Road Casualties in Indonesia:The silent epidemicEric HowardRoad Safety Advisor, INDII
Road Casualties in Indonesia:  The silent epidemic.   Road safety performance in Indonesia.• Estimated 32,000* road crash ...
Road Casualties in Indonesia:The silent epidemicCentral Java - unofficial crash statistics(2011):• 4400 people killed on r...
Road Safety Management2 lane 2 way rural arterial roadspeed limit 60 km/h                                   4
Road Casualties in Indonesia: The silent epidemic.  WHY?• Motorisation rates• Unpreparedness of system to cope• High numbe...
The silent epidemic.Lack of knowledge by practitioners                                     6
Road Casualties in Indonesia: The silent epidemic. WHY?Crash Types Factors                        Why that isMany truck   ...
Road Casualties in Indonesia:The silent epidemic.WHY?Crash Types   Factors                 What that isPedestrians   • Foo...
The silent epidemic.Linear urban development                           9
What are the crash issues?Road crash fatalities across Indonesia:Motorcyclists (50 - 60%) and pedestrians (20 – 30%).• Bot...
Provision for safe pedestrian movement ?                                           11
Provision for safe pedestrian movement?                                          12
Provision for safe pedestrian movement?                                          13
Provision for safe pedestrian movement?                                          14
What are the crash issues?Road crash fatalities across Indonesia:Motorcyclists (50 - 60%) and pedestrians (20 – 30%).Reaso...
High risk mobility on the Pantura                                    16
Unlicensed riding:major component in fatalities                                17
Mixing with large vehicles travelling atmore than 40 km/h                                           18
Effective Road Safety Management?                         Why do parents                         appear not to place      ...
Run off road crashes. High fatality risk athigher speeds.                                              20
Run off road hazardsHigh fatality risk at higher speeds                                      21
Run off road crashes. High fatality risk athigher speeds                                              22
Lack of understanding of risk                                23
Unsafe heavy vehicles, usually overloaded                                            24
Unsafe heavy vehicles, usually overloaded                                            25
Road Casualties in Indonesia: The silent epidemicThe mix of trucks and motorcycles on high volume higher speedhighways is ...
Head on crash risk. Major issue on busy roadswhere traffic volumes prevent safe overtaking                                ...
Uncontrolled continuous side access to roads                                           28
Uncontrolled continuous side access to roads                                           29
Road Casualties in Indonesia:The silent epidemicLooking to a better futureNeeds much improved community awareness that:• r...
Changing what is considered acceptable behaviour                                                   31
Shifting behaviours - with attitudes to followChanging long standing community behaviours andattitudes - not a simple task...
SAFE SYSTEM Developing a safe system• What is a safe system of road use?                                       33
SAFE SYSTEMWhen road users cannot be killed orseriously injured on the network.• Human life and health are paramount• Indi...
SAFE SYSTEMWhat does that require us to do?• Safe system - a new, very different approach –  a framework for long term eli...
SAFE SYSTEM                           SAFER TRAVEL                                                             Alert and  ...
SAFE SYSTEMUnderstanding the Safe System concept :•   recognise the Biomechanical tolerance limits    = Human tolerance to...
SAFE SYSTEMRecognise the ways of operating that make the currentsystem unsafe.• Safety usually squeezed out by economic in...
2007
Redesigning system to makecrashes survivable – the role of speed       Safe System – Crash types and indicative fatality  ...
Crash types and limits of safe system impact speeds – fora light passenger vehicle environmentCrash Type                  ...
42
Changes in mean speed and changes in crashesReducing mean speed by a few km/h will deliver large crash reductions  5% decr...
Relationship between speed changes and changes in           casualty rates (Elvik et al 2004)Change in mean      Speed red...
What do we need to do to reduce this rate ofdeath?What are the critical issues?Because road safety is complex, distributed...
Road safety performance and other social indicatorsCORRUPTION        COUNTRY          ROAD SAFETY          ROAD SAFETYPERC...
