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  1. 1. Future  Ci)es:  Ensuring  world  class  civic   ameni)es  in  urban  India  
  2. 2. 2.7   9   16   Parks  and  Open   Space   105   150   220   Water  Supply   30   50   82   Share  of  Public  Transport   Current     Basic   Service   Standard   Best  in   Class   30   100   100   Sewage  Treated   72   100   100   Solid  Waste  Collected   24   0   0   Slum  Popula=on   THE  CURRENT  SCENARIO  
  3. 3. Metropolitan  Planning  CommiIee   Execu)ve  Commissioner   Municipal  Commissioner   Housing  &   Slum   Development   Water   Supply  ,Sewer age  and   Sanita)on   Transport   Educa)on   Planning   Finance  Governance  
  4. 4. • Urban  infrastructure  has  been  unable  to  keep  pace  with  the  growing  popula)on.   • 46%  urban  ci)es  with  supply  below  CPHEEO  norm.   • No  major  Indian  city  has  a  24  hour  supply  of  water.   • Transmission  and  distribu)on  networks  are  old  and  poorly  maintained,  and   generally  of  a  poor  quality.  Consequently  physical  losses  are  typically  high,  ranging   from  25  to  over  50  per  cent.     • Cost  recovery  -­‐  unable  to  recover  even  the  O&M  cost.     • About  one-­‐third  of  the  urban  centers  covered  do  not  have  any  metered  connec)ons   • More  dependency  on  groundwater  leading  to  decline  in  water  table   PROBLEMS   • Reduce  demand  and  supply  through  beIer  management  and  planning   • Developing  Public-­‐Private  Partnerships   • Reducing  pilferages  and  illegal  connec)ons   • Promote  rainwater  harves)ng  structures   • Emphasis  on  recharging  the  ground  water  by  u)lizing  the  surface  monsoon  runoff.   • Local  populace  to  be  educated  regarding  consequences  of  deple)on  of  ground   water  and  conserva)on  of  water.   • Metering  of  connec)ons,  both  for  bulk  supply  and  retail  distribu)on,  must  be   encouraged   PROPOSED   SOLUTION   WATER  SUPPLY  IN  FUTURE  CITIES  
  5. 5. IMPLEMENTATION   • Treat  sewage  for  industry/farming  use   • Signing  MOUs  on  PPP  pladorm  to  provide  services  efficiently.   • Reducing  pilferages  and  illegal  connec)ons  by  taking  stringent  measures  against  the  defaulters  under  the  aegis   of  water  supply  as  implemented  in  the  Electricity  public  u)lity   • The  construc)on  of  roof  top  rainwater  harves)ng  structures  should  be  made  mandatory  by  all  states  in  building   bye-­‐laws  in  all  the  blocks,  which  will  help  in  checking  the  falling  water  level  trend  in  the  district     • The  abandoned  dug  wells  may  be  cleaned  and  should  be  used  for  recharging  the  ground  water  by  u)lizing  the   surface  monsoon  runoff.  Unauthorized  boring  of  wells  should  be  monitored   • More  emphasis  on  IEC  Ac)vi)es  as  already  done  by  GOI  via  WSSO  in  rural  areas.     IMPACT   • Sewage  will  cater  to  the  agricultural/irriga)on  needs   • More  efficient  services  to  the  consumers  via  PPP  pladorm     • Reduc)on  in  distribu)on  losses,  Thereby  increasing  efficiency  by  35-­‐50%.   • Conserva)on  of  rain  water     • Recharging  of  aquifers  and  increase  in  ground  water  level.   • Awareness  among  the  ci)zens  and  their  par)cipa)on  in  conserva)on  of  water     CHALLENGES   • Treatment  of  Sewage  as  per  the  norms  has  to  be  ensured  before  using  for  agricultural  purposes   • Private  companies  are  reluctant  to  enter  into  agreements  with  the  public  sector  considering  the  involved   uncertain)es.   • High  quality  distribu)on  network  involves  high  cost  e.g.  stainless  steel  pipes  used  in  Singapore   • Extra  cost  involved  in  rain  water  harves)ng  structures  will  be  opposed  by  the  ci)zens   • Difficulty  In  monitoring  of  unauthorized  digging  of  borewells   • Ensuring  par)cipa)on  of  the  ci)zens  in  urban  areas.    
