Dangerous Glacial Lakes in Apolobamba
Protected Area, Bolivia: Monitoring
Program and Management Perspectives
Bolivian Mou...
A multi-actor initiative, combining monitoring,
conservation action and science.
A new look at glacial lake monitoring
Pho...
rapid retreat of mountain glaciers
is the most visible sign of global warming
Preliminary considerations - 1
what is happening with glaciers
worldwide is probably also happening
– silently and largely invisible to the
majority of t...
given the present rate of
climate change,
in 20 years time the world is
likely to look very different
than what we can now...
Part I
The Setting
The geographical setting:
Apolobamba mountain range
• Northernmost part of the
Eastern branch of the Andean
Cordillera in ...
Apolobamba Protected Area
Área Natural de Manejeo Integrado (ANMIN)
•Expanded to
Apolobamba Natural
Area for Integrated
Ma...
Part II
Glacial retreat
Glacier retreat in Bolivia
• Due to global warming, the world’s tropical
glaciers are retreating at an unprecedented
rate....
Glacier retreat in the Cordillera Real
• The volume changes of 21 glaciers in the Cordillera Real
have been determined bet...
Apolobamba glacier area
Source: World Glacier
Monitoring Service (WGMS)
Source: Google Earth
• Largest continuous glaciate...
Glacier area loss in the Cordillera Apolobamba
1976 - 2009
Elaboration:
R. Tarquino
Glacier retreat in Cordillera Apolobamba
1976 - 2009
Elaboration: Rodrigo Tarquino
Area loss more than 50%
Part III
Glacial lakes and GLOF inicdent
Imagen satelital de glaciares de
Apolobamba (región Cololo)
Glacier lake Ulla Khaya
Glacier lake
Laguna Isquillani
El incidente „GLOF“ de Keara,
noviembre de 2009
Todas las fotos: Martín Apaza Ticona
Today
Today
Today
Today
Today
Today
Part IV
The monitoring program
Monitoring approach of
ANMIN Apolobamba
• Monitoring as an essential tool of park managment.
• Monitoring “by the people o...
Glacier monitoring points
6 points selected in each of the three sub-regions:
Ulla Khaya, Chaupi Orco y Cololo
Source:
Tar...
Institucional set-up
University/Science
Ecological Institute/UMSA, La Paz
Oxford University, UK
Heidelberg University, Ger...
„Success criteria“
• Sustained external financial assistance
• Technical assistance
• Mechanisms for inter-institutional c...
Perspectives
• Long term glacier and glacial lake monitoring as
integral part of park management (SERNAP & local
people)
•...
Thank you for your attention!
Contact:
dirk.hoffmann@bolivian-mountains.
Additional information
Bolivian Mountain Institute - BMI
Klimablog „Cambio Climático Bolivia“
Dangerous Glacial Lakes in Apolobamba Protected Area, Bolivia
Dangerous Glacial Lakes in Apolobamba Protected Area, Bolivia
Dangerous Glacial Lakes in Apolobamba Protected Area, Bolivia
Dangerous Glacial Lakes in Apolobamba Protected Area, Bolivia
Dangerous Glacial Lakes in Apolobamba Protected Area, Bolivia
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Dangerous Glacial Lakes in Apolobamba Protected Area, Bolivia

  1. 1. Dangerous Glacial Lakes in Apolobamba Protected Area, Bolivia: Monitoring Program and Management Perspectives Bolivian Mountain Institute Dirk Hoffmann Instituto Boliviano de la Montaña - BMI Foro Internacional Glaciares Challenges of research at society´s service in the framework of climate change July 1 – 4, 2013 – Huaraz, Ancash, Peru
  2. 2. A multi-actor initiative, combining monitoring, conservation action and science. A new look at glacial lake monitoring Photo: Fawcett 1911
  3. 3. rapid retreat of mountain glaciers is the most visible sign of global warming Preliminary considerations - 1
  4. 4. what is happening with glaciers worldwide is probably also happening – silently and largely invisible to the majority of the people – to the ecosystems around the world Preliminary considerations - 2
  5. 5. given the present rate of climate change, in 20 years time the world is likely to look very different than what we can now imagine Preliminary considerations - 3
  6. 6. Part I The Setting
  7. 7. The geographical setting: Apolobamba mountain range • Northernmost part of the Eastern branch of the Andean Cordillera in Bolivia; bordering with Peru • 120 km long • About 250 km northwest of La Paz and north of Lake Titicaca • One of the least explored mountain ranges in the Andes • Various peaks higher than 5,500 m • The whole region used to be Caupolicán province (today provinces of Franz Tamayo and Abel Iturralde)
  8. 8. Apolobamba Protected Area Área Natural de Manejeo Integrado (ANMIN) •Expanded to Apolobamba Natural Area for Integrated Management in 2000 (now 483,743 ha). • Altitudinal range from 800 to more than 6,000 metres. • GLORIA „target region“ for long term plant monitoring. • Declared in 1972 as National Reserve Ulla Ulla for the protection of the vicuna (240,000 ha). • Recognized as a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in 1977. Photo: Hoffmann
  9. 9. Part II Glacial retreat
  10. 10. Glacier retreat in Bolivia • Due to global warming, the world’s tropical glaciers are retreating at an unprecedented rate. • According to the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS), Bolivia held 566 km² of glaciated area (data from 80s). • Apolobamba mountain range accounts for about 7.5% of the world’s tropical glaciers. • The accelerated melting of glaciers - as in most parts of the world - commenced around 1980.
