Volta Basin


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Presentation of Tonya Schuetz, Volta Basin, as part of the "Simposio Internacional: El Desafío del Agua y la Alimentación en el Mundo" organized by National Authority of Water (ANA) in Peru and the Consorcio para el Desarrollo Sostenible de la Ecorregión Andina (CONDESAN). June 3, 2013.

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  • After the 1st phase of the CPWF research in the basin, some of the main findings of the research can be summarised in the following points. …….These were used to define the next steps of research now being carried out in the 2nd phase
  • The focus in the second phase is on integrated management of rainwater and small reservoirs
  • It is clear that small reservoirs today have several benefits
  • And in the future, this is bound to continue in the context of global and regional drivers
  • A study of over 400 small reservoirs revealed that: Many actors are involved in several ways in the governance of small reservoirs. - While government line ministries are responsible for construction, major maintenance and extension services; (1st red circle)- Water users association (WUA) and the communities play the lead role in minor maintenance, setting management rules as well as in implementing and monitoring the rules (2nd red circle)- Traditional authorities play a significant role in conflict resolution as would be expected (small blue circle)- Once small reservoirs have been constructed, the donors, contractors and government ministries have minimal contribution to the exploitation of the resource and marketing (2nd blue circle)
  • The emerging issues around small reservoir requires that different aspects of the water resource should be considered
  • Volta Basin