  6. 6. • SEWERAGE  TREATMENT   • Non-­‐collec)on  of  wastewater  and  discharge  of  untreated  wastewater  into  various   water  bodies  causes  sewer  water  and  land  pollu)on  problems   • 78  %  sewage  is  officially  untreated  and  disposed  off  in  rivers,  lakes,  groundwater   • A  third-­‐  of  the  Class  I  ci)es  and  less  than  one-­‐figh  of  the  smaller  sized  urban   centres  have  a  sewerage  system   • The  cost  recovery  is  generally  very  low   • SOLID  WASTE  MANAGEMENT   • Main  method  of  waste  disposal  con)nues  to  be  open  dumping   • Solid  waste  management  is  a  labour  intensive  ac)vity  and  concerned   administra)ve  bodies  fall  short  of  staff  for  this  ac)vity.   • Cost  recovery  from  solid  waste  management  is  extremely  poor   PROBLEMS   • SEWERAGE  TREATMENT   • Treat  locally  so  that  treated  water  can  be  used  locally   • Rehabilita)on  of  sewerage  systems   • Pollu)on  of  land  or  water  body  with  untreated  wastewater   • Recycling/  reuse  of  wastewater   • Wastewater  treatment  must  be  made  mandatory  for  all  sizes  of  urban  centres   • SOLID  WASTE  MANAGEMENT   • Reduce,  reuse  and  recycle(3R)  strategy  must  be  adopted   • open  dumping  of  waste  must  be  completely  discouraged   • Private  sector  par)cipa)on  must  con)nue  to  be  encouraged   • open  dumping  of  waste  must  be  completely  discouraged   PROPOSED   SOLUTION   SEWERAGE  AND  SOLID  WASTE  MANAGEMENT  
  7. 7. IMPLEMENTATION   • SEWERAGE  TREATMENT   • Use  open  drains  as  treatment  zones   • Iden)fica)on  of  non-­‐func)onal  sewerage  sytems  and  making  them  func)onal   • Pollu)on  of  land  or  water  body  with  untreated  wastewater  be  made  punishable   • Recycling/  reuse  of  wastewater  for  agricultural  purposes  ager  treatment   • Wastewater  treatment  must  be  made  mandatory  by  means  of  policy.  Technical  and  financial  assistance  must  be  provided   • SOLID  WASTE  MANAGEMENT   • 3R  strategy  be  implemented  by    the  Govt.  authori)es   • Requisite  measures  should  be  taken  in  the  design  of  equipment  used  by  staff  ,manpower  management  and  planning   • Private  sector  par)cipa)on  via  PPP  pladorm   IMPACT   • SEWERAGE     • Sewage  will  be  treated  by  means  of  open  drains  without  addi)onal  cost   • Exis)ng  infrastructure  will  be  used  to  the  maximum  poten)al   • Less  pollu)on  due  to  dumping  of  untreated  sewage   • Treated  sewage  can  be  used  for  agricultural  purposes  thereby  conserving  water   • SOLID  WASTE  MANAGEMENT   • Open  dumping  will  be  reduced   • More  efficiency  in  collec)on  of  waste  and  efficient  solid  waste  management   CHALLENGES   • SEWERAGE   • Foul  smell  due  to  treatment  in  open  drains   • Govt.  authori)es  have  to  be  sensi)zed  for  effec)ve  func)oning  of  the  exis)ng  infrastructure   • Enforcement  of  punishment  will  be  difficult   • Farmers  will  be  reluctant  to  use  treated  sewage  for  agricultural  purposes   • SOLID  WASTE  MANAGEMENT   • involves  high  cost  for  procurement  of  latest  technology  and  hiring  the  requisite  staff.   • Private  companies  are  reluctant  to  enter  into  agreements  with  the  public  sector  considering  the  involved  uncertaini)es.  
  8. 8. Poor  Road  Condi)ons   • Broken  Roads   • Number  of   potholes   • No  street  lights   • No  clear  driving   direc=ons   • No  public   sidewalks   • Lack  of  control   on  dogs  on  roads   Lack  of  Planning   • Lack  of  law  and   order   • Insufficient   parking  space   • Patchwork  of   private  islands   • Unmarked  speed   bumps   • Lack  of  Emergency   lanes   Dearth  of  Public  Transport   • No  safe   commu=ng   means  of   transport   • Deficit  in  public   transport  buses   • No  proper   interconnec=vity   • Unorganized   traffic  condi=ons   ROAD  AND  TRANSPORT  