Road safety performance and other social indicators                  http://www.globalhealtheurope.orgCORRUPTION         C...
What do we need to do to reduce this rate ofdeath?Many opportunities to change current situation.1. Redesigning system ove...
Road Casualties in Indonesia:The silent epidemic.What do we need to do to reduce this rate ofdeath?2. Gather information:•...
Crash data: Preliminary 2012 YTD - North Sulawesi100908070605040                                                        KE...
Crash data: Preliminary YTD 2012 - North Sulawesi                                                    51
Road Casualties in Indonesia:The silent epidemic.What do we need to do to reduce this rate ofdeath?        3. Take action ...
Road Casualties in Indonesia:The silent epidemic.What do we need to do to reduce this rate of death?3A. Actions by Road Au...
Road Casualties in Indonesia: The silent epidemic.       Assessing risk on the network – major rural highways             ...
Road Casualties in Indonesia:The silent epidemic.What do we need to do to reduce this rate of death?3B. Actions by Police•...
Road Casualties in Indonesia: The silent epidemic.What do we need to do to reduce this rate of death?3C. Supporting behavi...
Road Casualties in Indonesia: The silent epidemic.What do we need to do to reduce this rate of death?3C. Ministry of Trans...
Road Casualties in Indonesia: The silent epidemic.What do we need to do to reduce this rate of death?3C. Ministry of Trans...
Road Casualties in Indonesia: The silent epidemic.What do we need to do to reduce this rate of death?3E. Local governmentP...
Road Casualties in Indonesia: The silent epidemic.What do we need to do to reduce this rate of death?3E. Local governmentP...
Road Casualties in Indonesia: The silent epidemic.What do we need to do to reduce this rate of death?3E. Local governmentP...
Road Casualties in Indonesia: The silent epidemic.What do we need to do to reduce this rate of death?3E. Local governmentP...
Road Casualties in Indonesia: The silent epidemic.What do we need to do to reduce this rate of death?3E. Local governmentP...
Road Casualties in Indonesia: The silent epidemicOther key areas for action• Hospitals.Eg., Muhammadyah Hospital - serving...
Road Casualties in Indonesia: The silent epidemic.What do we need to do to reduce this rate of death?4. SET UP ACCOUNTABIL...
Road Casualties in Indonesia: The silent epidemicWhat do we need to do to reduce this rate ofdeath?• Road safety managemen...
Looking aheadMajor knowledge transfer required to public• Consider use of Demonstration Projects (Pilot projects) to  supp...
Road Safety Case Study   • 6 lane one way urban arterial road   • speed limit 60 km/h, usually exceeded   • school on far ...
Good practice pedestrian operated signals inSurakarta                                           69
Road Casualties in Indonesia: The silent epidemicAction by practitioners and individuals ?Practitioners - drive what we ha...
Practitioners and robust knowledge transfer                arrangements - essential :Within organisations   o LG and NGO’s...
Road Casualties in Indonesia: The silent epidemicAction by practitioners and individuals ?Individuals can promote:• Helmet...
Effective deterrence and improved standards
INDONESIA NEEDS TO:• Build an appetite to embrace change, have aspiration• Follow top down and bottom up efforts (national...
Effective Road Safety Management       The scale of the road safety problem to be       addressed over next 40 to 50 years...
2007
77
“Policymakers can make the traffic system as safe as they want to - the road crash problem is man-made and can be remedied...