    1. 1. Volta BasinOlufunke Cofie and Philippe CecchiCPWF-Volta3.6.2013, Lima, Peru
    2. 2. Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • VoltaPresentation Outline• Geographic location• Challenges and opportunities in the Volta Basin• Small Reservoirs: what and why?• Planning for small reservoirs• Management of small reservoirs for multiple uses• Conclusions
    3. 3. Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • VoltaCPWF Basins21Andes – Benefit-sharing mechanismsGanges – Floods and salt in the DeltaLimpopo – Small reservoirs, rainwater and livelihoodsMekong – Dams and livelihoodsNile – Rainwater management in EthiopiaVolta – Small reservoirs, rainwater and livelihoods
    4. 4. Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • VoltaFindings for the Volta Basin …Climate change is making already variable rainfall less reliable. Farmers musthave access to reliable water supplies.• Rainwater productivity can be increased by in-field water harvesting and soilfertility improvement• Integrated strategies are needed for effective innovations• Need to improve soil water management under rainfed condition; improvesmall reservoirs management, tools for water quality management, use ofgroundwater• Small reservoirs, locally maintainedand requiring no recurrent energyinput are a sustainable supply option toimprove water access and increasewater related benefits for localcommunities
    5. 5. Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • VoltaChallenges in the Volta Basin …National specificity in history, governance, exploitation and management of SR,so difficult to make many generic statements. Large comparison will allow tocapture important generic driversIntegrated Management ofRainwater and Small Reservoirs for Multiple UsesObjective: “Improving rainwater and small reservoir management to contributeto poverty reduction and improved livelihoods resilience while taking accountof downstream and upstream water users including ecosystem services”
    6. 6. Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • VoltaSource: McCartney & Smakhtin (2010). IWMI Blue paper.Small Rerservoirs compliment other storage optionsSmall Reservoirs should be viewed in the continuum ofwater storage options
    7. 7. Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • VoltaSmall Reservoirs in West Africa …In West Africa: Small Reservoirs arestructures• located at the top of thehydrological network• store a portion of the flow(rainy season) for future use(dry season)• dikes greater than 15 meters(m) high or with storagecapacity up to 3 Mm3Unit cost is about half a millionEuros and often much less.Small Reservoirs in the Volta
    8. 8. Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta• Small reservoirs support adaptation to climate variability• Small but numerous and largely scattered• Allow targeting a largely scattered rural population• Represent thousands of kilometers of shorelineSmall Reservoirs … Today1 reservoir ≈ 2500 rural people with secure water access all year long
    9. 9. Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • VoltaSmall Reservoirs … Future250 million people in 2040 in the Niger and Volta BasinsHigh population density in the context of other global changes(climate, markets, ...).The impact unclear but will necessitate:- securing water resources available- increasing storage- intensification of agriculture
    10. 10. Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • VoltaThe multiple uses characteristic of small reservoirs is the main reason forsuccessful adoption by local communities:▪ agriculture: off-season crops, vegetable garden▪ livestock watering, fisheries, fish farming▪ domestic uses: laundry, dishes, bath,…▪ groundwater recharge of deep and shallow wells▪ gender: equity in risks and benefit sharing▪ different ecological services providing diversification and incomesMultiple Use is indeed fundamental, in particular for the householddiversification of livelihood activitiesSmall Reservoirs … Multiple Uses
    11. 11. Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • VoltaWhether allocation of water to distributed storage is a good policy rests onexcess of evaporative losses and collective impact of the reservoirs place aninequitable burden on downstream users.Our work demonstrates that …• Evaporative losses are less than 50% ofwhat had previously been assumed.• Collective downstream impact of smallreservoirs is minimal. For instance, inthe Volta Basin, even quadrupling the number of small reservoirs wouldresult in the consumption of less than 1% of the total available water.• Efficiency of small reservoirs is linked to coordinated institutionalarrangements for decision making and the ability of local governance tocope with managerial and organization capacities of severalstakeholdersSmall Reservoirs … Lessons
    12. 12. Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • VoltaSmall Reservoirs … ToolkitTools for improved participatory decision making in planning and maintenanceand stakeholders’ understanding of Small Reservoirs have been developed• Storage and Hydrology• Ecosystems, Water Quality & Human Health• Water Allocation and Economics• How science based information can bepresented most effectively?• How to make sure the opinions and ideasof the stakeholders heard?• How to share the better options availableto stakeholders?Visit: http://www.smallreservoirs.org/full/toolkit/index.htm
    13. 13. Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • VoltaSmall reservoirs are already used in many countries, but there is still potentialto increase the number, without impacting significantly the catchmenthydrology.No. of small reservoirs in selected countriesBurkina Faso > 1,500Ethiopia > 100Ghana > 1,000Ivory Coast > 600Mali > 800Mauritania > 350Mozambique > 600Uganda > 500Zimbabwe > 9,000Zambia > 2,000Small Reservoirs … Potential01002003004005006001801-18401841-19111912-19391940-19561957-19731974-19871988-2001020040060080010001200source : Philippe Cecchi (IRD)Number of Dams and Small Reservoirs inBurkina Faso
    14. 14. Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • VoltaSmall Reservoirs Governance(N > 400 SRs)LineministriesDonors ContractorsLocalgovernmentTraditionalauthoritiesWUAs Community Farmers Othersconstruction 41 6 33 8 2 2 3 2 2extension role 75 3 0 3 3 6 3 0 8majormaintenance39 13 6 22 2 7 4 2 3minormaintenance4 0 0 5 5 36 42 6 2setting managementrules4 0 0 4 22 42 21 6 2implementing &monitoring rules5 0 0 4 13 49 21 5 4relation withother actors11 1 0 9 12 42 18 3 5conflict resolution5 0 0 8 54 20 11 1 2environmentalprotection7 0 0 4 10 35 33 9 2exploitation &marketing13 0 0 1 5 14 12 47 6Source: Venot JP, Sept. 2011Many actors with complimentary roles
    15. 15. Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta• New stakeholders (agro-business) are emergingin the field, with various strategies to maximizeinvestments in the short term• New ‘predators’ have appeared in thelandscape, particularly “mines” with highconsumption of water; pollutions; socialdisorders; etc.• Increased human population, associated landuse and intensification of agricultural practices(nutrients, pesticides) contribute to theeutrophication of SR with serious threats onquality and productivity of SR as well as healthstatus of dependent rural poorSmall Reservoirs … Emerging issuesControlling consequences of intensification is anecessity
    16. 16. Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • VoltaUses and users require water (quantity and quality)Uses and users impact the resource (quantity and quality)There exist trade-off between impacts and requirements that determinethe nature of available resourcesWater Uses and UsersRequirementsResourcesImpactsKey wordsIntegrated managementsLocal scale/ multi scaleSo..
    17. 17. Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • VoltaA necessity for management …To documentTo informTo predictCross-scaling in termsof resource managementand/but also in terms ofprocesses involvedMultiple scales of information gathering (farm household,community, watershed, country, basin)
    18. 18. Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • Volta‘‘The challenge lies not merely in reducing vulnerability [against ClimateChange] but also in getting the structures in place so governments andinvestors can tackle adaptation in the most effective manner possible.The good news is we can improve lives today while building the crucialinfrastructure needed for tomorrow.’’Source: ‘‘Global Warming and Adaptability’’ Wall Street Journal, 12 Dec. 2011In ConclusionMore efforts are needed to promote the high potential of smallreservoirs for dry environments by increasing their numbers andimproving their management.
    19. 19. Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • VoltaThanks for your Attentionwww.volta.waterandfood.org
    20. 20. Andes • Ganges • Limpopo • Mekong • Nile • VoltaVolta: Rainwater and small reservoirsIdentified successes (soil-waterconservation, small reservoirs, andsmall pumps) and failures (cultureand gender-sensitivity) toextrapolation domainsBetter link crop-livestock farmingwith market value chains throughinnovation platformsResilience analysis helps evaluatecommon threads driving or limitinginnovations (e.g. water quality insmall reservoirs)