In Rural areas we are including some more steps in the model of slum areas. As in this case we are also
including the Biogas plant and electricity generation plant in the ladder.
In the case of villages the availability of water will be an issue. So for that we will install portable petrol
generator for running the pump to pull out water from the bore well.
The overall model is to first let people generate waste and then the waste will be sent out to the biogas
treatment plant which will then generate biogas which will be converted into electricity and fertilizers which
are then distributed to the village and nearby villages if extra available. Also the electricity can be sent to the
industries if available extra.
People using the
waste to the
facility to all/
Power supply as
Why Water & Sanitation?
With a diverse population that is three times the size of the United States but one-third the
physical size, India has the second largest population in the world.
Although India has made improvements over the past decades to both the availability and quality
of municipal drinking water systems, its large population has stressed planned water resources
and rural areas are left out.
Regardless of improvements to drinking water, many other water sources are contaminated with
both bio and chemical pollutants.
Over 21% of the country's diseases are water-related.
37.7 million Indians are affected by waterborne diseases annually.
1.5 million children are estimated to die of diarrhoea alone.
73 million working days are lost due to waterborne disease each year.
Only 33% of the country has access to traditional sanitation.
The resulting economic burden caused by this mismanagement of these resources is
estimated at $600 million a year.
Bussiness Models For Water System
The three most common supply options are shared standpipes operated by the
municipality, illegal water siphoning and water vendors.
The vendors play an intermediary role, either re-selling water from a municipally-supplied
standpipe or obtaining water from a groundwater source and transporting it by tanker to
slum areas where residents purchase it.
Public-private-civil partnerships should be expanded and formalized in several Class I cities.
We could start with delivery arrangements through local entrepreneurs, and only then
consider contracting out to national or global companies. This would lower the risks borne by
the companies (who would not have to reach distant and unconnected households), and
reduce the chance of cutting out the poor and unconnected at least where institutional
1. Chennai provides tap water for an average of just 4 hours a day, and has a slum
population of about 400,000, but 97% of its residents are covered via tap and tanker
services (MIDS 1995).
2. The Water Board has contracted with 500 private entrepreneurs to supply various parts
of the city, including slums that do not have public standpipes. Exnora, a Chennai-based
NGO, works with the Board to organize the slum dwellers into committees that
distribute the tanker waters.
3. The tanker transporters buy water from farmers outside the city centre, paying them
just over Rs 3 per cu m, and being paid Rs 15 per cu m by the Water Board (this includes
the cost of transport and maintenance, in addition to the cost of Water).
24x7 Water Supply: Saving People Time,Water and Energy Cost
Jepar of Chuda Taluka in Surendranagar District, Gujarat, is a village that embraced the
decentralized community managed water supply system in 2006.
It has developed a water distribution system, which allows all 160 households to have tap
connections and enjoy 24x7 water supply.
The village’s two sources of water – a well and Narmada pipe water supply system.
The total storage capacity is an Elevated Storage Reservoir (ESR) of 50,000 litres and one
sump of 20,000 litres.
Before the village adopted the 24x7 water supply system in 2006, the supply was available
for about two hours a day and the average consumption of water was around 400 litres per
day per household.
When each household was assured of 24x7 supply, the consumption per household
reduced to 250 litres per household, thus saving 25,000 litres per day which
represents 38 percent of the water previously distributed.
The reduction in consumption of water occurred primarily because people abandoned the
practice of storing water to cover several days’ needs. Now, 125 villages in Gujarat are
successfully operating the 24x7 water supply system.
Institutional Breakdown In The Water System
The Central Water Commission: The Central Water Commission (CWC) in the Ministry of
Water Resources (MoWR) is responsible for regulating the use of surface water for
irrigation, industry and drinking water purposes. It also mediates in inter-state water
Central Groundwater Board: Central Groundwater Board (CGWB) under the MoWR has
an overseeing responsibility for the monitoring of groundwater levels and rates of depletion
and the production of water resource inventories and maps.
Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission (RGNDWM): The RGNDWM under the
Department of Drinking Water Supply, Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD) formulates
policies, sets standards, and provides funds and technical assistance to the states for rural
water supply and sanitation activities.
Ministry of Agriculture (MoA): The MoA is involved in planning, formulation; monitoring
and reviewing of various watershed based developmental project activities.
Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD): The MoUD is the nodal ministry for policy
formulation and guidance for the urban water supply and sanitation sector. The Ministry’s
responsibilities include broad policy formulation, institutional and legal frameworks, setting
standards and norms, monitoring, promotion of new strategies, coordination and support to
state programmes through institutional expertise and finance.
Central Bureau of Health Intelligence (CBHI): Central Bureau of Health Intelligence under
the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare deals with the collection, compilation, analysis
and dissemination of the information on health conditions in the country.
Role Of Governement:
1. Supporting awareness drives: The government needs to support civil society and
organisations involved in increasing awareness. An integrated campaign can result in
widespread information dissemination amongst the masses on the ways and means of
preventing contamination of water sources.
2. Testing and remedial action: The challenge lies in establishing well equipped laboratories with
well-trained staff. This also calls for training of people and infrastructure development.
3. Capacity building of communities: A prerequisite for increasing community participation is
training of people from the communities so that they are able to make well-informed
4. Inter agency coordination: Better co-ordination amongst ministries and departments would
ensure effective implementation. The option of a single nodal ministry with the overall
supervision and administration pertaining to water resources may be looked into as is the
case with countries like Australia.
5. Making the service provider accountable: The user has the right to know whether water being
provided at source is free from any contamination as claimed by authorities. Financial expenditure
on water supply schemes and testing water quality should be known to the public.
Role Of Civil Society:
3. Community Based Water Quality Monitoring
1. Looking for alternate water sources
2. Dual water supply and waste water treatment
3. Exploring simple, low cost treatment technologies
Water Sector in India,: Emerging Investment Opportunities, September 2011 , Ernst & Young.
Water- The India Story, Grail Research, 23rd March, 2009.
Towards Drinking Water Security In India: Lessons From the Field, WSP.
Progress on Drinking Water and Sanitation, 2012, WHO, UNICEF.
Urban Water Supply in India: Status, Reform Options and Possible lessons.
Drinking water quality in rural India: Issues and approaches, WaterAId.