Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Automated Testing for Terraform, Docker, Packer, Kubernetes, and More

124 views

Published on

Video and slides synchronized, mp3 and slide download available at URL https://bit.ly/2rm4hFD.

Yevgeniy Brikman talks about how to write automated tests for infrastructure code, including the code written for use with tools such as Terraform, Docker, Packer, and Kubernetes. Topics covered include: unit tests, integration tests, end-to-end tests, dependency injection, test parallelism, retries and error handling, static analysis, property testing and CI / CD for infrastructure code. Filmed at qconsf.com.

Yevgeniy Brikman is the co-founder of Gruntwork, a company that provides DevOps as a Service. He is the author of two books published by O'Reilly Media: Hello, Startup and Terraform: Up & Running. Previously, he worked as a software engineer at LinkedIn, TripAdvisor, Cisco Systems, and Thomson Financial.

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

Automated Testing for Terraform, Docker, Packer, Kubernetes, and More

  1. 1. Automated testing for: ✓ terraform ✓ docker ✓ packer ✓ kubernetes ✓ and more Passed: 5. Failed: 0. Skipped: 0. Test run successful. How to test infrastructure code
  2. 2. InfoQ.com: News & Community Site • Over 1,000,000 software developers, architects and CTOs read the site world- wide every month • 250,000 senior developers subscribe to our weekly newsletter • Published in 4 languages (English, Chinese, Japanese and Brazilian Portuguese) • Post content from our QCon conferences • 2 dedicated podcast channels: The InfoQ Podcast, with a focus on Architecture and The Engineering Culture Podcast, with a focus on building • 96 deep dives on innovative topics packed as downloadable emags and minibooks • Over 40 new content items per week Watch the video with slide synchronization on InfoQ.com! https://www.infoq.com/presentations/ automated-testing-terraform-docker- packer/
  3. 3. Purpose of QCon - to empower software development by facilitating the spread of knowledge and innovation Strategy - practitioner-driven conference designed for YOU: influencers of change and innovation in your teams - speakers and topics driving the evolution and innovation - connecting and catalyzing the influencers and innovators Highlights - attended by more than 12,000 delegates since 2007 - held in 9 cities worldwide Presented at QCon San Francisco www.qconsf.com
  4. 4. The DevOps world is full of Fear
  5. 5. Fear of outages
  6. 6. Fear of security breaches
  7. 7. Fear of data loss
  8. 8. Fear of change
  9. 9. “Fear leads to anger. Anger leads to hate. Hate leads to suffering.” Scrum Master Yoda
  10. 10. And you all know what suffering leads to, right?
  11. 11. Credit: Daniele Polencic
  12. 12. Many DevOps teams deal with this fear in two ways:
  13. 13. 1) Heavy drinking and smoking
  14. 14. 2) Deploying less frequently
  15. 15. Sadly, both of these just make the problem worse!
  16. 16. There’s a better way to deal with this fear:
  17. 17. Automated tests
  18. 18. Automated tests give you the confidence to make changes
  19. 19. Fight fear with confidence
  20. 20. We know how to write automated tests for application code…
  21. 21. resource "aws_lambda_function" "web_app" { function_name = var.name role = aws_iam_role.lambda.arn # ... } resource "aws_api_gateway_integration" "proxy" { type = "AWS_PROXY" uri = aws_lambda_function.web_app.invoke_arn # ... } But how do you test your Terraform code deploys infrastructure that works?
  22. 22. apiVersion: apps/v1 kind: Deployment metadata: name: hello-world-app-deployment spec: selector: matchLabels: app: hello-world-app replicas: 1 spec: containers: - name: hello-world-app image: gruntwork-io/hello-world-app:v1 ports: - containerPort: 8080 How do you test your Kubernetes code configures your services correctly?
  23. 23. This talk is about how to write tests for your infrastructure code.
  24. 24. I’m Yevgeniy Brikman ybrikman.com
  25. 25. Co-founder of Gruntwork gruntwork.io
  26. 26. Author
  27. 27. 1. Static analysis 2. Unit tests 3. Integration tests 4. End-to-end tests 5. Conclusion Outline
  28. 28. 1. Static analysis 2. Unit tests 3. Integration tests 4. End-to-end tests 5. Conclusion Outline
  29. 29. Static analysis: test your code without deploying it.
  30. 30. Static analysis 1. Compiler / parser / interpreter 2. Linter 3. Dry run
  31. 31. Static analysis 1. Compiler / parser / interpreter 2. Linter 3. Dry run
  32. 32. Statically check your code for syntactic and structural issues
  33. 33. Tool Command Terraform terraform validate Packer packer validate <template> Kubernetes kubectl apply -f <file> --dry-run --validate=true Examples:
  34. 34. Static analysis 1. Compiler / parser / interpreter 2. Linter 3. Dry run
  35. 35. Statically validate your code to catch common errors
  36. 36. Tool Linters Terraform 1. conftest 2. terraform_validate 3. tflint Docker 1. dockerfile_lint 2. hadolint 3. dockerfilelint Kubernetes 1. kube-score 2. kube-lint 3. yamllint Examples:
  37. 37. Static analysis 1. Compiler / parser / interpreter 2. Linter 3. Dry run
  38. 38. Partially execute the code and validate the “plan”, but don’t actually deploy
  39. 39. Tool Dry run options Terraform 1. terraform plan 2. HashiCorp Sentinel 3. terraform-compliance Kubernetes kubectl apply -f <file> --server-dry-run Examples:
  40. 40. 1. Static analysis 2. Unit tests 3. Integration tests 4. End-to-end tests 5. Conclusion Outline
  41. 41. Unit tests: test a single “unit” works in isolation.
