Primary Health Care
Mohd.Fraz Farooqui,Karishma,Sringarika Sahu ,Mohd.Talha siddiqui & Naureen Tufail
Primary health care is primary care applied on a population level. As
a population strategy, it requires the commitment of governments to
develop a population-oriented set of primary care services in the
context of other levels and types of services.
Primary care is the provision of first contact, person-focused,
ongoing care over time that meets the health-related needs of
people, referring only those too uncommon to maintain competence,
and coordinates care when people receive services at other levels of
Why Is Primary Care Important?
Better health outcomes
Greater equity in health
Evidence for the benefits of primary care-oriented health systems is
robust across a wide variety of types of studies:
-Population studies within countries across areas with different
- studies of people going to different types of practitioners
Clinical studies-of people going to facilities/practitioners differing in
adherence to primary care practices
Primary health care
The “first” level of contact between the individual and the health
Essential health care (PHC) is provided.
A majority of prevailing health problems can be satisfactorily
The closest to the people.
Provided by the primary health centers.
What is Primary Health Care?
PHC is essential health care that is a socially appropriate, universally
accessible, scientifically sound first level care provided by a suitably
trained workforce supported by integrated referral systems and in a
way that gives priority to those most in need, maximises community
and individual self-reliance and participation and involves
collaboration with other sectors. It includes the following:
care of the sick
Core Activities for PHC
There is a set of CORE ACTIVITIES, which were normally defined
nationally or locally. According to the 1978 Declaration of Alma-Ata
proposed that these activities should include:
1. Education concerning prevailing health problems and the methods
of preventing and controlling them
2. Promotion of food supply and proper nutrition
3. An adequate supply of safe water and basic sanitation
4. Maternal and child health care, including family planning
5. Immunization against the major infectious diseases
6. Prevention and control of locally endemic diseases
7. Appropriate treatment of common diseases and injuries
8. Basic laboratory services and provision of essential drugs.
9. Training of health guides, health workers and health assistants.
The Basic Requirements for Sound PHC (the 8 A’s and the 2 C’s)
Whether the service is needed at all in relation to essential
human needs, priorities and policies.
The service has to be properly selected and carried out by
trained personnel in the proper way.
The service proportionate to requirement.
Sufficient volume of care to meet the need and demand of a
The cost should be within the means and resources of the
individual and the country.
Reachable, convenient services
Geographic, economic, cultural accessibility
Acceptability of care depends on a variety of factors, including
satisfactory communication between health care providers and the
patients, whether the patients trust this care, and whether the
patients believe in the confidentiality and privacy of information
shared with the providers.
Availability of medical care means that care can be obtained
whenever people need it.
Assessebility means that medical care can be readily evaluated.
Accountability implies the feasibility of regular review of financial
records by certified public accountants.
Completeness of care requires adequate attention to all aspects of a
medical problem, including prevention, early detection, diagnosis,
treatment, follow up measures, and rehabilitation.
Continuity of care requires that the management of a patient’s care
over time be coordinated among providers.
Different way of looking
Different way of looking
Different way of looking at the remedies that already exist, and new channels
for collaboration and collective impact among them
Preference for admission to education and training courses for doctors and
nurses to local students from rural and underserved areas
Preference for postgraduate training, financial incentives, communication
facilities, and opportunities for Clinicians working in underserved areas and
education of their children
Reintroduction of compulsory service in underserved areas by all medical
Develop a holistic ecosystem that incorporates the value additions of all
Make working at PHCs more attractive and satisfying.
Availability of most critical infrastructure element, electricity
Ensuring that doctors are punctual and give more time to their service.
Education about First-Aid.
Boundation on foreign practice
Innovations in business, private funding, trained personnel and systems to
incentivize them to work in areas of need, support from insurance
providers, and conducive interaction between the primary level and higher
levels of medical care.
Expand our focus beyond one particular stakeholder or institution and view
all of these areas as points in a network with the single goal of quality primary
healthcare for all
Increase the effectiveness of doctors who are willing to work in rural areas by
a large factor
Reducing the need for doctors in the initial screening of patients, and by
allocating one physician for every five PHCs.
Use either solar panels or diesel generators connected to batteries for
uninterrupted electric power for computers and laboratory equipment
Effective information systems
Biometric attendance in PHCs
PHC to be taught as subject in school
Advantage over existing system
Increasing and capturing coverage over rural areas.
Exploit the opportunities for patient involvement in self care inherent
in modern information technology.
Attracting and holding back doctors and medical practitioners.
More time can be given to patients.
First –aid can prevent from getting more damage to health