  11. 11. Glacier retreat in the Cordillera Real • The volume changes of 21 glaciers in the Cordillera Real have been determined between 1963 and 2006 using photogrammetric measurements. • From this relationship, the ice volume loss of 376 glaciers has been assessed in this region. • The results show that these glaciers lost 43% of their volume and 48% of their surface area between 1975 and 2006. Cordillera Real: 50 % reduction in surface area and volume over the last 35 years. Soruco, A., C. Vincent, B. Francou, and J. F. Gonzalez (2009), Glacier decline between 1963 and 2006 in the Cordillera Real, Bolivia, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L03502, doi:10.1029/2008GL036238.
  12. 12. Apolobamba glacier area Source: World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS) Source: Google Earth • Largest continuous glaciated area in Bolivia, with an extent of 220 km² (in the 1980s).
  13. 13. Glacier area loss in the Cordillera Apolobamba 1976 - 2009 Elaboration: R. Tarquino
  14. 14. Glacier retreat in Cordillera Apolobamba 1976 - 2009 Elaboration: Rodrigo Tarquino Area loss more than 50%
  15. 15. Part III Glacial lakes and GLOF inicdent
  16. 16. Imagen satelital de glaciares de Apolobamba (región Cololo)
  17. 17. Glacier lake Ulla Khaya
  18. 18. Glacier lake Laguna Isquillani
  19. 19. El incidente „GLOF“ de Keara, noviembre de 2009
  20. 20. Todas las fotos: Martín Apaza Ticona
  21. 21. Today
  22. 22. Today
  23. 23. Today
  24. 24. Today
  25. 25. Today
  26. 26. Today
  27. 27. Part IV The monitoring program
  28. 28. Monitoring approach of ANMIN Apolobamba • Monitoring as an essential tool of park managment. • Monitoring “by the people of the protected area”, i.e. park wardens and local population. • Assistance from NGOs and university. • What is being monitored: Water bodies, glaciers, glacier lakes, traditional types of potatoes, fauna, peat bogs (bofedales), climate, conflicts with wild life, mining, knowledge about traditional plants, tourism, project management, education, financial management...
  29. 29. Glacier monitoring points 6 points selected in each of the three sub-regions: Ulla Khaya, Chaupi Orco y Cololo Source: Tarquino, 2010
  30. 30. Institucional set-up University/Science Ecological Institute/UMSA, La Paz Oxford University, UK Heidelberg University, Germany State SERNAP – Protected Areas Administration NGOs WCS – Wildlife Conservation Society BMI – Bolivian Mountain Institute Local population
  31. 31. „Success criteria“ • Sustained external financial assistance • Technical assistance • Mechanisms for inter-institutional coordination • Continuity of key personnel • Increased involvement of local authorities • Continuous scientific input
  32. 32. Perspectives • Long term glacier and glacial lake monitoring as integral part of park management (SERNAP & local people) • Definition and implementation of adaptation measures (local people, municipalities, NGOs) • Continuing documentation and establishment of a Bolivian glacier archive (BMI) • Accompanying scientific work: - R. Tarquino, Instituto de Ecología: consequences of glacier retreat for park management - D. Weggenmann, Heidelberg University: GLOFs and risk management
  33. 33. Thank you for your attention! Contact: dirk.hoffmann@bolivian-mountains.
  34. 34. Additional information
  35. 35. Bolivian Mountain Institute - BMI
  36. 36. Klimablog „Cambio Climático Bolivia“

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