  42. 42. Unit tests 1. Unit testing basics 2. Example: Terraform unit tests 3. Example: Docker/Kubernetes unit tests 4. Cleaning up after tests
  43. 43. Unit tests 1. Unit testing basics 2. Example: Terraform unit tests 3. Example: Docker/Kubernetes unit tests 4. Cleaning up after tests
  44. 44. You can’t “unit test” an entire end- to-end architecture
  45. 45. Instead, break your infra code into small modules and unit test those! module module module module module module module module module module module module module module module
  46. 46. With app code, you can test units in isolation from the outside world
  47. 47. resource "aws_lambda_function" "web_app" { function_name = var.name role = aws_iam_role.lambda.arn # ... } resource "aws_api_gateway_integration" "proxy" { type = "AWS_PROXY" uri = aws_lambda_function.web_app.invoke_arn # ... } But 99% of infrastructure code is about talking to the outside world…
  48. 48. resource "aws_lambda_function" "web_app" { function_name = var.name role = aws_iam_role.lambda.arn # ... } resource "aws_api_gateway_integration" "proxy" { type = "AWS_PROXY" uri = aws_lambda_function.web_app.invoke_arn # ... } If you try to isolate a unit from the outside world, you’re left with nothing!
  49. 49. So you can only test infra code by deploying to a real environment
  50. 50. Key takeaway: there’s no pure unit testing for infrastructure code.
  51. 51. Therefore, the test strategy is: 1. Deploy real infrastructure 2. Validate it works (e.g., via HTTP requests, API calls, SSH commands, etc.) 3. Undeploy the infrastructure (So it’s really integration testing of a single unit!)
  52. 52. Tool Deploy / Undeploy Validate Works with Terratest Yes Yes Terraform, Kubernetes, Packer, Docker, Servers, Cloud APIs, etc. kitchen-terraform Yes Yes Terraform Inspec No Yes Servers, Cloud APIs Serverspec No Yes Servers Goss No Yes Servers Tools that help with this strategy:
  53. 53. Tool Deploy / Undeploy Validate Works with Terratest Yes Yes Terraform, Kubernetes, Packer, Docker, Servers, Cloud APIs, etc. kitchen-terraform Yes Yes Terraform Inspec No Yes Servers, Cloud APIs Serverspec No Yes Servers Goss No Yes Servers In this talk, we’ll use Terratest:
  54. 54. Unit tests 1. Unit testing basics 2. Example: Terraform unit tests 3. Example: Docker/Kubernetes unit tests 4. Cleaning up after tests
  55. 55. Sample code for this talk is at: github.com/gruntwork-io/infrastructure-as-code-testing-talk
  56. 56. An example of a Terraform module you may want to test:
  57. 57. infrastructure-as-code-testing-talk └ examples └ hello-world-app └ main.tf └ outputs.tf └ variables.tf └ modules └ test └ README.md hello-world-app: deploy a “Hello, World” web service
  58. 58. resource "aws_lambda_function" "web_app" { function_name = var.name role = aws_iam_role.lambda.arn # ... } resource "aws_api_gateway_integration" "proxy" { type = "AWS_PROXY" uri = aws_lambda_function.web_app.invoke_arn # ... } Under the hood, this example runs on top of AWS Lambda & API Gateway
  59. 59. $ terraform apply Outputs: url = ruvvwv3sh1.execute-api.us-east-2.amazonaws.com $ curl ruvvwv3sh1.execute-api.us-east-2.amazonaws.com Hello, World! When you run terraform apply, it deploys and outputs the URL
  60. 60. Let’s write a unit test for hello-world-app with Terratest
  61. 61. infrastructure-as-code-testing-talk └ examples └ modules └ test └ hello_world_app_test.go └ README.md Create hello_world_app_test.go
  62. 62. func TestHelloWorldAppUnit(t *testing.T) { terraformOptions := &terraform.Options{ TerraformDir: "../examples/hello-world-app", } defer terraform.Destroy(t, terraformOptions) terraform.InitAndApply(t, terraformOptions) validate(t, terraformOptions) } The basic test structure
  63. 63. func TestHelloWorldAppUnit(t *testing.T) { terraformOptions := &terraform.Options{ TerraformDir: "../examples/hello-world-app", } defer terraform.Destroy(t, terraformOptions) terraform.InitAndApply(t, terraformOptions) validate(t, terraformOptions) } 1. Tell Terratest where your Terraform code lives
  64. 64. func TestHelloWorldAppUnit(t *testing.T) { terraformOptions := &terraform.Options{ TerraformDir: "../examples/hello-world-app", } defer terraform.Destroy(t, terraformOptions) terraform.InitAndApply(t, terraformOptions) validate(t, terraformOptions) } 2. Run terraform init and terraform apply to deploy your module
  65. 65. func TestHelloWorldAppUnit(t *testing.T) { terraformOptions := &terraform.Options{ TerraformDir: "../examples/hello-world-app", } defer terraform.Destroy(t, terraformOptions) terraform.InitAndApply(t, terraformOptions) validate(t, terraformOptions) } 3. Validate the infrastructure works. We’ll come back to this shortly.
