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  1. 1. Team : TatVa Members Ashna Aggarwal Maanya Gupta Devisha Tayal Isha Gupta Disha Sharat ROAD TO ENHANCE EMPLOYABILITY OF YOUTH Manthan Topic: Boosting Skillsets 1
  2. 2. IMPEDIMENTS TO ENHANCING EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS AMONG YOUTH 0 10 20 30 40 50 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Global: Percentage having Difficulty filling Jobs Global: Percenatge having Difficulty filling Jobs Shortage of Employability Skills among Youth Urban Youth Rural Youth • Curriculum followed in most institutions is outdated; does not evolve with the changing needs of Industry • No official measure of employability. Students have no reliable way to showcase extra skills acquired • Vocational courses not popular with the Urban Youth; only 5% undergo vocational training • High drop-out rates: 34.5% for grade I-V, 57.78 for grade I-VIII, 75.21 for grade I-X • No official recognition of skills acquired through Informal Apprenticeships • Vocational Training capacity of the country is only 2.3 million students; leaving a gap of 18.7 million students 0 20 40 60 Percentage Percentage of Employers unable to fill entry level positions 2
  3. 3. Establish Measure of Employability Provide Appropriate Vocational Training Adapt Curriculum Solutions for Urban Youth • The proposed organization is required to perform three major functions: • Adapt curriculum to industry needs to produce more employable graduates who know the market requirement • Set up and implement reliable indicators to measure employability and recognize essential skills for employment • Impart/arrange appropriate technical/vocational training to boost employability 3
  4. 4. ADAPT CURRICULUM TO INDUSTRY NEEDS Propose and Debate • Proposal of the change required with appropriate reasons; impact analysis through debate and discussion to include: impact on key stakeholders, benefits of incorporating the changes suggested Survey and Analyze • Analysis of possible alternatives including their pros and cons • Survey conducted using a sample population of the key stakeholders: Measure to include the voices of those immediately affected Implement and Review • Discussion based on the result of the survey to decide future course of action, Implementation details decided, responsibilities delegated • Review of the effect to take corresponding corrective steps Stakeholders: Students, Educationists, Industry Current scenario: The curriculum does not evolve with the changing requirements of the industry. The course content is decided by teachers and educationists only without any inputs from the industry. Solution: A panel which consists of educationists working in synchronization with industry experts to adapt the curriculum to industry needs. The following chart presents the working of the panel: 4
  5. 5. MEASURE OF EMPLOYABILITY Customized assessment to spell out strengths and weaknesses of students; methods to improve employability; suggest appropriate industries to work with Test to be provided at low/no cost to the student. This is done to overcome the prohibitive financial barrier most students face Reliable Results provided by ensuring mass participation. Media campaigns required to showcase the benefits of certifying employability Industries to prefer candidates with certified employability skills over those who have not taken the test; score valid up to three years; test can be taken multiple times Job Employability Test Stakeholders: Student, Industry Current Scenario: No official system to measure employability Solution: Introduction of a Job employability assessment test. The assessment to evaluate problem solving skills, communication skills, decision making abilities, domain knowledge. 5
  6. 6. • Stakeholders: Students, Industry • Current scenario: Vocational courses not a rage with prospective job seekers • Our solution: • Diversify the vocational courses to include more relevant skills; courses to cater to different sections of society • Increase the value addition provided by these courses; industries to give weightage to certification; improvement in methodologies required • Better quality of teachers; hands- on experience. • For technical training, tie-ups with industry leaders, easy internship opportunities • Defined system to evaluate the knowledge gained during the internship. Focus on learning things by experiencing Diversify courses offered Value-addition Hands-on Experience Tie-ups with Industry Evaluation of Training Quality IMPART APPROPRIATE VOCATIONAL/TECHNICAL TRAINING 6
  7. 7. Second Chance at Basic Education Provide Appropriate Vocational Training Structured Informal Internship Solutions for Rural Youth • The proposed organization to provide: • Second chance at basic education for those individuals who could not attend/dropped out of school early • Structured informal apprenticeship to certify the skills acquired during the process; also check the exploitation of the apprentice • Vocational training to provide training in relevant fields and provide incentives to undergo specialized courses 7
  8. 8. Involve villagers to ensure the successful implementation of schemes like the mid-day meal Harness technology to improve quality of teaching; arrange for computerized learning Schools to be located near the villages; provide incentive of employment within the school for promising students Added benefits for each female student . The government may step in to aid them financially Extend the right to education to encompass basic education for all age groups Flexible class schedules to increase attendance at school Financial/ emotional assistance to students on the verge of dropping out Focus on literacy and basic numeracy SECOND CHANCE AT BASIC EDUCATION Stakeholders: Youth, Education sector, Industry Current scenario: The Constitution of India guarantees basic education. However, owing to numerous factors a relatively small percentage of population benefits 8
  9. 9. STRUCTURED INFORMAL APPRENTICESHIP Structured Informal Apprenticeship Linkage to Formal Sector Structured Framework Finance Stakeholders: Apprentice/youth, Master craftsman/Trainer, Government of India Informal apprenticeship refers to the system by which a young apprentice acquires the skills for a trade or craft in a micro or small enterprise learning and working side by side with an experienced practitioner. Apprentice and master craftsperson conclude a training agreement that is embedded in local norms and traditions of a society. Apprentices learn technical skills and are inducted into a business culture and network which makes it easier for them to find jobs or start businesses when finishing their apprenticeship. Current scenario: As such there is no structure in the informal apprenticeships. The skills developed are not certified by a competent authority. 9
  10. 10. STRUCTURED INFORMAL APPRENTICESHIP Structured Framework • Share knowledge through business associations: Establish rotation systems for apprentices by using existing business relations • Enhance access to new skills: Provide training to the master craftsperson; exposure to large enterprises • Monitor quality of training: recognize businesses as training providers; they control and inspect the quality of training provided by the master craftsperson Finance • Establish additional secure sources of funding: • Public- private partnership • Establish training fund; contribution from the enterprises (Company Bill which specifies 3% of profit of enterprises to go for social welfare) • Also, government to allocate budget for this fund Linkage to Formal Sector • Possible linkages: • Recognition of skills: apprentices participate in assessments of skills they’ e ac ui ed ove the duration of their apprenticeship • Use of modern technology through cooperation between the informal and the formal sector • Financial support provided to the craftsperson 10
  11. 11. • Stakeholder: Disadvantaged Youth, SMEs • Current scenario: Appropriate vocational training is not available; no recognition • Solution: • Provide training in fields based on the aptitude of the individual involved • Focus on developing regional crafts, knowledge of good agricultural practices; train youth to become a part of the supply chain for local/ regional businesses • Establish a system of recognition/certification of skills acquired through vocational training • Provide incentives to youth to take up training: assure jobs, monetary benefits • Training to include grooming for self- employment/setting up small enterprises. Interactions with industry experts prove beneficial Training Focus Areas CertificationIncentives Opportunities PROVISION OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING 11
  12. 12. REFERENCES • Increasing the Employability of Disadvantaged Youth: Responding to the Impact of the Financial and Economic Crisis, Report by ILO • Enhancing the employability of disadvantaged youth: What? Why? and How? Guide to core work skills, Report by ILO • Increasing the Employability of Disadvantaged Youth, Report by ILO • Statistics for School Education • Status of Education and Vocational Education of India, Report by ASERF • Statistics as available on Central Statistical Organization • Report by Ministry of Statistics & Program Implementation • National Employment Study by Aspiring Minds • Education to Employment, Report by Mckinsey 12