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  1. 1. Team Details Team Name : Tech Fidos Members : Nishant Tomer Tushar Jeena Anukrati Chaudhary Anushka Sharma Hamza Ansari Manthan topic : brain gain Brain Deficiency “The irreparable idea against migration”
  2. 2. Brain Gain & Methodology • Brain Drain is defined as the migration of highly qualified people from their native country to other countries. • The homecoming of highly qualified & skilled professionals is called as “Reverse Brain Drain” or “Brain Gain.” • Methodology & Approach : A four-type approach was instated for the study, through : a) Desk Research b) Contacting Institutes & Industry c) Contacting Professionals d) Direct interaction approach with eminent scientists, academicians and researchers etc.
  3. 3. WhyShouldEconomistsCareAboutBrainDrain? • Work on brain drain is “of great interest to specialists, but insufficiently broad in scope for our general-interest audience.” • First, brain drain has been and continues to be an area of tremendous policy concern in many countries. • Second, brain drain takes place in the context of what is probably the largest distortion in the international global economic system: barriers on the mobility of labor. Constraints on movement lead to very large gaps between the incomes that can be earned in different destinations – gaps which are orders of magnitude larger than one sees with internal movements. • Third, the economic literature on brain drain has long been concerned about the existence and extent of production and fiscal externalities. • Finally, it is also worth reiterating that in may developed countries, immigrants constitute important shares of the skilled labor.
  4. 4. Returnees working in 7 Continents Duration o f S t ay Ab road o f R B D/RBG R e turnees in T e chnological Ar e as
  5. 5. Key findings Technological Areas of RBD/BG People • Brain Drain leading to gain has occurred in four envisaged technological areas : o Information and Communication Technology (ICT) o Biotechnology o Pharmaceuticals o Agriculture
  6. 6. Level of satisfaction • 82% of respondents expressed that they have taken the right decision to return back. • Highest satisfaction level was expressed by ICT professionals (88%). • Lowest satisfaction was expressed by Agricultural professionals • There was a substantial improvement in academic qualifications of the respondents. • Biotechnology area had the major impact. People who left with post-graduation came back with PhD or post-doctoral research. • People, who left with PhD, have returned with post-doctoral research experience. • Substantial gain has also been observed in other three areas.
  7. 7. Comparison of job responsibility in India after return • Technical responsibility is being held by 46.72% returnees back home whereas only 32.42% sample held it aboard; • Managerial responsibility is now being held by 39.82% returnees against 8.08% aboard; • R&D responsibilities of returnees have depicted a reduction from 17.06% aboard to 3.07% back home; • A major shift has been shown from R&D responsibility they held earlier towards managerial responsibility after coming back home.
  8. 8. Suggestions & Solution • India needs to understand the pattern of RBG thoroughly and waves of RBD/RBG professionals may utilize that knowledge for building of strong India. • The study suggests ‘Replication of Tamil Nadu Model’ in other states. In this model, Tamil Nadu has developed infrastructural facilities at the district level and has not restricted itself to capital or on/two cities. It has provided wider choices/locations to RBB/RBG people. • The study has concluded that a number of changes will have to be made in policies related to sectors of education, research and industry.
  9. 9. • Industry needs to be motivated to provide incentives to RBG, create own facilitation channels and not dependent solely on government intervention. • Several issues that were raised require in depth investigations. The scope of study should be widened to cover more technological areas. The study needs to cover issues of entrepreneurship, effect on different industry segments and research more intensively. This primary survey can provide the background to undertake a further case-based study. It will help in articulating specific policy inputs to catalyze the RBG process.
  10. 10. Conclusion • Economists have been theorizing about drain for almost half a century. But until recently, there has been little empirical evidence to support or contradict these theories. The new evidence should counteract some of the myths and assuage some of the most common concerns about brain drain. • First, what is the value of the option to migrate for those who remain in their home countries ? • Second, what is the externality to a country of n additional doctor, taking into account that it is unlikely that the marginal doctor would be efficiently allocated to the most needy patients if that doctor did not migrate ? • Third, what is the effect of high-skilled migration on institutional development at home ? • Finally, how much does migration policy actually matter for determining the level of skilled migration ?
  11. 11. References • A. Bhargava, F. Docquier, and Y. Moullan (2010), Modeling the Effects of Physician Emigration on • Human Development, based on New Medical Brain Drain Data (2010) • N. Buga 2011, Les Diasporas comme ressources d’intégration dans l’économie mondiale, PhD • Bhagwati, Jagdish and Koichi Hamada (1974). ―The brain drain, international integration of markets for professionals and unemployment: a theoretical analysis‖, Journal of Development Economics 1(1-2): 19-42. • rain+drain+'biggest+problem+we+face+in...-a0226772802