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  1. 1. FUTURE CITIES Ensuring world class civic amenities in urban India Team Name-Teen Titans College-Indian School Of Mines,Dhanbad Presentors:- Sourav Gupta(Co-ordinator) Prabal Kumar Agrwal Ankur Verma Sumer Sadawarti Gajesh Gaurav
  2. 2. FUTURE CITIES Ensuring world class civic amenities in urban India Infrastructure problems & its development in urban India + generating Employability of youth Acute Sanitation problem & methods + NGO’s work Rethinking & Recycling Sewage Status & ways to improve it Industrialisation & Education Problems + their upliftment
  3. 3. Current Scenario 37.7 crores or 31.16 % of India lives in urban centres. 30 people leave rural areas for urban areas every minute. 70 percent of new jobs would be generated in cities by 2030. 49.7 crores to be added to the urban population by 2050. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Urban Population Rural Population % Population % Population
  4. 4. Infrastructure Problems & methods to advance it + generating employability of youth • The biggest problem for doing business in India is the woeful state of its infrastructure. • Poor infrastructure is acting as a drag on the Indian economy, and the Indian government is now attracting private domestic and foreign investment to build the backbone of a modern economy. A recent report estimated that investment in infrastructure would rise from 5.5% of GDP in 1997, to about 7% in 2000/01. This includes massive improvements in telecommunications, power, energy, and transport. • Current Scenario & On going Plans + Projects • Prime Minister (PM) Manmohan Singh gave green signal to 36 infrastructure projects worth about Rs2 lakh crore across sectors such as power, ports, roads, cement and petroleum. • With this, 28 power projects have received a significant push from the apex level. These projects had been facing a variety of hurdles relating to coal linkages, environment issues and forest clearances. • Delhi Mumbai corridor project –Infrastructure Devolpment Programme • major boost with India and Japan signing an agreement to set up a project development fund. The initial size of the Fund will be 1000 crore (US$159.0 million). • Corridor includes six mega investment regions of 200 square kilometers each and will run through six states Delhi, Western Uttar Pradesh, Southern Haryana, Eastern Rajasthan, Eastern Gujarat, and Western Maharashtra. Length of western DFC:- 1540-km Distribution of DFC in six States Uttar Pradesh 22 km (1.4%) NCR of Delhi 115 km (7.5%) Haryana 130 km (8.5%) Rajasthan 553 km (36%) Gujarat 565 km (36.8%) Maharashtra 150 km (9.8%). • Objective-DMIC as a "Global Manufacturing and Trading Hub".Infrastructure programme aiming to develop new industrial cities as "Smart Cities" and converging next generation technologies across infrastructure sectors.
  5. 5. • Benefits • will provide a major impetus to planned urbanization in India with manufacturing as the key driver. • programme envisages development of infrastructure linkages like pioneer plants, assured water supply, high capacity transportation and logistics facilities as well as softer interventions like skill development programme for employment of the local populace. • The project will see major expansion of Infrastructure and Industry – including industrial clusters and rail, road, port, air connectivity. • Impacts • 1.Employment Generation • Conceived as a global manufacturing and trading hub, the project is expected to double employment potential, triple industrial output and quadruple exports from the region in five years. The total employment to be generated from the project is 3 million, the bulk of which will be in the manufacturing/processing sectors. • will include a 4000 MW power plant, three seaports and six airports in addition to connectivity with the existing ports. • 2.Northern Peripheral Road • Northern Peripheral Road is being developed under the public private partnership (PPP) model. This stretch will connect Dwarka with National Highway 8 at Kherki Daula and will pass PataudiRoad. The NPR stretch has been planned as an alternate link road between Delhi and Gurgaon, and is expected to ease the traffic situation on the Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway. The road will also provide connectivity to the much-touted Reliance-HSIIDC SEZ besides the Garhi Harsaru dry depot. • 3.Dry Port • service trade in and around the states. • The Government of India planning to spend around 2.7 trillion ($60 billion) in the current decade, mainly on development and expansion of ports. Initially, by March 2017, India has planned public and private investment of 342 billion ($7.6 billion) to create seven new ports as part of the country's drive to triple its merchandise exports
  6. 6. India's urban awakening: Building inclusive cities, sustaining economic growth New MGI research estimates that cities could generate 70 percent of net new jobs created to 2030, produce around 70 percent of Indian GDP, and drive a near fourfold increase in per capita incomes across the nation. MGI offers a range of recommendations, the vast majority of which India could implement within five to ten years. If India were to follow the recommendations, it could add 1 to 1.5 percent to annual GDP growth, bringing the economy near to the double- digit growth to which the government aspires. MGI estimates that India needs to invest $1.2 trillion just in capital expenditure in its cities over the next 20 years, equivalent to $134 per capita per year, almost eight times the level of spending today. If India taps into five sources of funding used in cities around the world—monetized land assets, higher property taxes, user charges that reflect costs, debt and public-private partnerships, and formula-based government funding—its largest cities could generate as much as 80 percent of the funding they require from internal sources.