Road Casualties in Indonesia:The silent epidemicThank youEric HowardRoad Safety Advisor, INDII
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030512 eric howard road safety lunch seminar

  1. 1. Road Casualties in Indonesia:The silent epidemicEric HowardRoad Safety Advisor, INDII
  2. 2. Road Casualties in Indonesia: The silent epidemic. Road safety performance in Indonesia.• Estimated 32,000* road crash fatalities in Indonesia annually• 90 deaths a day, a death every 16 minutes• Estimated 320,000 serious injuries annually from road crashes• Fatality rate per population is about 14* per 100,000. Compares to Sweden and the UK with fatality rates below 3.• Relatively little community knowledge of scale of this disaster. 2
  3. 3. Road Casualties in Indonesia:The silent epidemicCentral Java - unofficial crash statistics(2011):• 4400 people killed on roads• Implies further 45,000 people seriously injured in 2011 - Central Java.• 25% of those deaths were 16 and 17 year olds, in equal proportions, usually riding motorcycles. 3
  4. 4. Road Safety Management2 lane 2 way rural arterial roadspeed limit 60 km/h 4
  5. 5. Road Casualties in Indonesia: The silent epidemic. WHY?• Motorisation rates• Unpreparedness of system to cope• High numbers of motorcycles• High numbers of (and high proportion of overloaded) trucks• Mix of the two• Little provision for safe pedestrian movement – footpaths, obstacles, crossings• Layers of social and economic pressures – eg school entries• Linear urban development• Lack of controls on highway roadside development• Lack of practitioner knowledge• Lack of $$ and political commitment• Not much community awareness 5
  6. 6. The silent epidemic.Lack of knowledge by practitioners 6
  7. 7. Road Casualties in Indonesia: The silent epidemic. WHY?Crash Types Factors Why that isMany truck • Brakes fail • Overloading, poor maintenancecrashes. • Fatigue • Poor regulation and enforcementAbout 12% fatal • Overloaded trucks • No adequate regulations or enforcementcrashes (CJ • Need a level playing field to counter excessfigures) behaviours driven by unsafe competitive pressures (they are a negative incentive)Many motor Run off road by trucks • Unsafe overtaking by trucks (inadequate enforcement,cycle deaths inadequate penalties to change driver and company behaviour) • No protection i.e., they are virtually pedestrians • Mobility benefits overwhelm safety considerationsContinuous Continuous • Little regulatory control on roadside development, or on accessurban intersections from properties to the roadway.development • DGH cannot set access conditions for new developmentalong (economic pressures not adequately managed re safety)roads 7
  8. 8. Road Casualties in Indonesia:The silent epidemic.WHY?Crash Types Factors What that isPedestrians • Footpaths not • Traders, hawkers, tree planting, parked cars and motor cycles useable so use road use footpath. Absence of public sector management to • Crossings unsafe counter and stopping not • Physical treatments to improve safety required observed by many • Enforcement of compliance by riders and driver needed motorists • Regulations may need review 8
  9. 9. The silent epidemic.Linear urban development 9
  10. 10. What are the crash issues?Road crash fatalities across Indonesia:Motorcyclists (50 - 60%) and pedestrians (20 – 30%).• Both (with cyclists) make up vulnerable road users (not protected in a crash in way vehicle occupant is) - the substantial majority of Indonesian road fatalities.Reasons for high pedestrian fatality rate• Speed of passing vehicles - pedestrian areas• Lack of footpaths• Lack of crossing provision for pedestrians with associated speed control and warning signage for vehicles• Vehicles failing to give way to pedestrians 10
  11. 11. Provision for safe pedestrian movement ? 11
  12. 12. Provision for safe pedestrian movement? 12
  13. 13. Provision for safe pedestrian movement? 13
  14. 14. Provision for safe pedestrian movement? 14
  15. 15. What are the crash issues?Road crash fatalities across Indonesia:Motorcyclists (50 - 60%) and pedestrians (20 – 30%).Reasons for high motorcyclist fatality rate• Need to slow vehicles and motorcyclists down to safe speeds where sharing road – Speed of passing vehicles for motorcyclists – Speed of motorcyclists• Larger overtaking vehicles forcing motorcyclists off road• Colliding with vehicles at intersections – other vehicles not seeing motorcyclist – motorcyclist not seeing other vehicle. – may not comply with red lights 15
  16. 16. High risk mobility on the Pantura 16
  17. 17. Unlicensed riding:major component in fatalities 17
  18. 18. Mixing with large vehicles travelling atmore than 40 km/h 18
  19. 19. Effective Road Safety Management? Why do parents appear not to place high value on helmets for their children? Cost? Lack of knowledge?Why don’tauthorities findsolutions?
