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  1. 1. TEAM DETAILS ( BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MESRA , DEOGHAR CAMPUS) Team coordinator- 1.Nitish Kumar 2.Ashish Ranjan 3.Nirbhay kr. Gupta 4.Prushotam Kumar 5.Shruti Mishra Manthan topic- BOOSTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY
  2. 2. Agriculture losing significance in Indian GDP • The contribution of agricultural sector to GDP has continued to decline over the years, while that of other sectors, particularly services, has increased. • Agriculture is still an important contributor to Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) in some States like Punjab (24%), Madhya Pradesh (22.3%). • Increase in population will require continuous increase in agricultural production • Nearly three-quarters of India’s families depend on rural incomes. • In 2004-05 agriculture contributed to 19% of total GDP.As per the latest data the contribution has declined to just 14% in 2011-12. • GDP has grown by a mere 3.3% annually in the 11th 5-year plan. Though this is better than the 2.4% growth seen in the previous 5-year plan but is nowhere near the growth rates seen in other sectors. 0 10 20 30 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2012 AGRICULTURE%oftotal GDP Agri contribution to GDP declining
  3. 3. POLICY INSTRUMENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT • Agricultural R&D • Improved seeds and fertilizers • Irrigation water • Agro chemicals • Farm machinery • Value addition and agro processing TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS • Investment in agricultural R&D & infrastructure • Agricultural prices & terms of trade • Subsidies • Trade policy and taxation ECONOMIC FACTORS • Land reforms • rural credits • Rural development & poverty elevation programs • Market sector reforms & crop insurance INSTITUTIONAL FACTORS
  4. 4. TECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTIONS A. USE OF MODERN IRRIGATION TECHNIQUES •In states like Gujarat DRIP and SPRINKLER irrigation are used but still in many states traditional techniques are used. •ADVANTAGE : * Reduce and conserve water consumption rate. •maintains soil fertility •provide equal amount of water for all plants. B. INTENSIVE FARMING •Heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides •Mechanised farming •Bio intensive agriculture – focuses on maximizing efficiency •Agro forestry- combines agriculture & orchard to create productive profitable sustainable land –use systems •Intercropping-increase total yields per unit area or reduce inputs to achieve the same. •HYV(high yielding variety seeds)- less problem of pest and diseases , maturity time is less ,drought resistant C. INTEGRATED FARMING SYSTEM •Crop rotation-growing a series of dissimilar types of crops in the sane space in sequential seasons •BENEFITS-avoids pathogens and pests, avoid excessive depletion of soil nutrients, improve soil structure and fertility •Herbicide resistance – using cover crops that out compete weeds , using different herbicide , using a different crop , plowing , manual removal
  5. 5. ECONOMIC SOLUTIONS Investment in agricultural R&D & infrastructure • •Adequate levels of rural infrastructure are essential for agriculture growth and poor infrastructure is one of the major constraints in linking small producers with markets better road access to markets increases opportunities for high-value agriculture including perishable products besides providing more opportunities for offarm employment •AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY should be opened for agricultural research. •Public investment in public goods like R&D , rural infrastructure would facilitate private investment in post harvest management market infrastructure and processing sectors SUBSIDIES • transfer the fertilizer subsidy directly to farmers rather than routing it through manufacturers • A revision in water rates and price of electricity is thus necessary to increase efficiency and reduce wastages. Moreover, pricing must be based on volumetric use rather than a flat rate
  6. 6. INSTITUTIONAL SOLUTIONS Rural development & poverty elevation programs •Availability and cost of labour has become a major constraint In the agriculture sector. Therefore, rural development and poverty alleviation programmes like Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MNREGA), and National Rural Livelihood Mission(NRLM) should be integrated with agricultural and allied sectors, irrigation and watershed development, soil and water conservation programmes, rural infrastructure, and non-farm activities. WAREHOUSE FACILITIES • Proper storage facilities should be provided as large amount of grains are destroyed due to rotting. • Adequate infrastructure for the cold storage should be developed • Foreign investments should be allowed in setting up of cold storage house.
  7. 7. Various farming methods COOPERATIVE FARMING- farmers pool their resources in certain areas for mutual benefit like seeds , fertilizers , pesticides etc. CONTRACT FARMING AND COLLABORATIVE FARMING TECHNIQUES- reduce input cost ,better cost realization, arrests further fragmentation of land.. CORPORATE FARMING-large corporates & MNC’S take over large parcel of lands and produce food and non food crops...... BENEFITS:- effective usage agri-inputs, higher degree of mechanisation, sustained supply of raw materials ,better quality of produce , higher efficiency of in the supply chain , reduce wastage and higher value realization
  8. 8. SOME MORE SOLUTIONS CREDITSYSTEM Institutions should be setup TO PROVIDE CREDIT AT low INTEREST RATES FARMERS should be given enough time for RECOVERY purpose LANDLEASING.. LEASING IN & LEASINGOUT of agricultural land should be legalised. Opening land lease markets. 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 1970-71 1980-81 1990-91 2000-01 2005-06 >4ha 2-4 ha <2 ha Changes in Composition of Different Categories of Farmers and Average Farm Size in India
  9. 9. CONCLUDIG REMARKS : Restructuring of the existing research and development institutions to make them demand driven and more responsive to the needs of users like farmers and industry, and participation of the private sector, particularly in post-harvest activities including storage, food processing, and marketing should be promoted. AWAKENING THE FARMERS •Information & guidance such as soil health ,crop rotation , organic farming, irrigation ,and marketing should be imparted to the farmers through different modes like MEDIA , CAMPS ,etc. SOIL HEALTH CARDS •Information of nature of soil will be available to the farmers through COMPUTERS installed in GRAM PANCHAYATS under E-gram project. AGRICULTURAL FESTS •Scientists , experts , agricultural officers & ministers should interact and provide information & counselling on soil health , organic farming , technology and inputs , irrigation , etc besides in fusing a new spirit of change and mass mobilisation. CHECK DAMS,VILLAGE POND,SAND BAG DAMS •These help in WATER CONSERVATION & IRRIGATIOIN.
  10. 10. REFERENCES • Gulati , A. & Jain, S. (2012, December 20). Credit inclusion, farm lease and forming clusters can help small farmers overcome poverty much faster. The Economic Times. Retrieved from farm-lease • Gulati , A. & Jain, S. (2012, December 20). Credit inclusion, farm lease and forming clusters can help small farmers overcome poverty much faster. The Economic Times. Retrieved from farm-lease • Government of India (2011c). India Public Finance Statistics 2010-11, Economic Division, Department of Economic Affairs , Ministry of Finance, Govt. of India, New Delhi, October 2011. • Sharma, V.P. (2012). Accelerating Agriculture Growth for Inclusive Development. Vikalpa , 37(1). Retrieved from • critical-enabler-for-efficient- farming%2Farticle2021516.ece&ei=m8odUrXVLcjArAeinYGICg&usg=AFQjCNGSLM0tOulaUX79ATzA1TbnAo fVbA&bvm=bv.51156542,d.bmk