  66. 66. func TestHelloWorldAppUnit(t *testing.T) { terraformOptions := &terraform.Options{ TerraformDir: "../examples/hello-world-app", } defer terraform.Destroy(t, terraformOptions) terraform.InitAndApply(t, terraformOptions) validate(t, terraformOptions) } 4. Run terraform destroy at the end of the test to undeploy everything
  67. 67. func validate(t *testing.T, opts *terraform.Options) { url := terraform.Output(t, opts, "url") http_helper.HttpGetWithRetry(t, url, // URL to test 200, // Expected status code "Hello, World!", // Expected body 10, // Max retries 3 * time.Second // Time between retries ) } The validate function
  68. 68. func validate(t *testing.T, opts *terraform.Options) { url := terraform.Output(t, opts, "url") http_helper.HttpGetWithRetry(t, url, // URL to test 200, // Expected status code "Hello, World!", // Expected body 10, // Max retries 3 * time.Second // Time between retries ) } 1. Run terraform output to get the web service URL
  69. 69. func validate(t *testing.T, opts *terraform.Options) { url := terraform.Output(t, opts, "url") http_helper.HttpGetWithRetry(t, url, // URL to test 200, // Expected status code "Hello, World!", // Expected body 10, // Max retries 3 * time.Second // Time between retries ) } 2. Make HTTP requests to the URL
  70. 70. func validate(t *testing.T, opts *terraform.Options) { url := terraform.Output(t, opts, "url") http_helper.HttpGetWithRetry(t, url, // URL to test 200, // Expected status code "Hello, World!", // Expected body 10, // Max retries 3 * time.Second // Time between retries ) } 3. Check the response for an expected status and body
  71. 71. func validate(t *testing.T, opts *terraform.Options) { url := terraform.Output(t, opts, "url") http_helper.HttpGetWithRetry(t, url, // URL to test 200, // Expected status code "Hello, World!", // Expected body 10, // Max retries 3 * time.Second // Time between retries ) } 4. Retry the request up to 10 times, as deployment is asynchronous
  72. 72. Note: since we’re testing a web service, we use HTTP requests to validate it.
  73. 73. Infrastructure Example Validate with… Example Web service Dockerized web app HTTP requests Terratest http_helper package Server EC2 instance SSH commands Terratest ssh package Cloud service SQS Cloud APIs Terratest aws or gcp packages Database MySQL SQL queries MySQL driver for Go Examples of other ways to validate:
  74. 74. $ export AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID=xxxx $ export AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY=xxxxx To run the test, first authenticate to AWS
  75. 75. $ go test -v -timeout 15m -run TestHelloWorldAppUnit … --- PASS: TestHelloWorldAppUnit (31.57s) Then run go test. You now have a unit test you can run after every commit!
  76. 76. Unit tests 1. Unit testing basics 2. Example: Terraform unit tests 3. Example: Docker/Kubernetes unit tests 4. Cleaning up after tests
  77. 77. What about other tools, such as Docker + Kubernetes?
  78. 78. infrastructure-as-code-testing-talk └ examples └ hello-world-app └ docker-kubernetes └ Dockerfile └ deployment.yml └ modules └ test └ README.md docker-kubernetes: deploy a “Hello, World” web service to Kubernetes
  79. 79. FROM ubuntu:18.04 EXPOSE 8080 RUN DEBIAN_FRONTEND=noninteractive apt-get update && apt-get install -y busybox RUN echo 'Hello, World!' > index.html CMD ["busybox", "httpd", "-f", "-p", "8080"] Dockerfile: Dockerize a simple “Hello, World!” web service
  80. 80. apiVersion: apps/v1 kind: Deployment metadata: name: hello-world-app-deployment spec: selector: matchLabels: app: hello-world-app replicas: 1 spec: containers: - name: hello-world-app image: gruntwork-io/hello-world-app:v1 ports: - containerPort: 8080 deployment.yml: define how to deploy a Docker container in Kubernetes
  81. 81. $ cd examples/docker-kubernetes $ docker build -t gruntwork-io/hello-world-app:v1 . Successfully tagged gruntwork-io/hello-world-app:v1 $ kubectl apply -f deployment.yml deployment.apps/hello-world-app-deployment created service/hello-world-app-service created $ curl localhost:8080 Hello, World! Build the Docker image, deploy to Kubernetes, and check URL
  82. 82. Let’s write a unit test for this code.