  20. 20. Run off road crashes. High fatality risk athigher speeds. 20
  21. 21. Run off road hazardsHigh fatality risk at higher speeds 21
  22. 22. Run off road crashes. High fatality risk athigher speeds 22
  23. 23. Lack of understanding of risk 23
  24. 24. Unsafe heavy vehicles, usually overloaded 24
  25. 25. Unsafe heavy vehicles, usually overloaded 25
  26. 26. Road Casualties in Indonesia: The silent epidemicThe mix of trucks and motorcycles on high volume higher speedhighways is catastrophic 26
  27. 27. Head on crash risk. Major issue on busy roadswhere traffic volumes prevent safe overtaking 27
  28. 28. Uncontrolled continuous side access to roads 28
  29. 29. Uncontrolled continuous side access to roads 29
  30. 30. Road Casualties in Indonesia:The silent epidemicLooking to a better futureNeeds much improved community awareness that:• road crashes are not inevitable,• community has level of road safety it is prepared to accept,• road safety crash risks can be managed and• policy choices and investment - which better balance:  economic outcomes and safety, and  personal interest and community interest, can save lives 30
  31. 31. Changing what is considered acceptable behaviour 31
  32. 32. Shifting behaviours - with attitudes to followChanging long standing community behaviours andattitudes - not a simple task.Gaining community support for change essential.It takes time.With increasing support - much that can be done in athoughtful way to reduce this human and economic waste. 32
  33. 33. SAFE SYSTEM Developing a safe system• What is a safe system of road use? 33
  34. 34. SAFE SYSTEMWhen road users cannot be killed orseriously injured on the network.• Human life and health are paramount• Individuals have a right to survive• Crashes always likely to happen, even with continuing focus on prevention.• Minimize severity of injury in a crash• Road users should not die because of system failings. 34
  35. 35. SAFE SYSTEMWhat does that require us to do?• Safe system - a new, very different approach – a framework for long term elimination of serious casualties.• Much realignment in our thinking necessary if it is to be adopted/ applied• Provides many ‘levers’ for action• How will we do it?• What are the important steps? 35
  36. 36. SAFE SYSTEM SAFER TRAVEL Alert and Safer compliant speeds road usersAdmittance tothe system (lower speeds more forgiving of human Understand errors) crashes and riskEmergencymedical Humantreatment tolerance to physical force Safer roadsEducation and / roadsides Safer (moreinformation Legislation & Vehicles forgiving ofsupporting Enforcement humanroad users errors) of road rules
  37. 37. SAFE SYSTEMUnderstanding the Safe System concept :• recognise the Biomechanical tolerance limits = Human tolerance to physical force• the way the system elements interact with each other• the crash outcome risks - Focus on injuries not crashes 37
  38. 38. SAFE SYSTEMRecognise the ways of operating that make the currentsystem unsafe.• Safety usually squeezed out by economic interest, inconvenience and inattention• Impacts often fall disproportionally on more vulnerable - young, old, marginalised• Conditioning by environment – eg. growing up in certain environments , risk of loss of life on the road is seen as price for necessary mobility! 38
  39. 39. 2007
  40. 40. Redesigning system to makecrashes survivable – the role of speed Safe System – Crash types and indicative fatality risk at speeds: (from P. Wramborg, 2005)100%Fatality Pedestrian Head-on risk Side impact Zero 10 30 50 70 90 110 Collision speed (km/h) 40
  41. 41. Crash types and limits of safe system impact speeds – fora light passenger vehicle environmentCrash Type Speed (km/h)• Head on (Overtaking) < 70• Intersections (Continuous Access) < 50• Run off road < 50• Pedestrians (crashes with vehicles) < 30Kinetic Energy to be dissipated in a crashdepends on: Mass x Speed x Speed 41
  42. 42. 42