  7. 7. Sewage Status in India 70% of municipal sewage and effluents from over 900 cities and towns is being discharged untreated into rivers that are a major source of drinking water, according to a recent study by the Central Pollution Control Board Indian cities and towns together are generating an estimated sewage load of 38,254 million litres per day (MLD) and are treating only 11,787(MLD). Delhi tops the list -- the national capital generates over 3,800 MLD of sewage per capita. Mumbai is the second big polluter with 2,671 MLD, and Kolkata third with 705 MLD. The fourth report in a series based on data available in 2008, of 498 Class I cities (with over 1 lakh population) and 410 Class II towns, shows that the biggest cities in India are only treating 50% of the sewage they generate. Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai account for 60% of sewage spewed into the sea. Cities like Kolkata, Patna, Kanpur, Dehra Dun and Allahabad dispose of huge amounts of waste directly into the river Ganga. “Out of an 11,553.69 MLD sewage treatment capacity, 69% (8,040 MLD) is treated in 35 metropolitan cities, thus indicating that other than metropolitan cities, the capacity of 462 Class I cities is only 31%,” the report says. Despite funds from the Ministry of Environment and Forests, and under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission, sewage treatment plants do not function to their full capacity. The study suggests that if an economic value were to be assigned to the fertilising potential of this wastewater, Rs 1,091 million was being lost annually.
  8. 8. Projects to be heeded by Government for ensuring proper sanitation & sewage disposal Maharashtra based NGO ,Dasra:- -Building 1,400 individual toilets across 14 slums of Pune -Training 12,000 kids and women through workshops on health, hygiene and safety directly impacting 22,000 individuals across 14 slums through implementation of solid waste management. LEAF’s four projects:- -promotion of safe sanitation and drinking water practices -increasing people’s negotiating skills using the Right to Information Act -promotion of life-skill oriented education among children -creating livelihood opportunities for women and young people -Strategy to build global demand for better sanitation also includes efforts to end open defecation in rural areas and to implement improved measures for collecting waste, removing pathogens from waste streams, and recovering valuable resources and energy. -Focus our grantmaking in five complementary areas: transformative technologies, urban sanitation markets, building demand for sanitation, policy and advocacy, and monitoring and evaluation
  9. 9. Education-Current Scenario & its recent Advancements Government policies & methods to improve Education The Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) emphasized universalisation of secondary and higher secondary education). • Accordingly, the targets for USE as spelled out by the CABE Committee included: • (i) universal participation by 2015 • (ii) universal retention by 2020 • (iii) mastery learning by more than 60% learners by 2020 • (iv) universal higher secondary education (Grades XIXII)by 2020. • (v) restructuring of the school system (to a 5+3+2+2 system) and expansion of the secondary school network/physical access by upgrading the existing. • schools at the Community Development Block level to serve as benchmark for excellence in • secondary schooling promoting Public-Private Partnership (PPP) to leverage private • Promoting inclusiveness in secondary education through demand-side financing strategies. • introducing ICT in government and aided schools. The WIPRO-EI Quality Education Study 2011, surveyed more than 20,000 students in 83 ‘top schools’ in five metro cities (Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Kolkata and Mumbai). And the results were surprising. “For example, only third of these ‘top school’ students in Class 4 knew who was the alive person in a list of four: Mahatma Gandhi, Indira Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi and Sonia Gandhi ( a small number thought, interestingly enough, that it was Mahatma Gandhi who was still alive). When compared to other countries, India comes in right at the bottom. In the PISA Plus survey conducted in 2009, the Indian performance in a list of 74 countries or economies that were a part of the survey was very pathetic. “And this is the case even though the two Indian states that participated in PISA Plus happened to be two of the better-schooled states, Tamil Nadu and Himachal Pradesh. In a comparison of overall reading ability of 15-year-old students in these 74 countries or economies, both Indian states figure among the bottom three .
