proprietary APIs 5. Links to other resources
  33. 33. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 Challenge 3: Licensed Ontologies and Data
  34. 34. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 Licenses in practice Linked Open Data and Open Vocabularies Published Open License (Published) Linked Ontologies and Vocabularies Published No Open License Linked Data Not Published No Open License 34
  35. 35. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 Create, consume, aggregate, derive and publish Linked Vocabularies and Data in a lawful environment 0 Always license your ontologies and data … Data shops Government Vocabularies 35
  36. 36. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 Representing licensing information How do we represent license information?
  37. 37. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 Linked Licensed Data
  38. 38. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 Licensing Ontologies and Data is Simple… The British National Bibliography (BNB) lists the books and new journal titles published or distributed in the United Kingdom and Ireland since 1950.  38
  39. 39. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 … or complex depending your needs Policies can be expressed with ODRL 2.0 to govern access to Linked Data Example of access to Linked Data for a price (15EUR for the dataset or 0.01EUR for a triple thereof) @prefix gr: <http://purl.org/goodrelations/> . @prefix dcat: <http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#> . <http://salonica.dia.fi.upm.es/ldr/policy/cdaddba4-fc2e-4ee0-a784-e62f1db259bf> a odrl:Set ; rdfs:label "License Offering Paid Linked Data" ; odrl:permission [ a odrl:Permission ; odrl:target <http://example.org/dataset/ds01> ; odrl:action odrl:reproduce ; odrl:duty [ a odrl:Duty ; rdfs:label "Pay" ; gr:UnitOfMeasurement dcat:Dataset ; gr:amountOfThisGood "1" ; odrl:action odrl:pay ; odrl:target "15,00 EUR" ] ] , [ a odrl:Permission ; odrl:action odrl:reproduce ; odrl:target <http://example.org/dataset/ds01> ; odrl:duty [ a odrl:Duty ; rdfs:label "Pay" ; gr:UnitOfMeasurement rdf:Statement ; gr:amountOfThisGood "1" ; odrl:action odrl:pay ; odrl:target "0,01 EUR" ] ] .. The target can be an ontology, a dataset, a SPARQL endpoint… …or a SPARQL query itself or a triple pattern: {mysubject, ?p , ?o} http://conditional.linkeddata.es
  40. 40. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 Challenge 4: Multilingual Ontologies and Linked Data
  41. 41. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 Cross-lingual linking Cross-lingual Mapping Multilingualism and ontology models Ontology Localization algorithms Multilingual Labelling approach
  42. 42. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015*Picture attribution: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Gugerell “Red” Etimologiy Del latin “rete” Gender: “f” Definition.: “Conjunto de ordenadores o de equipos informáticos conectados entre sí….” “Red” Sinonyms: “sistema”, “malla”,” distribución” “Red” Norm: UNE 21302-131 English: network German: Netzwerk “Red” Pronunciation: [red] Grammar category: sustantivo femenino Singular: “red” Plural: “redes” “Red_de_computadores” Category: redes informáticas Image The need: interconnected multilingual data “Red” (computer network)Complementary resources but not connected
  43. 43. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 LD allows linguistic data integration Red Phonetic form Form number singular [RED] Form plural [REDES] Phonetic form number Red Sense written form “red” Sense written form “malla” equivalent Red image Red Sense Sense translation es - en written form “red” “network” written form Red written form Form gender femenine “red”
  44. 44. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 Linguistic Linked Licensed Data 3LD Linguistic Linked Licensed Data Language resources such as: - Lexica - Corpora - Dictionaries .. NIF NLP Interchange Format Using RDF and standard data models (vocabularies): - Lexica - Corpora ODRL Open Digital Rights Language Published along with a machine-readable license
  45. 45. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 Linguistic Linked Data Cloud Linguistic Linked Data Cloud  Subset of LOD  Linguistic domain  Many type of resources  Interconnected with other LR  Enables the lexicalization of data on the web, not necessarily data in the LD format  Enables a new generation of LD-aware NLP and MT Services
  46. 46. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 Lexicalizing ontologies and data LLD How many Linguistic Resources are exposed in RDF?
  47. 47. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 Methods and Tools
  48. 48. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 Linked Data life cycle Specification Modelling GenerationPublication Exploitation Linking 49
  49. 49. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 Metadata and data Integration Metadata Generation Data Generation Data Integration Users Metadata Integration Public Resources Private Resources Geo Web 2.0Library Diverse formats Sensor LDPMorph shp2RDF Geometry2RDF Marimba SPARQL-Stream Sem4Tags LDP4j
  50. 50. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 Linked Data Applications 51Ontology Engineering Group Culture (@BNE) Geograhical (@IGN) Metereological (@AEMET) News and Media (@ Prisa, RTVE) Internet of Things ( @ CRTM, Bike sharing system) Smart Cities and Open Data (@ Zaragoza, Gob Aragón, Jacathon, Catalogues) Host of esDBpedia
  51. 51. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 Uses
  52. 52. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 Uses of Linked Data 1. Programmers built applications using make queries in SPARQL and get RDF Culture (@BNE) Geograhical (@IGN) Metereological (@AEMET) Smart Cities 2. Citizens/Users access LD through a user interface (they do not see RDF) 3. Machine – Machine data exchange and semantic interoperability in RDF
  53. 53. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 The new Linked Data Ecosystem Culture (@BNE) Geograhical (@IGN) Metereological (@AEMET) Smart Cities
  54. 54. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 Computers understand each other and do business Ontologies
  55. 55. A. Gómez-Pérez. The Role of Ontologies in Machine – Machine Communication SLATE-2015 18th June 2015 Thanks for your attention ! 56

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