  43. 43. Changes in mean speed and changes in crashesReducing mean speed by a few km/h will deliver large crash reductions 5% decrease in average speed gives a 14% reduction in serious injury crashes and a 20% reduction in fatal crashes 50% 40% Deaths Serious injuries % change in casualties 30% Other injuries 20% 10% 0% -10% -20% -30% -40% -50% -10% -8% -6% -4% -2% 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% 10% % change in speed Elvik et al, (2004)
  44. 44. Relationship between speed changes and changes in casualty rates (Elvik et al 2004)Change in mean Speed reduction Speed increasespeed -10% -5% -1% +1% +5% +10%Change in: Deaths -38% -21% -4% +5% +25% +54% Serious injuries -27% -14% -3% +3% +16% +33% Other injuries -15% -7% -1% +2% +8% +15% Property damage -10% -5% -1% +1% +5% +10% crashesSpeed variations have a greater effect upon severe (fatal and serious injury) crashes
  45. 45. What do we need to do to reduce this rate ofdeath?What are the critical issues?Because road safety is complex, distributed, reliant onstrong ‘Whole of Government’ and communitypartnership actions – it is a case study in difficulty.Road safety performance is a snapshot of the overall dayto day life of a society• Road safety management systems and capacity crucial• Standards of governance in a society ? 45
  46. 46. Road safety performance and other social indicatorsCORRUPTION COUNTRY ROAD SAFETY ROAD SAFETYPERCEPTIONS PERFORMANCE PERFORMANCE -INDEX - RANKING (2008) Fatalities/ RANKING(2010) 100,000 popln.1 Denmark 9.3 201 New Zealand 8.57 181 Singapore 5.04 Finland 7.7 164 Sweden 4.32 36 Canada 7.18 147 Netherlands 4.13 28 Australia 6.8 118 Switzerland 4.7 510 Norway 5.38 711 Iceland 3.81 111 Luxembourg 7.23 1513 Hong Kong14 Ireland 6.34 1015 Austria 8.15 1715 Germany 5.45 817 Barbados17 Japan 4.72 619 Qatar20 United Kingdom 4.31 46 4
  47. 47. Road safety performance and other social indicators http://www.globalhealtheurope.orgCORRUPTION COUNTRY ROAD SAFETY ROAD SAFETYPERCEPTIONS PERFORMANCE PERFORMANCE -INDEX - RANKING (2008) Fatalities/ RANKING(2010) 100,000 popln.115 Denmark Germany 9.3 5.45 20 817 Barbados17 Japan 4.72 619 Qatar20 United Kingdom 4.31 421 Chile22 Belgium 10.08 2122 United States 12.25 2224 Uruguay25 France 6.91 132826 Cyprus Estonia3027 Spain Slovenia 6.85 123028 Israel A. Emirates United 5.5 932 Portugal 8.7 19 47
  48. 48. What do we need to do to reduce this rate ofdeath?Many opportunities to change current situation.1. Redesigning system over next, say, 30 years to make crashes survivable – safe system• Completely new design philosophy for roads and streets• Speed limit related to biomechanics and road crashworthiness• Integrated model for safe traffic 48
  49. 49. Road Casualties in Indonesia:The silent epidemic.What do we need to do to reduce this rate ofdeath?2. Gather information:• Obtain good data - on crash type and crash location make available and develop analysis capabilitiesCentral Java crash data known because:• new road crash data system is in development for Police• now producing interim outputs.Major potential advance for Indonesian road safety. 49
  50. 50. Crash data: Preliminary 2012 YTD - North Sulawesi100908070605040 KEJADIAN MD30 LB LR2010 0 50
  51. 51. Crash data: Preliminary YTD 2012 - North Sulawesi 51
  52. 52. Road Casualties in Indonesia:The silent epidemic.What do we need to do to reduce this rate ofdeath? 3. Take action As: Authorities Practitioners Individuals 52
  53. 53. Road Casualties in Indonesia:The silent epidemic.What do we need to do to reduce this rate of death?3A. Actions by Road Authorities:• identify highest risk parts of network (crash data)• develop guidelines for low cost/ high return work• update:safety standardsroad safety audit policies• ensure new projects are safe system compliant as far as feasible• develop and apply knowledge on ‘safe system’ approaches and speed management. i.e. fix unprotected roadside hazards, seal shoulders for pedestrians and motorcyclists focus on intersection safety including signals 53