  83. 83. infrastructure-as-code-testing-talk └ examples └ modules └ test └ hello_world_app_test.go └ docker_kubernetes_test.go └ README.md Create docker_kubernetes_test.go
  84. 84. func TestDockerKubernetes(t *testing.T) { buildDockerImage(t) path := "../examples/docker-kubernetes/deployment.yml" options := k8s.NewKubectlOptions("", "", "") defer k8s.KubectlDelete(t, options, path) k8s.KubectlApply(t, options, path) validate(t, options) } The basic test structure
  85. 85. func TestDockerKubernetes(t *testing.T) { buildDockerImage(t) path := "../examples/docker-kubernetes/deployment.yml" options := k8s.NewKubectlOptions("", "", "") defer k8s.KubectlDelete(t, options, path) k8s.KubectlApply(t, options, path) validate(t, options) } 1. Build the Docker image. You’ll see the buildDockerImage method shortly.
  86. 86. func TestDockerKubernetes(t *testing.T) { buildDockerImage(t) path := "../examples/docker-kubernetes/deployment.yml" options := k8s.NewKubectlOptions("", "", "") defer k8s.KubectlDelete(t, options, path) k8s.KubectlApply(t, options, path) validate(t, options) } 2. Tell Terratest where your Kubernetes deployment is defined
  87. 87. func TestDockerKubernetes(t *testing.T) { buildDockerImage(t) path := "../examples/docker-kubernetes/deployment.yml" options := k8s.NewKubectlOptions("", "", "") defer k8s.KubectlDelete(t, options, path) k8s.KubectlApply(t, options, path) validate(t, options) } 3. Configure kubectl options to authenticate to Kubernetes
  88. 88. func TestDockerKubernetes(t *testing.T) { buildDockerImage(t) path := "../examples/docker-kubernetes/deployment.yml" options := k8s.NewKubectlOptions("", "", "") defer k8s.KubectlDelete(t, options, path) k8s.KubectlApply(t, options, path) validate(t, options) } 4. Run kubectl apply to deploy the web app to Kubernetes
  89. 89. func TestDockerKubernetes(t *testing.T) { buildDockerImage(t) path := "../examples/docker-kubernetes/deployment.yml" options := k8s.NewKubectlOptions("", "", "") defer k8s.KubectlDelete(t, options, path) k8s.KubectlApply(t, options, path) validate(t, options) } 5. Check the app is working. You’ll see the validate method shortly.
  90. 90. func TestDockerKubernetes(t *testing.T) { buildDockerImage(t) path := "../examples/docker-kubernetes/deployment.yml" options := k8s.NewKubectlOptions("", "", "") defer k8s.KubectlDelete(t, options, path) k8s.KubectlApply(t, options, path) validate(t, options) } 6. At the end of the test, remove all Kubernetes resources you deployed
  91. 91. func buildDockerImage(t *testing.T) { options := &docker.BuildOptions{ Tags: []string{"gruntwork-io/hello-world-app:v1"}, } path := "../examples/docker-kubernetes" docker.Build(t, path, options) } The buildDockerImage method
  92. 92. func validate(t *testing.T, opts *k8s.KubectlOptions) { k8s.WaitUntilServiceAvailable(t, opts, "hello-world- app-service", 10, 1*time.Second) http_helper.HttpGetWithRetry(t, serviceUrl(t, opts), // URL to test 200, // Expected status code "Hello, World!", // Expected body 10, // Max retries 3*time.Second // Time between retries ) } The validate method
  93. 93. func validate(t *testing.T, opts *k8s.KubectlOptions) { k8s.WaitUntilServiceAvailable(t, opts, "hello-world- app-service", 10, 1*time.Second) http_helper.HttpGetWithRetry(t, serviceUrl(t, opts), // URL to test 200, // Expected status code "Hello, World!", // Expected body 10, // Max retries 3*time.Second // Time between retries ) } 1. Wait until the service is deployed
  94. 94. func validate(t *testing.T, opts *k8s.KubectlOptions) { k8s.WaitUntilServiceAvailable(t, opts, "hello-world- app-service", 10, 1*time.Second) http_helper.HttpGetWithRetry(t, serviceUrl(t, opts), // URL to test 200, // Expected status code "Hello, World!", // Expected body 10, // Max retries 3*time.Second // Time between retries ) } 2. Make HTTP requests
  95. 95. func validate(t *testing.T, opts *k8s.KubectlOptions) { k8s.WaitUntilServiceAvailable(t, opts, "hello-world- app-service", 10, 1*time.Second) http_helper.HttpGetWithRetry(t, serviceUrl(t, opts), // URL to test 200, // Expected status code "Hello, World!", // Expected body 10, // Max retries 3*time.Second // Time between retries ) } 3. Use serviceUrl method to get URL
  96. 96. func serviceUrl(t *testing.T, opts *k8s.KubectlOptions) string { service := k8s.GetService(t, options, "hello-world-app-service") endpoint := k8s.GetServiceEndpoint(t, options, service, 8080) return fmt.Sprintf("http://%s", endpoint) } The serviceUrl method
  97. 97. $ kubectl config set-credentials … To run the test, first authenticate to a Kubernetes cluster.
  98. 98. Note: Kubernetes is now part of Docker Desktop. Test 100% locally!
  99. 99. $ go test -v -timeout 15m -run TestDockerKubernetes … --- PASS: TestDockerKubernetes (5.69s) Run go test. You can validate your config after every commit in seconds!
