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  1. 1. ENCHANCING THE QUALITY OF PRIMARY EDUCATION 1.According to one world study bank ,every extra year of primary education increases a person’s productivity by 10 to 30 percent , previously education had been assessed in terms of gross enrollment and completion rates ofin terms of gross enrollment and completion rates of different levels . 2.The priorities were primarily on enabling interest access and enrolment .4. Low learning achievement is rarely explained by one inadequate component or a single paucity in educational programming .
  2. 2. DESCRIPTION : Education has been given high priority by India’s central and state governments and continues to grow fast. School access has been expanded by investment in school infrastructure and recruitment of teachers . A new law enshrining the rights of all children to free and compulsory education will further lift enrolment, bringing closer the government’s goal of universal elementary education, which comprises eight years of schooling. Nevertheless, high drop-out rates and low attendance continues to be a challenge at lower levels and enrolment at higher levels remains modest by international standards. Private sector involvement is on the rise. While it helps expand education infrastructure, particularly in higherrise. While it helps expand education infrastructure, particularly in higher education, access has not always been assured and the availability of student loans for higher education needs to improve. Poor learning outcomes amongst school students and mediocre higher education provision call for more effective government regulation and funding arrangements. Expanding resources will help but they need to be deployed more effectively, while incentives and professional development systems for teachers need to be strengthened.
  3. 3. SUPPORTIVE PARENTS AND FAMILY 1.Parents and family are the first teachers of a child .However they may not possess the adequate knowledge on care during the early years. 2.Children’s who’s parents had primary school education or less are more than three times more likelyeducation or less are more than three times more likely to have the low test scores and grade repetition than children’s who’s parents have secondary school education. 3.Poorer and less educated parents are more likely to require assistance with the house , in farming or within the family run enterprise than parents with higher education.
  4. 4. QUALITY LEARNING EDUCATION 1.School infrastructure does influence the quality of various elements of the educational process . 2.The size and organisation of the class room can2.The size and organisation of the class room can influence the instructional method of teaching, for instance , arranging seating in a circle to enable maximum interaction instead of lecturing children sitting in a row
  5. 5. 3.Children’s learning is influenced by the availability of textbooks and learning material ,the space and the furniture available for studying . 4.The availability of toilets affects the attendance and absenteesim amongst girls.
  6. 6. Increasing resources can help improve instructional quality Despite the strong rise in recruitment, the increase in the number of teachers in primary schools has failed to keep pace with the growth of the number of students, with the average student-teacher ratio rising from 43 in 2000-01 to 47 in 2007-08. In the coming years, the government intends to reduce it sharply, with the Right to Free Education Act. Additional teaching resources could also contribute to building a more systematic and effective remedial learning system, which is needed in both government and private schools . The need is particularly acute given the continued push to reduce the number of out-of-school-children, which has led to a rise in the number of over-age children, particularly at lower levels of schooling. Multi-grading can offer advantages for cognitive and social development by exposing students tocan offer advantages for cognitive and social development by exposing students to more advanced material than would normally be the case in mono-grade classes and encouraging self-directed learning and increased learning and interaction with children of different ages.
  7. 7. The rise of the private sector creates challenges and opportunities Private enrolments are increasing at all levels As in many other emerging countries fiscal constraints faced by governments in India, especially at the state and local level, have meant that the supply of public education, while expanding rapidly, has not kept up with demand. Indeed, in real terms, per- student funding in higher education was lower in 2007-08 than in the mid-1990s. Some tuition fee differentiation is occurring in public institutions, allowing higher rates of cost recovery in professional and technical courses. However, fees generally remain low and institutions face intense political pressure not to raise costs for students . These fiscal pressures, together with rising household incomes, have inevitablyThese fiscal pressures, together with rising household incomes, have inevitably prompted a response from the private sector giving rise to a diverse range of government and private schools and higher education institutions. Most notably, education continues to be reserved as a non-profit activity and private schools and higher education institutions must be registered as a charitable society or trust or non- profit company. Any surpluses generated by private institutions have to be reinvested in the same institution and foreign investors are prohibited from repatriating profits.
  8. 8. ONE OF THE PRACTICAL ENHANCEMENT PROGRAM : The colourful, well maintained primary school in Masal village is a matter of pride for its students, teachers and the villagers. Indeed, it is their relentless efforts and unwavering interest that has transformed this once neglected school. Over the years Masal School has evolved as an engaging educational centre where children love to go everyday. The problem of out-of-school or drop out children is now a matter of the past. “The situation of the school changed when we decided to change ourselves”, share villagers with pleasure. Similar feelings are echoed by people in Lendiguda, a remotely located hamlet that had no schools till a few years ago. In order to secure proper education for their children, the village community decided to start a school and contributed their own places and resources till the government support was approved. These people’s initiatives for school improvement in Masal and Lendiguda are not exceptional cases. Similar inspiring incidences are aplenty in villages across Chandrapur and Yavatmal districts of Maharashtra. This is the result of sustained work carried out under the UNICEF-supported Primary Education Enhancement Project (PEEP)
  9. 9. PEEP, a joint venture between Government of India, UNICEF, AusAID and the Maharashtra government, was executed in two phases in Chandrapur and Yavatmal districts during 1997-2006 to address the major challenges faced in promoting universal elementary education, viz., to increase participation and retention of all children upto the age of 14 years and improve the quality of education programs with a particular emphasis on girls and working children. PEEP innovations have caused enormous changes, from classrooms to communities, and the problem of out-of-school children has been almost eliminated in the two districts. The activity completion report (ACR) of PEEP shows that the school drop out rate for Chandrapur and Yavatmal which in 2001 was recorded as 10.14 percent and 10.13Chandrapur and Yavatmal which in 2001 was recorded as 10.14 percent and 10.13 percent respectively has reduced to 4.99 percent and 4.2 percent respectively in 2006. The GER (gross enrolment ratio) is 95.6 in these districts. This in itself is a good reason for the PEEP team to celebrate their success as the programme comes to an end. Impressed by the performance the state government has shown keen interest in adopting some of the best practices and learning in PEEP for mainstreaming into the education system. Such programmes have to be encouraged and initiated in large number to enhance the primary education
  10. 10. APPENDIX : education-primary-level.html