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  1. 1. Providing Clean Water and Sanitation Facility to All ● India, a nation that boasts of being one of the fastest growing economies of the world has ironically failed to provide its citizens, especially those belonging to the rural strata of the society the two basic necessities of life, Clean Drinking Water and proper Sanitation facility. ● Our country as a whole loses 90 million work days a year due to water borne diseases, which is equal to 6 billion INR in production equivalent. ● Over one lac of people die in India every year due to common water borne diseases such as Cholera and Diarrhoea. ● The Global Health and Education foundation reports that in some areas of India, when there is scarcity of water, just to collect water, women often spend about three hours back and forth by walking 16-20 kilometers every single day. It also says that on average, women or girls in developing countries have to walk six kilometers per day in search of water. Spending hours and hours in search of water often stop girls from going to school, thus hampering the holistic growth of the nation. ● Providing clean water and ensuring proper sanitation facility for one and all is thus a challenge that lies ahead of us as we move ahead on educational and economic fronts.
  2. 2. ● Microbiological Safety – Our country as a whole loses 90 million work days a year due to water borne diseases, which is equal to 6 billion INR in production equivalent. – The primary contaminants being human and animal waste ● Chemical Safety – Main toxics are Arsenic and Fluoride – Arsenic 35-70 million affected in West bengal, Bihar – Fluoride over 150 districts , being a major cause of anaemia ● Sufficient Supply – WHO defines access to water as availability of atleast 20 lpcd from an “improved” source within a kilometer of user's dwelling – National cost of fetching water is 150 million person days a year costing 10 billion lost production. WHO guidelines for drinking water
  3. 3. The salient features of our water policy are AVAILABILITY: The human right to water is limited to personal and domestic uses and foresees a supply for each person that must be sufficient for these purposes. Likewise, a sufficient number of sanitation facilities has to be available. According to WHO, reasonable access is defined as availability of at least 20lpcd from improved source within 1 km of dwelling. In India annually 75% rural follow this and losses 150 million person days a year, costing 10 billion lost production for fetching water. QUALITY: Water has to be safe for consumption and other personal uses, so that it presents no threat to human health. Sanitation facilities must be hygienically and technically safe to use. To ensure hygiene, access to water for cleansing and hand washing at critical times is essential. Quality of water is assured only if fundamental notion of treating water quality and sanitation differently because main contaminants are human and animal waste. ACCEPTABILITY: Sanitation facilities, in particular, have to be culturally acceptable. This will often require gender-specific facilities, constructed in a way that ensures privacy and dignity. ACCESSIBILITY: Water and sanitation services must be accessible to everyone in the household or its vicinity on a continuous basis. Physical security must not be threatened when accessing facilities. AFFORDABILITY: The price of sanitation and water services must not compromise the ability to pay for other essential necessities guaranteed by human rights such as food, housing and health care.
  4. 4. Decentralized Community based solution to Provide clean drinking water and proper sanitation facility to all ● Policy is from bottom to top, it means Decentralized policies. And Decentralization doesn’t simply imply passing on the power to the Gram Panchayat, it’s soul lies in ensuring that it is shared by each and every individual. ● For sustainability of policy, our aim of policy is to develop a “Demand Driven Self Help Model” rather than Supply Driven polic ● Our aim is involve the women and the youth. ● It is fundamental error to treat water, hygiene and sanitation separately. § The schematic of our proposed solution is:- § Awareness:- To promote the necessity of sanitation and potable drinking water. § Formation of Community Groups:- Groups can be formed from the villagers to involve them in spreading § awareness among the masses along with the planning and maintenance work. § Technical Troubleshooting:- Establishing the technical support center, involvement of eminent technical institute for technological advancements. § Execution and Maintenance:- Maintenance and Construction of water bodies and treatment units is handled by villagers. § Sustainability:- Model should not dependent on state for funds should be demand driven self help model.
  5. 5. Awareness ● 85 % of drinking water is taken from hand pump/ deep wells which is biologically safe. Nearly half of hospital beds are occupied by patients affected from water borne diseases. About 2.5 Million cases of diarrhoea in children are registered every year, and nearly 1.5 Million die due to the same. If hands are washed properly after defecation and before having a meal, these casualties can be brought down to 80%. Now this can only be achieved by awareness. ● The heavy metals present in the groundwater that pose a great threat to health aren't visually perceptible. Hence, convincing the rural population about the hazard isn't that easy and needs proper planning and education. ● Thus, there is a great need of awareness among the masses regarding handling and usage of groundwater and hygiene practices, the most basic of them being 'washing hands after defecating'. ● To make them aware, we have to interact with them via NGOs, the students from nearby school and colleges who can teach them basic sanitation measures. ● A team can be formed from the villagers who can carry forward the awareness ● Hygienic practices should be made an essential part of the primary course curriculum.