  100. 100. Unit tests 1. Unit testing basics 2. Example: Terraform unit tests 3. Example: Docker/Kubernetes unit tests 4. Cleaning up after tests
  101. 101. Note: tests create and destroy many resources!
  102. 102. Pro tip #1: run tests in completely separate “sandbox” accounts
  103. 103. Tool Clouds Features cloud-nuke AWS (GCP planned) Delete all resources older than a certain date; in a certain region; of a certain type. Janitor Monkey AWS Configurable rules of what to delete. Notify owners of pending deletions. aws-nuke AWS Specify specific AWS accounts and resource types to target. Azure Powershell Azure Includes native commands to delete Resource Groups Pro tip #2: run these tools in cron jobs to clean up left-over resources
  104. 104. 1. Static analysis 2. Unit tests 3. Integration tests 4. End-to-end tests 5. Conclusion Outline
  105. 105. Integration tests: test multiple “units” work together.
  106. 106. Integration tests 1. Example: Terraform integration tests 2. Test parallelism 3. Test stages 4. Test retries
  107. 107. Integration tests 1. Example: Terraform integration tests 2. Test parallelism 3. Test stages 4. Test retries
  108. 108. infrastructure-as-code-testing-talk └ examples └ hello-world-app └ docker-kubernetes └ proxy-app └ web-service └ modules └ test └ README.md Let’s say you have two Terraform modules you want to test together:
  109. 109. infrastructure-as-code-testing-talk └ examples └ hello-world-app └ docker-kubernetes └ proxy-app └ web-service └ modules └ test └ README.md proxy-app: an app that acts as an HTTP proxy for other web services.
  110. 110. infrastructure-as-code-testing-talk └ examples └ hello-world-app └ docker-kubernetes └ proxy-app └ web-service └ modules └ test └ README.md web-service: a web service that you want proxied.
  111. 111. variable "url_to_proxy" { description = "The URL to proxy." type = string } proxy-app takes in the URL to proxy via an input variable
  112. 112. output "url" { value = module.web_service.url } web-service exposes its URL via an output variable
  113. 113. infrastructure-as-code-testing-talk └ examples └ modules └ test └ hello_world_app_test.go └ docker_kubernetes_test.go └ proxy_app_test.go └ README.md Create proxy_app_test.go
  114. 114. func TestProxyApp(t *testing.T) { webServiceOpts := configWebService(t) defer terraform.Destroy(t, webServiceOpts) terraform.InitAndApply(t, webServiceOpts) proxyAppOpts := configProxyApp(t, webServiceOpts) defer terraform.Destroy(t, proxyAppOpts) terraform.InitAndApply(t, proxyAppOpts) validate(t, proxyAppOpts) } The basic test structure
  115. 115. func TestProxyApp(t *testing.T) { webServiceOpts := configWebService(t) defer terraform.Destroy(t, webServiceOpts) terraform.InitAndApply(t, webServiceOpts) proxyAppOpts := configProxyApp(t, webServiceOpts) defer terraform.Destroy(t, proxyAppOpts) terraform.InitAndApply(t, proxyAppOpts) validate(t, proxyAppOpts) } 1. Configure options for the web service
  116. 116. func TestProxyApp(t *testing.T) { webServiceOpts := configWebService(t) defer terraform.Destroy(t, webServiceOpts) terraform.InitAndApply(t, webServiceOpts) proxyAppOpts := configProxyApp(t, webServiceOpts) defer terraform.Destroy(t, proxyAppOpts) terraform.InitAndApply(t, proxyAppOpts) validate(t, proxyAppOpts) } 2. Deploy the web service
  117. 117. func TestProxyApp(t *testing.T) { webServiceOpts := configWebService(t) defer terraform.Destroy(t, webServiceOpts) terraform.InitAndApply(t, webServiceOpts) proxyAppOpts := configProxyApp(t, webServiceOpts) defer terraform.Destroy(t, proxyAppOpts) terraform.InitAndApply(t, proxyAppOpts) validate(t, proxyAppOpts) } 3. Configure options for the proxy app (passing it the web service options)
  118. 118. func TestProxyApp(t *testing.T) { webServiceOpts := configWebService(t) defer terraform.Destroy(t, webServiceOpts) terraform.InitAndApply(t, webServiceOpts) proxyAppOpts := configProxyApp(t, webServiceOpts) defer terraform.Destroy(t, proxyAppOpts) terraform.InitAndApply(t, proxyAppOpts) validate(t, proxyAppOpts) } 4. Deploy the proxy app
  119. 119. func TestProxyApp(t *testing.T) { webServiceOpts := configWebService(t) defer terraform.Destroy(t, webServiceOpts) terraform.InitAndApply(t, webServiceOpts) proxyAppOpts := configProxyApp(t, webServiceOpts) defer terraform.Destroy(t, proxyAppOpts) terraform.InitAndApply(t, proxyAppOpts) validate(t, proxyAppOpts) } 5. Validate the proxy app works
