ENCHANCING THE QUALITY OF PRIMARY EDUCATION
1.According to one world study bank ,every extra year of
primary education increases a person’s productivity by
10 to 30 percent , previously education had been assessed
in terms of gross enrollment and completion rates ofin terms of gross enrollment and completion rates of
different levels . 2.The priorities were primarily on
enabling interest access and enrolment .4. Low learning
achievement is rarely explained by one inadequate
component or a single paucity in educational
Education has been given high priority by India’s central and state governments
and continues to grow fast. School access has been expanded by investment in
school infrastructure and recruitment of teachers . A new law enshrining the
rights of all children to free and
compulsory education will further lift enrolment, bringing closer the
government’s goal of universal elementary education, which comprises eight
years of schooling. Nevertheless, high drop-out rates and low attendance
continues to be a challenge at lower levels and enrolment at higher levels
remains modest by international standards. Private sector involvement is on the
rise. While it helps expand education infrastructure, particularly in higherrise. While it helps expand education infrastructure, particularly in higher
education, access has not always been assured and the availability of student
loans for higher education needs to improve. Poor learning outcomes amongst
school students and mediocre higher education provision call for more effective
government regulation and funding arrangements. Expanding resources will
help but they need to be deployed more
effectively, while incentives and professional development systems for teachers
need to be strengthened.
SUPPORTIVE PARENTS AND FAMILY
1.Parents and family are the first teachers of a child
.However they may not possess the adequate
knowledge on care during the early years.
2.Children’s who’s parents had primary school
education or less are more than three times more likelyeducation or less are more than three times more likely
to have the low test scores and grade repetition than
children’s who’s parents have secondary school
3.Poorer and less educated parents are more likely to
require assistance with the house , in farming or within
the family run enterprise than parents with higher
QUALITY LEARNING EDUCATION
1.School infrastructure does influence the quality
of various elements of the educational process .
2.The size and organisation of the class room can2.The size and organisation of the class room can
influence the instructional method of teaching, for
instance , arranging seating in a circle to enable
maximum interaction instead of lecturing children
sitting in a row
3.Children’s learning is influenced by the availability of textbooks and learning
space and the furniture available for studying .
4.The availability of toilets affects the attendance and absenteesim amongst girls.
Increasing resources can help improve instructional quality
Despite the strong rise in recruitment, the increase in the number of teachers in
primary schools has failed to keep pace with the growth of the number of students,
with the average student-teacher ratio rising from 43 in 2000-01 to 47 in 2007-08. In
the coming years, the government intends to reduce it sharply, with the Right to Free
Education Act. Additional teaching resources could also contribute to building a more
systematic and effective remedial learning system, which is needed in both
government and private schools . The need is particularly acute given the continued
push to reduce the number of out-of-school-children, which has led to a rise in the
number of over-age children, particularly at lower levels of schooling. Multi-grading
can offer advantages for cognitive and social development by exposing students tocan offer advantages for cognitive and social development by exposing students to
more advanced material than would normally be the case in mono-grade classes and
encouraging self-directed learning and increased learning and interaction with children
of different ages.
The rise of the private sector creates challenges and
Private enrolments are increasing at all levels
As in many other emerging countries fiscal constraints faced by governments in India,
especially at the state and local level, have meant that the supply of public education,
while expanding rapidly, has not kept up with demand. Indeed, in real terms, per-
student funding in higher education was lower in 2007-08 than in the mid-1990s.
Some tuition fee differentiation is occurring in public institutions, allowing higher rates
of cost recovery in professional and technical courses. However, fees generally remain
low and institutions face intense political pressure not to raise costs for students .
These fiscal pressures, together with rising household incomes, have inevitablyThese fiscal pressures, together with rising household incomes, have inevitably
prompted a response from the private sector giving rise to a diverse range of
government and private schools and higher education institutions. Most notably,
education continues to be reserved as a non-profit activity and private schools and
higher education institutions must be registered as a charitable society or trust or non-
profit company. Any surpluses generated by private institutions have to be reinvested
in the same institution and foreign investors are prohibited from repatriating profits.
ONE OF THE PRACTICAL ENHANCEMENT PROGRAM :
The colourful, well maintained primary school in Masal village is a matter of pride for its
students, teachers and the villagers. Indeed, it is their relentless efforts and unwavering
interest that has transformed this once neglected school. Over the years Masal School
has evolved as an engaging educational centre where children love to go everyday.
The problem of out-of-school or drop out children is now a matter of the past. “The
situation of the school changed when we decided to change ourselves”, share villagers
with pleasure. Similar feelings are echoed by people in Lendiguda, a remotely located
hamlet that had no schools till a few years ago.
In order to secure proper education for their children, the village
community decided to start a school and contributed their own
places and resources till the government support was approved.
These people’s initiatives for school improvement in Masal and
Lendiguda are not exceptional cases. Similar inspiring incidences
are aplenty in villages across Chandrapur and Yavatmal districts
of Maharashtra. This is the result of sustained work carried out
under the UNICEF-supported Primary Education Enhancement
PEEP, a joint venture between Government of India, UNICEF, AusAID and the
Maharashtra government, was executed in two phases in Chandrapur and Yavatmal
districts during 1997-2006 to address the major challenges faced in promoting universal
elementary education, viz., to increase participation and retention of all children upto
the age of 14 years and improve the quality of education programs with a particular
emphasis on girls and working children.
PEEP innovations have caused enormous changes, from classrooms to communities, and
the problem of out-of-school children has been almost eliminated in the two districts.
The activity completion report (ACR) of PEEP shows that the school drop out rate for
Chandrapur and Yavatmal which in 2001 was recorded as 10.14 percent and 10.13Chandrapur and Yavatmal which in 2001 was recorded as 10.14 percent and 10.13
percent respectively has reduced to 4.99 percent and 4.2 percent respectively in 2006.
The GER (gross enrolment ratio) is 95.6 in these districts.
This in itself is a good reason for the PEEP team to celebrate their success as the
programme comes to an end. Impressed by the performance the state government has
shown keen interest in adopting some of the best practices and learning in PEEP for
mainstreaming into the education system.
Such programmes have to be encouraged and initiated in large number to
enhance the primary education