  6. 6. Woman representatives, one from each of the Panchayats will be responsible for guiding the women of the villages and spreading awareness regarding sanitation habits. In a village of 1000 people a student body of at least 10 volunteers is required to promote awareness about sanitation and hygiene These bodies will address the local issues, like number of toilets , reservoir and the location for the same etc. Maintenance and proper working of the structures will be ensured by these people. A village body comprising of minimum 8 villagers ( Village with 1000 population) 4 will work for sanitation, 4 for drinking water. This will provide permanent job to these people. Construction of water bodies and Toilets are performed under MNREGA Scheme and the Technical Issues are tackled by Technical Groups Technical problems of these areas are handled by the Technical Groups formed at district level. These groups are reputed institutes which will address those local issues. ● Awareness generation ● Responsibility sharing ● Managing Operation & Maintenance
  7. 7. ● Arsenic ● West Bengal ● Arsenic Filters are designed by the regional technical institutes. ● Fluoride ● Andhra Pradesh ,Rajasthan ,Gujarat ● Fluoride Filters are designed by the regional technical institutes. ● Reservoir Construction ● Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Karnataka ● On site analysis will be performed by regional technical institute, to ensure the sustainability of the reservoir constructed. ● Eco – San Toilets ● Rajasthan, Assam, Maharshtra, Karnataka. Technical Troubleshooting
  8. 8. Planning and execution Planning should be done at ground level. Village water communities should be involved in planning. First of all identify the problem related to clean water and sanitation. Is selected village water adequate or stressed?, types of water supply whether ground water or surface water, quality parameters of available water , availability of proper sanitation facilities, data on water borne diseases etc. test for water quality and data of water borne disease will decide whether problem is due to non potable water or bad sanitation facilities or both. After identifying problem seek solutions which will be feasible, economical and acceptable to society. For example one community has fluoride problem or absence of sanitation facilities. Then decide whether to provide individual fluoride removal units or public fluoride removal units. Fluoride removal unit contains activated alumina filter and operation of such type of units is technical. Everyone can not operate it. So decide to go for community fluoride treatment unit it will also be economical. In the same way in case of sanitation if most of people in community have sanitation facility and some don’t, we can’t go for community toilet. This may be uneconomical and unacceptable. In this situation go for individual toilet to all families. If most of the people don’t have toilet then go for community toilet. Separate toilet for male and female should be made for acceptability. Direction of Execution
  9. 9. Planning and execution Decide the appropriate technological solution for problem. Involved technical institutes and students for technical solution. Technical solution should be socially acceptable as well as feasible in that conditions. For example proposal of flush toilet in water stressed reasons as Rajasthan, Karnataka,Maharashtra is not feasible because people don’t have water to drink from where will they arrange water for flush. Go for eco-san toilet in that region. After planning what is going to be construct to address problem our concerns come to fund. For a very rough estimation of funds required in overall India to address sanitation problem lets take a community of 1000 people where community toilet is planned to be constructed. Lets construction cost is 1000000 rupees and 100000 villages lacks in sanitation facilities . This makes total budget of ten thousands crores which is not a very big number at large scale. Also we are loosing 35000 crores due to bad sanitation facilities. spending money in this area is investment which will reduce our health budget in long term. Labour of MNREGA can be used for construction purpose. Maintenance of ponds, sanitation facilities, water treatment units should be transferred to village water communities and gram panchayat. Direction of Execution
  10. 10. Sustainability • Two models are possible first is supply driven initiative and other is demand driven self help model. If model is only supply driven or demand driven self help model ,it will not sustain. At initial stage heavy construction of water bodies, treatment units, sanitation facilities are required so community itself can’t arrange funds and labour. Initially model should be supply driven with aim of making it demand driven. • Village water community is mechanism through which policy will change from supply driven to demand driven self help model. • Initially government will fund it but after some time they will leave it on community. • For sustainability model should not dependent on state for funds. So some minimum charges should be charged from each family in community for usage of drinking water and sanitation facilities. • Psychologically also people will not care facilities provide if they are free to them. For sustainability belongingness to these facilities is necessary from each member of community. • To make it self dependent on funds village water communities will charge some money (30Rs. Per family per month) which can be decided by maintenance cost of facilities from each family. • For example if in any community water treatment unit is installed to remove arsenic or fluoride, village water community can charge 30 rupee per family per month. If community have 200 families then total money collected in one month is 6000 and in one year 48000. this money will be invested in banks. • This money can be used in maintenance purpose or for development of village in other parts.
  11. 11. References • Ministry of Water Resources, Government of India, National Water Policy 2002, 1st April 2002, New Delhi. • • • Sarkar S, Gupta A, Ghosh D, Maiti K; Community based approach for mitigation of Arsenic problems: Case studies in West Bengal