  120. 120. func TestProxyApp(t *testing.T) { webServiceOpts := configWebService(t) defer terraform.Destroy(t, webServiceOpts) terraform.InitAndApply(t, webServiceOpts) proxyAppOpts := configProxyApp(t, webServiceOpts) defer terraform.Destroy(t, proxyAppOpts) terraform.InitAndApply(t, proxyAppOpts) validate(t, proxyAppOpts) } 6. At the end of the test, undeploy the proxy app and the web service
  121. 121. func configWebService(t *testing.T) *terraform.Options { return &terraform.Options{ TerraformDir: "../examples/web-service", } } The configWebService method
  122. 122. func configProxyApp(t *testing.T, webServiceOpts *terraform.Options) *terraform.Options { url := terraform.Output(t, webServiceOpts, "url") return &terraform.Options{ TerraformDir: "../examples/proxy-app", Vars: map[string]interface{}{ "url_to_proxy": url, }, } } The configProxyApp method
  123. 123. func configProxyApp(t *testing.T, webServiceOpts *terraform.Options) *terraform.Options { url := terraform.Output(t, webServiceOpts, "url") return &terraform.Options{ TerraformDir: "../examples/proxy-app", Vars: map[string]interface{}{ "url_to_proxy": url, }, } } 1. Read the url output from the web- service module
  124. 124. func configProxyApp(t *testing.T, webServiceOpts *terraform.Options) *terraform.Options { url := terraform.Output(t, webServiceOpts, "url") return &terraform.Options{ TerraformDir: "../examples/proxy-app", Vars: map[string]interface{}{ "url_to_proxy": url, }, } } 2. Pass it in as the url_to_proxy input to the proxy-app module
  125. 125. func validate(t *testing.T, opts *terraform.Options) { url := terraform.Output(t, opts, "url") http_helper.HttpGetWithRetry(t, url, // URL to test 200, // Expected status code `{"text":"Hello, World!"}`, // Expected body 10, // Max retries 3 * time.Second // Time between retries ) } The validate method
  126. 126. $ go test -v -timeout 15m -run TestProxyApp … --- PASS: TestProxyApp (182.44s) Run go test. You’re now testing multiple modules together!
  127. 127. $ go test -v -timeout 15m -run TestProxyApp … --- PASS: TestProxyApp (182.44s) But integration tests can take (many) minutes to run…
  128. 128. Integration tests 1. Example: Terraform integration tests 2. Test parallelism 3. Test stages 4. Test retries
  129. 129. Infrastructure tests can take a long time to run
  130. 130. One way to save time: run tests in parallel
  131. 131. func TestProxyApp(t *testing.T) { t.Parallel() // The rest of the test code } func TestHelloWorldAppUnit(t *testing.T) { t.Parallel() // The rest of the test code } Enable test parallelism in Go by adding t.Parallel() as the 1st line of each test.
  132. 132. $ go test -v -timeout 15m === RUN TestHelloWorldApp === RUN TestDockerKubernetes === RUN TestProxyApp Now, if you run go test, all the tests with t.Parallel() will run in parallel
  133. 133. But there’s a gotcha: resource conflicts
  134. 134. resource "aws_iam_role" "role_example" { name = "example-iam-role" } resource "aws_security_group" "sg_example" { name = "security-group-example" } Example: module with hard-coded IAM Role and Security Group names
  135. 135. resource "aws_iam_role" "role_example" { name = "example-iam-role" } resource "aws_security_group" "sg_example" { name = "security-group-example" } If two tests tried to deploy this module in parallel, the names would conflict!
  136. 136. Key takeaway: you must namespace all your resources
  137. 137. resource "aws_iam_role" "role_example" { name = var.name } resource "aws_security_group" "sg_example" { name = var.name } Example: use variables in all resource names…
  138. 138. uniqueId := random.UniqueId() return &terraform.Options{ TerraformDir: "../examples/proxy-app", Vars: map[string]interface{}{ "name": fmt.Sprintf("text-proxy-app-%s", uniqueId) }, } At test time, set the variables to a randomized value to avoid conflicts
  139. 139. Integration tests 1. Example: Terraform integration tests 2. Test parallelism 3. Test stages 4. Test retries
  140. 140. Consider the structure of the proxy-app integration test:
  141. 141. 1. Deploy web-service 2. Deploy proxy-app 3. Validate proxy-app 4. Undeploy proxy-app 5. Undeploy web-service
  142. 142. 1. Deploy web-service 2. Deploy proxy-app 3. Validate proxy-app 4. Undeploy proxy-app 5. Undeploy web-service When iterating locally, you sometimes want to re-run just one of these steps.
  143. 143. 1. Deploy web-service 2. Deploy proxy-app 3. Validate proxy-app 4. Undeploy proxy-app 5. Undeploy web-service But as the code is written now, you have to run all steps on each test run.