  54. 54. Road Casualties in Indonesia: The silent epidemic. Assessing risk on the network – major rural highways Frequent accesses, Uncontrolled parking effectively intersections, Narrow pavement, no development controls? linemarking Bus passengers but no Inadequate footpaths for formalised stops pedestrians, no Unsealed uneven shoulders crossings2007
  55. 55. Road Casualties in Indonesia:The silent epidemic.What do we need to do to reduce this rate of death?3B. Actions by Police• Upgrade police operations to achieve increased enforcement and deterrence capacity (through, eg., early assistance from international police; training, equipment).• Public perception of likely detection to be high• Consider new/ expanded fixed penalty system and ‘back room’ infringement processing capacity.• Upgrade systems to ensure driver offences recorded against license• When feasible, introduce a demerit point system• Strengthen justice system support for adopted government policy• Develop crash investigation skills 55
  56. 56. Road Casualties in Indonesia: The silent epidemic.What do we need to do to reduce this rate of death?3C. Supporting behaviour change: MoTUnderstanding:• how legislative arrangements and supporting systems influence behavioural compliance?• which behavioural compliance improvements would maximise safe system achievement?• which policies, guidelines and standards are influential in their effect upon road safety outcomes - and whose adjustment would provide the best opportunities for improved performance 56
  57. 57. Road Casualties in Indonesia: The silent epidemic.What do we need to do to reduce this rate of death?3C. Ministry of Transport to: - Establish a road user behaviour capacity in DGLT - Develop road safety research capacity in the Universities - Adopt safety standards for new vehicles at international good practice level3D. Ministry of Education to: - Upgrade imparting good practice road safety knowledge to school children 57
  58. 58. Road Casualties in Indonesia: The silent epidemic.What do we need to do to reduce this rate of death?3C. Ministry of TransportSafer Vehicles - strengthen vehicle safety standards (eg., fitting rear seat belts, air bags, ESC) - promote safer new and used cars to public - promote new technologies to public - encourage riders to become drivers (encourage low cost cars into market)Safer heavy vehicles and safer buses 58
  59. 59. Road Casualties in Indonesia: The silent epidemic.What do we need to do to reduce this rate of death?3E. Local governmentPedestrian safety including around Schools (potential pilot program) 59
  60. 60. Road Casualties in Indonesia: The silent epidemic.What do we need to do to reduce this rate of death?3E. Local governmentPedestrian safety including around Schools (potential pilot program) 60
  61. 61. Road Casualties in Indonesia: The silent epidemic.What do we need to do to reduce this rate of death?3E. Local governmentPedestrian safety including around Schools (potential pilot program) 61
  62. 62. Road Casualties in Indonesia: The silent epidemic.What do we need to do to reduce this rate of death?3E. Local governmentPedestrian safety including around Schools (potential pilot program) 62
  63. 63. Road Casualties in Indonesia: The silent epidemic.What do we need to do to reduce this rate of death?3E. Local governmentPedestrian safety including around Schools (potential pilot program) 63
  64. 64. Road Casualties in Indonesia: The silent epidemicOther key areas for action• Hospitals.Eg., Muhammadyah Hospital - serving the ‘killing fields’ ofLamongan district• Licensing of drivers: Major opportunities to improve the testing, checking of status, to reduce casualties• Public education: including information on road rules and campaigns in support of enforcement 64
