Basic research & documentation skills


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A SNAP SHOT VIEW of the Types, Methods & Designs of Research; Data & Case Studies

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Basic research & documentation skills

  1. 1. Basic Research & Documentation Skill D t ti Skills Indraneel Bh I d l Bhowmik k Tripura UniversityKnowledge Enhancement Workshop organised by CPA, Agartala in collaboration with CUTS International held @ Agartala Press Club on 19th May, 2012
  2. 2. ‘Research is a careful and exhaustive investigation of a phenomenon with an objective of advancing knowledge’ 2
  3. 3. Uses of Research• Improves Decision Making• Reduces Uncertainty• Enables Adoption of New Strategy• Helps in Planning the Future• Helps in Ascertaining Trends 3
  4. 4. Types of Research• Descriptive – Answers to the questions relating to • WHO • WHAT • HOW • WHERE & • WHEN• Exploratory – Better Understanding of the Problem• Explanatory – Explains Causes of the Problem 4
  5. 5. Methods of Research• Field Study‐ – Observation• Experimental‐ – Controlled• Survey‐ – Sample• Case Study‐ – Thorough/ Intensive/ In‐depth• Statistical Statistical‐ – Quantitative• Historical‐ Historical – Secondary• Evolutionary‐ – Changes over time 5
  6. 6. Phases in Research Design• Specifying the problem/topic to be studied• Framing Research Design• Planning a Sample – probability & non‐probability or combination of the two• Collecting the data• Analysing the Data – Editing – Coding – Processing – Tabulating• Preparing the Report p g p 6
  7. 7. SamplingA VANTAG SADVANTAGES• Manageable• Saves Time & Money• Increases AccuracyTYPES• Probability Simple Random Stratified Random Systematic Cluster Multi‐Stage M lti St Multi‐phase• Non‐Probability Convenience Purposive Quota Snowball Volunteer 7
  8. 8. Data• Time Series Data‐ sequence of observations ordered in time – Profits of MRF since 1991 – GDP of India from 1950‐51 to 1999‐00• Cross Sectional Data‐ parallel data on many units (individuals, firms, nations) at the same point of time – Heights and weights of the people present in the room – Literacy rate of the member countries of UN in 2010• P l D t same cross‐section unit surveyed Panel Data‐ ti it d over time – AGR of G20 countries from 2001 to 2010 – R R of return of 10 mutual f d over th l t 10 RoR f t f t l funds the last years Methods of Collection • Questionnaire • Interview Schedule • PRA • FGD 8
  9. 9. Exploring Data• Descriptive Statistics – Measures of Central Tendency • Mean‐ Average, Geometric & Harmonic; • Median; • Mode – Measures of Dispersion • Range • Inter Inter‐ Quartile Range • Standard Deviation • Mean Deviation • Quartile Deviation• Graphical Representation – Scatter – Column – Bar – Line – Pie 9
  10. 10. Descriptive Statistics• By hand………………….• Software packages‐ • Example: Show xls. File• D t A l i f Data Analysis‐ from th menu D t the Data; choose Descriptive Statistics‐ select the input range‐ select summary range statistics‐specify the output location‐ get the result• Command for descriptive available in the menu of all other packages 10
  11. 11. Graphical Representations MS‐Excel is the most popular way‐ use of the insert menu Diagram should be on the basis of data Pie for one time period; 100% stacked column/bar for multi period Line graph: time series‐ trend line fitting: checking the R.sq Tradition: B /C l T diti Bar/Column f cross‐ for sectional data Manipulations on the axis is often important‐ e.g: scale 11
  12. 12. Case StudiesCharacteristics• In Totality• Multiple Methods for Data Collection• Often a single Unit• Respondent is Principles knowledgeable • Use Multiple Sources • Maintain a Chain of Evidence • Record Data 12
  13. 13. Writing Case Studies• A puzzle requiring Solution3 basic steps• Research‐ – Library and Internet research – Interview relevant people p p• Analysis‐ – Put all the information in one place p – Assign sections to different people – Formulate the case problem in a brief• Actual Writing‐ – Describe the problem or case question you want the reader to solve t th d t l – Organise the sections of the case 13
  14. 14. Thank You ALL Comments & suggestion to b @ il 14