  144. 144. 1. Deploy web-service 2. Deploy proxy-app 3. Validate proxy-app 4. Undeploy proxy-app 5. Undeploy web-service And that can add up to a lot of overhead. (~3 min) (~2 min) (~30 seconds) (~1 min) (~2 min)
  145. 145. Key takeaway: break your tests into independent test stages
  146. 146. webServiceOpts := configWebService(t) defer terraform.Destroy(t, webServiceOpts) terraform.InitAndApply(t, webServiceOpts) proxyAppOpts := configProxyApp(t, webServiceOpts) defer terraform.Destroy(t, proxyAppOpts) terraform.InitAndApply(t, proxyAppOpts) validate(t, proxyAppOpts) The original test structure
  147. 147. stage := test_structure.RunTestStage defer stage(t, "cleanup_web_service", cleanupWebService) stage(t, "deploy_web_service", deployWebService) defer stage(t, "cleanup_proxy_app", cleanupProxyApp) stage(t, "deploy_proxy_app", deployProxyApp) stage(t, "validate", validate) The test structure with test stages
  148. 148. stage := test_structure.RunTestStage defer stage(t, "cleanup_web_service", cleanupWebService) stage(t, "deploy_web_service", deployWebService) defer stage(t, "cleanup_proxy_app", cleanupProxyApp) stage(t, "deploy_proxy_app", deployProxyApp) stage(t, "validate", validate) 1. RunTestStage is a helper function from Terratest.
  149. 149. stage := test_structure.RunTestStage defer stage(t, "cleanup_web_service", cleanupWebService) stage(t, "deploy_web_service", deployWebService) defer stage(t, "cleanup_proxy_app", cleanupProxyApp) stage(t, "deploy_proxy_app", deployProxyApp) stage(t, "validate", validate) 2. Wrap each stage of your test with a call to RunTestStage
  150. 150. stage := test_structure.RunTestStage defer stage(t, "cleanup_web_service", cleanupWebService) stage(t, "deploy_web_service", deployWebService) defer stage(t, "cleanup_proxy_app", cleanupProxyApp) stage(t, "deploy_proxy_app", deployProxyApp) stage(t, "validate", validate) 3. Define each stage in a function (you’ll see this code shortly).
  151. 151. stage := test_structure.RunTestStage defer stage(t, "cleanup_web_service", cleanupWebService) stage(t, "deploy_web_service", deployWebService) defer stage(t, "cleanup_proxy_app", cleanupProxyApp) stage(t, "deploy_proxy_app", deployProxyApp) stage(t, "validate", validate) 4. Give each stage a unique name
  152. 152. stage := test_structure.RunTestStage defer stage(t, "cleanup_web_service", cleanupWebService) stage(t, "deploy_web_service", deployWebService) defer stage(t, "cleanup_proxy_app", cleanupProxyApp) stage(t, "deploy_proxy_app", deployProxyApp) stage(t, "validate", validate) Any stage foo can be skipped by setting the env var SKIP_foo=true
  153. 153. $ SKIP_cleanup_web_service=true $ SKIP_cleanup_proxy_app=true Example: on the very first test run, skip the cleanup stages.
  154. 154. $ go test -v -timeout 15m -run TestProxyApp Running stage 'deploy_web_service'… Running stage 'deploy_proxy_app'… Running stage 'validate'… Skipping stage 'cleanup_proxy_app'… Skipping stage 'cleanup_web_service'… --- PASS: TestProxyApp (105.73s) That way, after the test finishes, the infrastructure will still be running.
  155. 155. $ SKIP_deploy_web_service=true $ SKIP_deploy_proxy_app=true Now, on the next several test runs, you can skip the deploy stages too.
  156. 156. $ go test -v -timeout 15m -run TestProxyApp Skipping stage 'deploy_web_service’… Skipping stage 'deploy_proxy_app'… Running stage 'validate'… Skipping stage 'cleanup_proxy_app'… Skipping stage 'cleanup_web_service'… --- PASS: TestProxyApp (14.22s) This allows you to iterate on solely the validate stage…
  157. 157. $ go test -v -timeout 15m -run TestProxyApp Skipping stage 'deploy_web_service’… Skipping stage 'deploy_proxy_app'… Running stage 'validate'… Skipping stage 'cleanup_proxy_app'… Skipping stage 'cleanup_web_service'… --- PASS: TestProxyApp (14.22s) Which dramatically speeds up your iteration / feedback cycle!
  158. 158. $ SKIP_validate=true $ unset SKIP_cleanup_web_service $ unset SKIP_cleanup_proxy_app When you’re done iterating, skip validate and re-enable cleanup
  159. 159. $ go test -v -timeout 15m -run TestProxyApp Skipping stage 'deploy_web_service’… Skipping stage 'deploy_proxy_app’… Skipping stage 'validate’… Running stage 'cleanup_proxy_app’… Running stage 'cleanup_web_service'… --- PASS: TestProxyApp (59.61s) This cleans up everything that was left running.
  160. 160. func deployWebService(t *testing.T) { opts := configWebServiceOpts(t) test_structure.SaveTerraformOptions(t, "/tmp", opts) terraform.InitAndApply(t, opts) } func cleanupWebService(t *testing.T) { opts := test_structure.LoadTerraformOptions(t, "/tmp") terraform.Destroy(t, opts) } Note: each time you run test stages via go test, it’s a separate OS process.
  161. 161. func deployWebService(t *testing.T) { opts := configWebServiceOpts(t) test_structure.SaveTerraformOptions(t, "/tmp", opts) terraform.InitAndApply(t, opts) } func cleanupWebService(t *testing.T) { opts := test_structure.LoadTerraformOptions(t, "/tmp") terraform.Destroy(t, opts) } So to pass data between stages, one stage needs to write the data to disk…
  162. 162. func deployWebService(t *testing.T) { opts := configWebServiceOpts(t) test_structure.SaveTerraformOptions(t, "/tmp", opts) terraform.InitAndApply(t, opts) } func cleanupWebService(t *testing.T) { opts := test_structure.LoadTerraformOptions(t, "/tmp") terraform.Destroy(t, opts) } And the other stages need to read that data from disk.