  10. 10. Rethinking Waste & Recycling Sustainability Waste Dating Agency Waste Lottery Introducing Swiss Zuri- sacks Government should pay heed to such measures In Swiss cities, such as Zurich, recycling is promoted through economic means. The council only collects specially branded “Züri-sacks” of household waste, which you have to buy. A 35L sack sells for CHF2 each (about £1.42, or $2.16), while larger ones cost more. An alternative approach is encouraging adherence to recycling by providing incentives, such as a randomly chosen “lottery” prize for households who correctly recycle. Ljubljana introduced such a scheme as early as 2008 while other provinces in UK are planning to roll it. Another alternative track: London’s Waste and Recycling Board has created a “dating agency” to attract companies interested in using different kinds of waste for fuel.
  11. 11. Effects of Industrialisation on Environment • C02 emission in megatonnes year wise analysis. 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 1117 1165 1256 1362 1439 1564 In India after five decades of planned development faces both an environmental crisis and a developmental crisis that interact to reinforce each other. There seems to be no end to the problems of inequality, poverty and unemployment on the one hand, environmental destruction threatens the very basis of existence of multitude of India’s teeming millions, on the other. Forest felling reduces the earth’s ability to retain water. Deforestation is the root cause of the increased incidence and intensity of floods and draughts every year as well as the underperformance of many irrigation projects which make a shamble of the economic projections of the country. Unplanned mining has led to deforestation , disturbance of the drainage pattern, disturbance to the local inhabitants and their habitats , noise dust and air-pollution as well as the pollution of the water sources , lowering the water table. Industries contribute more than a third of poisons that pour into India’s water systems, stretches of innumerable rivers around industries today are devoid of life. Government policies & its impact Developing country to have instituted a full-fledged industrial policy. The purpose of the policy was to co-ordinate investment decisions both in the public and the private sectors and to seize the 'commanding heights' of the economy by bringing certain strategic industries and firms under public ownership. Impact - Raising Income. -Changing the Structure of the Economy. - Meeting High-Income Demands. -Overcoming Deterioration in the Terms of Trade. -Absorbing Surplus Labour (Employment Generation). -Bringing Technological Progress. -Strengthening the Economy.
  12. 12. References • Wikipedia.org • WHO.org • Census of India.(2011). Rural Urban Distribution of Population. Retrieved from http://censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov-results/paper2/data_files/india/Rural_Urban_2011.pdf • IBM.(2011). IBM Helps India’s Wave Inc Build Smarter Township.Retrieved from https://www- 03.ibm.com/press/us/en/pressrelease/36054.wss • McKinsey Global Institute. (2010). India’s Urban Awakening: Building Inclusive Cities, Sustaining Economic Growth. Retrieved from http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/urbanization/urban_awakening_in_india • Dhar, A. (2012, April 6). India will see highest urban population rise in next 40 years. The Hindu. Retrieved from • http://www.thehindu.com/news/india-will-see-highest-urban-population-rise-in-next-40- years/article3286896 • Indian Institute for Human Settlements.(2011). Urban Dynamics. Retrieved fromhttp://www.iihs.co.in/wp- content/themes/education/resources/Urban-Dynamics.pdf • McKinsey Global Institute. (2010). India’s Urban Awakening: Building Inclusive Cities, Sustaining Economic Growth. Retrieved from http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/urbanization/urban_awakening_in_india • Ghosh, J. (2011). Urban Challenge.Frontline.28(17). Retrieved from http://www.frontline.in/static/html/fl2817/stories/20110826281710400.htm .