  65. 65. Road Casualties in Indonesia: The silent epidemic.What do we need to do to reduce this rate of death?4. SET UP ACCOUNTABILITY ARRANGEMENTS• Agree responsibilities• Agree results framework in coordination body - Measure intermediate outcomes – Certain of these accurately indicate final outcomes:  average speeds  presence of excess alcohol  seat belt wearing rates  % of vehicles with NCAP ratings  helmet wearing rates• How can the partners make decisions about - necessary adjustment to targets or press for improved performance?• Measure final outcomes 65
  66. 66. Road Casualties in Indonesia: The silent epidemicWhat do we need to do to reduce this rate ofdeath?• Road safety management and coordination across government in early stages, needs strengthening• Serious lack of human and financial resources across national and local governmentFor example: Condition of signs/ linemarking on manyroads reflects underinvestment – negative safety impact.Adequate funding essential if conditions are to change. 66
  67. 67. Looking aheadMajor knowledge transfer required to public• Consider use of Demonstration Projects (Pilot projects) to support building expertise and community awareness• Talk with the public about infrastructure safety standard/ speed limit combinations and resultant risk levels on the network• Build understanding of risks/ solutions through this dialoguePromote upwards to senior bureaucrats andpoliticiansMonitor & Evaluate initiativesBuild robust Indonesian R & D capabilityEstablish road user behaviour team in DGLT 67
  68. 68. Road Safety Case Study • 6 lane one way urban arterial road • speed limit 60 km/h, usually exceeded • school on far side of pedestrian crossing 68
  69. 69. Good practice pedestrian operated signals inSurakarta 69
  70. 70. Road Casualties in Indonesia: The silent epidemicAction by practitioners and individuals ?Practitioners - drive what we have discussed• Government and industry promoting vehicle safety information and voluntary actions to public• Senior officers advocating change within government - building confidence that change is politically manageable,• Seek other partners (eg., professional associations)• Ensuring outcomes are measured and published and commented upon 70
  71. 71. Practitioners and robust knowledge transfer arrangements - essential :Within organisations o LG and NGO’s o Senior bureaucrats o Parliamentarians o Elected members in local authorities• Senior people in agencies are crucial change agents,gatekeepers for advice to Ministers. Need to be wellinformed about science/ research/ evidence• Do senior people in key agencies have sufficientknowledge to successfully advocate necessary change –with public, with Ministers? 71
  72. 72. Road Casualties in Indonesia: The silent epidemicAction by practitioners and individuals ?Individuals can promote:• Helmet wearing• Seat belt wearing (and availability in taxis)• Not giving 12 year olds a m/cycle!• Avoid using m/c’s: 30 times risk of vehicle occupant• Buying a safer car (used car)• Complying with road rules• Advocating safer vehicle purchase and safe driving practices in your workplaces (govt. purchasing policies)• Talking to your colleagues and friends about what improvement is possible and modelling that behaviour. 72
  73. 73. Effective deterrence and improved standards
  74. 74. INDONESIA NEEDS TO:• Build an appetite to embrace change, have aspiration• Follow top down and bottom up efforts (national agencies and strategy/ local government activities)• Build community knowledge of the silent epidemic & what could be done• Act on ‘how’ to achieve changes• Performance: encourage accountability and reward it 74
  75. 75. Effective Road Safety Management The scale of the road safety problem to be addressed over next 40 to 50 yearsRoad safety efforts over the life ofnew National Action Plan to 2020First stepstowardsthe longterm goal Time
  76. 76. 2007
  77. 77. 77
  78. 78. “Policymakers can make the traffic system as safe as they want to - the road crash problem is man-made and can be remedied’ P.A.M. Cornelissen MEP Road Safety Rapporteur European Parliament, 1999 78
  79. 79. Road Casualties in Indonesia:The silent epidemicThank youEric HowardRoad Safety Advisor, INDII

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