  9. 9. Proposed  solu)ons   Planning  of  land   u=liza=on                         Providing  a  quality  public   transport  system                     Road  and  traffic   management                       ü   Strategic  planning  to   integrate  offices  and   residen=al  areas  to  reduce   the  distance  of  travelling   ü Micro-­‐level  planning  to   u=lize    open  land  in  the   vicinity  of  metro  sta=ons,   bus  depots  and  other   public  conveyance   sta=ons   ü SeSng  up  of  specialized     &  dedicated  Urban   Planning  team  under  the   purview  of  State/UT   government       ü Metros  in  urban  areas   through  PPPs   ü Bus  priority  schemes   ü   Upgrada=on  of  exis=ng   facili=es  like  air   condi=oning  and  developing   interchanging  sta=ons   ü Government  specula=ons   on  the  basis  of  2011  census:   •   Add  BRTS  @  20  km/1   Million  popula=on  in  51   ci=es  with  popula=on>  1   Million   • Add  rail  transit  at  10  km/   Million  popula=on   ü More  arterial  and  ring   expressways  required   ü Government  coali=on   with  private  par=es  for   • Construc=on  and  opera=on   of  toll  roads   • Construc=on  and  opera=on   of  mass  transit  systems   ü Modeling  of  Electronic   Road  Pricing(ERP)  system  as   successfully  implemented  in   Singapore   ü Opening  up  of  dead  end   roads    
  10. 10. •  ERPS  implementa=on  is  expensive   •  Environmental  concerns  are  growing   •  Large  scale  upgrada=on  required  for  exis=ng   deficit  facili=es   •  Efficient  integra=on  between  government  and   private  bodies  in  PPP   Challenges   •  Sources  of  funds  –  dedicated  levies,  land   mone=za=on,  recovery  from  non  user   beneficiaries,  debt  and  private  investments   •  To  create  facili=es  for  walking  and  cycling  –  non-­‐ pollu=ng  modes  that  do  not  use  fossil  fuels  and   provide  social  equity   •  In  Vehicle  Unit  devices  to  be  inbuilt  in  newly   procured  vehicles  at  subsidized  rates;  made   mandatory  during  registra=on  of  the  vehicle  and   added  to  the  registra=on  fees   •  More  involvement  of  ci=zens  towards  their  civic   responsibili=es   Mi=ga=on  
  11. 11. Trivandrum   Kochi   Calicut   Mangalore   Ranchi   Mysore   Madurai   Trichy   Coimbatore   Salem   Popula=on   957730   601574   432097   399565   2912022   755379   928869   742413   930882   696760   Slums   143659.5   90236.1   64814.55   59934.75   436803.3   113306.85   139330.35   111361.95   139632.3   104514   Families   28731.9   18047.22   12962.91   11986.95   87360.66   22661.37   27866.07   22272.39   27926.46   20902.8   Houses   14365.95   9023.61   6481.455   5993.475   43680.33   11330.685   13933.035   11136.195   13963.23   10451.4   Cost  @  4lakhs   57463.8   36094.44   25925.82   23973.9   174721.3   45322.74   55732.14   44544.78   55852.92   41805.6   Total   Crores   575   361   259   240   1747   453   557   445   559   418   5614   Cost   1   Labour  cost   0.2   Proposed  cost   0.16   Savings   0.04   Savings  %   4   Karnataka  Slum  Development  Board   WPI   1.325397   Rs.  In  Crores   2008-­‐09   2013-­‐14   Cost    730   967.53   Labour  cost   146   193.50   Proposed  cost   116.8   154.80   Savings   29.2   38.70   Savings  %   4%   4%   No.  Houses   24508   24509   Cost  per  House   0.029   0.0394   Cost   Saving   Cost  incurred   5614Cr   224  Cr   5390  Cr   Considering  the  fact  that  for  building,  20%  is  the  labour  cost.  We  can  employ  people  living  in  those  slums  at  80%   of   the   wages   as   given   to   employed   workers.   This   saves   around   4lakhs   per   1   crore.   Going   by   the   data   of   Karnataka  slum  development  board,  the  cost  of  building  one  unit  comes  out  to  be  4  lakhs.  If  we  consider  10   ci=es  who  have  the  poten=al  of  becoming  the  future  ci=es  and  if  we  provide  houses  to  50%  of  those  people   who  live  in  slums,  the  cost  comes  out  to  be  5400  crores.    If  we  target  year  2020;  the  cost  comes  out  to  be   approximately  770  Cr  per  year.     Ø   Wholesale  Price  Index:  1.32  (in   2012-­‐13  over  year  2008-­‐09)   Ø    Considering   percentage   of   slums   in   the   proposed   ci=es   stands  on  the  average  of  15%.   Ø    Considering   no.   of   people   per   family  =  5     SLUM  DEVELOPMENT  MODEL  
  12. 12. 1.  hIp://vsomanna.in/ach_eng.pdf   2.  hIp://www.rediff.com/money/slide-­‐show/slide-­‐show-­‐1-­‐ci)es-­‐that-­‐will-­‐shape-­‐indias-­‐future/20111012.htm#29   3.  hIp://portal.indiainfoline.com/datamonitor/Real-­‐Sector-­‐Annually/Prices/Wholesale-­‐Price-­‐Index-­‐Annual-­‐Average.aspx   4.  hIp://cseindia.org/userfiles/excreta-­‐maIer.pdf   5.  Status  of  Water  Supply,  Sanita)onand  Solid  Waste  Managemen)n  Urban  Areassponsored  byCentral  Public  Health  and   Environmental  Engineering  Organisa)on(CPHEEO),  Usha  P.  Raghupathi   6.  McKinsey  Global  Ins)tute  –  India’s  urban  awakening   7.  hIp://www.ndtv.com/   8.  hIp://indiatoday.intoday.in/   9.  hIp://www.gurgaonsite.com/infrastructure-­‐problems-­‐in-­‐gurgaon.html10.   hIp://planningcommission.nic.in/aboutus/commiIee/wrkgrp12/hud/wg_%20urban%20Transport.pdf     BIBLIOGRAPHY