  163. 163. Integration tests 1. Example: Terraform integration tests 2. Test parallelism 3. Test stages 4. Test retries
  164. 164. Real infrastructure can fail for intermittent reasons (e.g., bad EC2 instance, Apt downtime, Terraform bug)
  165. 165. To avoid “flaky” tests, add retries for known errors.
  166. 166. &terraform.Options{ TerraformDir: "../examples/proxy-app", RetryableTerraformErrors: map[string]string{ "net/http: TLS handshake timeout": "Terraform bug", }, MaxRetries: 3, TimeBetweenRetries: 3*time.Second, } Example: retry up to 3 times on a known TLS error in Terraform.
  167. 167. 1. Static analysis 2. Unit tests 3. Integration tests 4. End-to-end tests 5. Conclusion Outline
  168. 168. End-to-end tests: test your entire infrastructure works together.
  169. 169. How do you test this entire thing?
  170. 170. You could use the same strategy… 1. Deploy all the infrastructure 2. Validate it works (e.g., via HTTP requests, API calls, SSH commands, etc.) 3. Undeploy all the infrastructure
  171. 171. But it’s rare to write end-to- end tests this way. Here’s why:
  172. 172. e2e Tests Test pyramid Integration Tests Unit Tests Static analysis
  173. 173. e2e Tests Integration Tests Unit Tests Static analysis Cost, brittleness, run time
  174. 174. e2e Tests Integration Tests Unit Tests Static analysis 60 – 240+ minutes 5 – 60 minutes 1 – 20 minutes 1 – 60 seconds
  175. 175. e2e Tests Integration Tests Unit Tests Static analysis E2E tests are too slow to be useful 60 – 240+ minutes 5 – 60 minutes 1 – 20 minutes 1 – 60 seconds
  176. 176. Another problem with E2E tests: brittleness.
  177. 177. Let’s do some math:
  178. 178. Assume a single resource (e.g., EC2 instance) has a 1/1000 (0.1%) chance of failure.
  179. 179. Test type # of resources Chance of failure Unit tests 10 1% Integration tests 50 5% End-to-end tests 500+ 40%+ The more resources your tests deploy, the flakier they will be.
  180. 180. Test type # of resources Chance of failure Unit tests 10 1% Integration tests 50 5% End-to-end tests 500+ 40%+ You can work around the failure rate for unit & integration tests with retries
  181. 181. Test type # of resources Chance of failure Unit tests 10 1% Integration tests 50 5% End-to-end tests 500+ 40%+ You can work around the failure rate for unit & integration tests with retries
  182. 182. Key takeaway: E2E tests from scratch are too slow and too brittle to be useful
  183. 183. Instead, you can do incremental E2E testing!
  184. 184. module module module module module module module module module module module module module module module 1. Deploy a persistent test environment and leave it running.
  185. 185. module module module module module module module module module module module module module module module 2. Each time you update a module, deploy & validate just that module
  186. 186. module module module module module module module module module module module module module module module 3. Bonus: test your deployment process is zero-downtime too!
  187. 187. 1. Static analysis 2. Unit tests 3. Integration tests 4. End-to-end tests 5. Conclusion Outline
  188. 188. Testing techniques compared:
  189. 189. Technique Strengths Weaknesses Static analysis 1. Fast 2. Stable 3. No need to deploy real resources 4. Easy to use 1. Very limited in errors you can catch 2. You don’t get much confidence in your code solely from static analysis Unit tests 1. Fast enough (1 – 10 min) 2. Mostly stable (with retry logic) 3. High level of confidence in individual units 1. Need to deploy real resources 2. Requires writing non-trivial code Integration tests 1. Mostly stable (with retry logic) 2. High level of confidence in multiple units working together 1. Need to deploy real resources 2. Requires writing non-trivial code 3. Slow (10 – 30 min) End-to-end tests 1. Build confidence in your entire architecture 1. Need to deploy real resources 2. Requires writing non-trivial code 3. Very slow (60 min – 240+ min)* 4. Can be brittle (even with retry logic)*
  190. 190. So which should you use?
  191. 191. All of them! They all catch different types of bugs.
  192. 192. e2e Tests Keep in mind the test pyramid Integration Tests Unit Tests Static analysis
  193. 193. e2e Tests Lots of unit tests + static analysis Integration Tests Unit Tests Static analysis
  194. 194. e2e Tests Fewer integration tests Integration Tests Unit Tests Static analysis
  195. 195. e2e Tests A handful of high-value e2e tests Integration Tests Unit Tests Static analysis
  196. 196. Infrastructure code without tests is scary
  197. 197. Fight the fear & build confidence in your code with automated tests
  198. 198. Questions? info@gruntwork.io
  199. 199. Watch the video with slide synchronization on InfoQ.com! https://www.infoq.com/presentations/a utomated-testing-terraform-docker- packer/

×