Computerstøttet samarbejde af Kjeld Schmidt, Copenhagen Business School

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Oplægget blev holdt ved InfinIT-arrangementet "Fra arbejdsgange i praksis til smidige, procesorienterede IT-systemer", der blev afholdt den 25. januar 2011. Læs mere om arrangementet her: http://www.infinit.dk/dk/hvad_kan_vi_goere_for_dig/viden/reportager/saet_stroem_til_forvaltningen.htm

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Computerstøttet samarbejde af Kjeld Schmidt, Copenhagen Business School

  1. 1. Computerstøttet samarbejde Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) Kjeld Schmidt, IOA, CBS Infinit Seminar, ITU, 25 January 201125 January 2011
  2. 2. CSCW research area ✤ First CSCW conference 1986 ✤ Several conference series ✤ ACM CSCW ✤ ECSCW ✤ ACM GROUP ✤ COOP ✤ IEEE CSCW-D ✤ … ✤ Specialized scholarly journal since 199225 January 2011
  3. 3. “Joe One”: First Soviet nuclear weapon test, 29 August 194625 January 2011
  4. 4. Collaborative computing: paradigms ✤ Facilitation of cooperative SAGE 1958 work ✤ Mediation of communication among workers ✤ Coordination technologies Whirlwind 1951 SABRE 196425 January 2011
  5. 5. Collaborative computing: paradigms ✤ Facilitation of cooperative SAGE 1958 work ✤ Mediation of Limitations: communication among improvised coordination No support for workers (apart from conversation and telephone!) ✤ Coordination technologies Whirlwind 1951 SABRE 196425 January 2011
  6. 6. Collaborative computing: paradigms ✤ Facilitation of cooperative work ✤ Mediation of communication among workers ✤ Coordination technologies MAILBOX 1965 Network email 197125 January 2011
  7. 7. Collaborative computing: paradigms ✤ Facilitation of cooperative work ✤ Limitations: Mediation of Message exchange not integrated with communication among workers ordinary work tools (messaging implemented as application) ✤ Coordination technologies MAILBOX 1965 Network email 197125 January 2011
  8. 8. Collaborative computing: paradigms ✤ Facilitation of cooperative work ✤ Mediation of communication among workers ✤ Coordination technologies25 January 2011
  9. 9. Coordination technologies ✤ Production planning and control systems ✤ Workflow management systems ✤ Document management systems ✤ Electronic patient records ✤ Project management systems ✤ Group calendar systems25 January 2011
  10. 10. Coordination technologies ✤ Limitations: ✤ Cannot be combined (implemented as applications) ✤ Cannot be integrated with ordinary work tools (e.g., CAD) ✤ Cannot be modified (rigid coordination protocols) ✤ To overcome this requires ✤ Common set of elementary objects and operations25 January 2011
  11. 11. CSCW research program ✤ Cooperative work practices: An enormous variety! ✤ Development of a common set of elementary objects and operations requires ✤ ethnographic studies of cooperative work practices ✤ systematic abstraction25 January 2011
  12. 12. CSCW research program ✤ Cooperative work practices: An enormous variety! ✤ Development of a common set of elementary objects and operations requires ✤ ethnographic studies of cooperative work practices ✤ systematic abstraction25 January 2011
  13. 13. ‘Logics of coordinative practices?’25 January 2011
  14. 14. A key issue: ‘primitives’ (1) ✤ Interactive computing: ✤ Object primitives: ‘examples of objects in [Xerox] Star are text characters, text paragraphs, graphic lines, graphic illustrations, mathematical summation signs, mathematical formulas, and icons. Every object has properties …’ ✤ Elementary operations: ‘Star has a few commands that can be used throughout the system: MOVE, COPY, DELETE, SHOW PROPERTIES, COPY PROPERTIES, AGAIN, UNDO, and HELP. Each performs the same way regardless of the type of object selected’ Smith et al.: ‘The Star user interface: An overview’, AFIPS’82: Proceedings of the National Computer Conference, 7-10 June 1982.25 January 2011
  15. 15. A key issue: ‘primitives’ (2) ✤ Computer-mediated communications (e.g., email): ✤ Early concepts: ✤ TO {user@host}, FROM, AUTHOR, TITLE, ACKNOWLEDGMENT {success / failure (time out) / normal}, TYPE {long / urgent / ordinary} (RFC 469, 8 March 1973) ✤ Later developments ✤ object primitives: message, sender (From), recipient (To, Cc, Bcc), Date, Subject… ✤ elemental operations: Send, Reply, Reply-to-all, Forward, Redirect… ✤ CSCW?25 January 2011
  16. 16. Is this research program exotic?25 January 2011
  17. 17. Distributed computing:: Proliferation of machine systems ✤ Administration, accounting, finance ✤ Manufacturing, process industries ✤ Transportation (e.g., containerization) ✤ Architecture, construction, engineering ✤ Clinical work ✤ Scientific laboratories ✤ Newspaper production ✤ Radio, TV, and movie production25 January 2011
  18. 18. Not that exotic! ✤ Technology development often based on systematic empirical studies of work practices ✤ Académie Royale des Sciences (France), 1675 ff. ✤ Descriptions des arts et métiers, 1761-88 (c. 100 vols.) ✤ Johann Beckmann: Anleitung zur Technologie, oder zur Kenntniß der Handwerke, Fabriken und Manufacturen, 177725 January 2011
  19. 19. Not that exotic! ✤ Technology development often based on systematic empirical studies of work practices ✤ Académie Royale des Sciences (France), 1675 ff. ✤ Descriptions des arts et métiers, 1761-88 (c. 100 vols.) ✤ Johann Beckmann: Anleitung zur Technologie, oder zur Kenntniß der Handwerke, Fabriken und Manufacturen, 177725 January 2011
  20. 20. Not that exotic! ✤ Technology development often based on systematic empirical studies of work practices ✤ Académie Royale des Sciences (France), 1675 ff. ✤ Descriptions des arts et métiers, 1761-88 (c. 100 vols.) ✤ Johann Beckmann: Anleitung zur Technologie, oder zur Kenntniß der Handwerke, Fabriken und Manufacturen, 177725 January 2011
  21. 21. The pin manufacture, Normandy, 17-18th century According to Descriptions des arts et métiers, 176125 January 2011
  22. 22. The ‘human computer’ ✤ de Prony: Calculation manufacture ✤ Mechanical calculators ✤ Punched-card tabulators… ✤ Origin of digital computing: cooperative calculation in science and engineering25 January 2011
  23. 23. “Joe One”: First Soviet nuclear weapon test, 29 August 194625 January 2011

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