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  2. 2. WHY IS THE ISSUE IMPORTANT? Water –borne diseases • Human wastes carry pathogens responsible for typhoid, cholera, etc. • About 38 million people are affected • 73 million working days are affected annually due to the same. • About 1.5 lakh children die of diarrhoea. Unavailability of quality potable water • Water contaminated by fluorides , arsenic, etc. • In 2011, about 1.21 lakh habitations in the country are affected by chemical contaminations in drinking water. Prevailing mindset • There is an urgent need to change the mindset of people. • Quoting GOI , “ a substantial proportion of people prefer to buy a mobile phone rather than investing on sanitary toilets”
  3. 3. OVERVIEW OF THE PROPOSED MODEL FOR PROVIDING CLEAN DRINKING WATER Wherever devolved treatment becomes non-viable (places with very less density) 1.)Establishment of water treatment at household level. 2.) State funding in extreme cases. Water treatment to be devolved (Qualitative responsibility) 1.)Panchayat/Taluk/Municipality, etc. 2.) Funding from various sources (CSR, PPO NGOs) Responsibility of the state to provide water (Quantitative responsibility) State to ensure water supply and fund the building of pipelines throughout.
  4. 4. PROPOSED TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS – RO PLANT Reverse Osmosis Plant Cheap and easy O & M as compared to alternatives like ion exchange process. Removes chemicals and kills pathogens Especially useful in rural areas A number of small plants – easier to use renewable energy with backup – research has shown possible running such plants using solar energy with diesel as the back up. Also, provides employment opportunities. FEASIBILITY 1.) Reverse osmosis plant is cheaper than other alternatives which provide similar quality treatment like ion exchange, etc. 2.) An ideal plant to people ratio would be approximately 1 : 1500. 3.) Industries can be promoted to adopt villages/panchayats around its belt and sponsor this facility as part of CSR. 4.) Wherever CSR does not work, a PPP can be arranged between a company and the panchayat. 5.) In extreme cases, the state can pitch in funds.
  5. 5. PROPOSED TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS – DESALINATION PLANT DESALINATION PLANT 1.) We can make use of the large coastline in the country. 2.) Dependence on rainfall and fresh-water supply will diminish. 3.) More water (which once fed the coastal areas) will be diverted to the rural areas, ensuring more water security FEASIBILITY : 1.) This model has been successfully implemented in Israel and Australia. 2.) Large scale plants will be cost-effective in coastal cities , whereas small scale plants can be more sustainable (powered by renewable energy) and can be implemented in pockets of less population. 3.) A partnership with private sector is a sustainable venture. Tamil Nadu’s plant (India’s largest) is a partnership with a Spanish org. and is expected to provide water at INR 50 /1000L for the first 25 years.
  6. 6. PROPOSED TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS – HOUSEHOLD SOLUTIONS • There are some places where community based water treatment might not be viable – places with very less population density, etc. • In such places , simple household solutions go a long way towards ensuring clean water – Chlorination – Flocculation / Disinfection (Ex : Alum) – Ceramic Filters – Boiling water.
  7. 7. OPEN DEFECATION – A SOCIAL STIGMA Main contributors to open defecation 1.) Rural areas – Mainly due to lack of water/facilities. A mindset problem also. 2.) Urban slums – Public toilets exist in some areas, but are poorly maintained. Effects of open defecation include : 1.) Spread of disease causing pathogens. 2.) Poor image/reputation of our country in the eyes of foreigners.
  8. 8. POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS • 1.) Take a leaf out of Amma’s canteen model in TN – SHG maintaining public toilets. 1.1) A nominal fee can be charged, with the only requirement being that the toilets be clean. 1.2) Regular inspections to check the efficiency of the system. • 2.) Improvement in slums : 2.1) Not possible to construct toilets for each house. 2.2) Can build a community toilet(s) , for the maintenance of which, a small amount is collected from each member. Improvement in urban areas. • 1.) Incentivizing the use of toilets : • 1.1) Some technologies like bio-gas toilets , which utilize the nutrients present in the wastes for providing manure and other agricultural suppliments. • 2.) In areas where there is water scarcity , the government can promote the usage of ecosan toilets, which require very less setting up costs and operational costs. This model is also eco-friendly Improvement in rural areas.
  9. 9. AWARENESS PROGRAMS NSS Programs • By college students. • Each college can adopt a belt of villages and aim to educate them. Media Adverts • On the same lines of ‘Jaago Grahak Jaago’ campaign. Compulsory Subject in schools • Secondary level • Similar to the ‘environmental science’ and ‘moral science’ subject. The problem of open defacation is the major hurdle against achieving sanitation . Hence, awareness is the most important step towards tackling this problem.
  10. 10. FINANCIAL ASPECTS S.No Proposal Operational Costs 1. Reverse Osmosis CSR; The cost can be sometimes as low as Rs 0.6/L , hence the system can be managed by community itself in prosperous areas. 2. Desalination State ; PPP 3. Household Measures Very cheap & can be individually managed. 4. SHG-managed public toilets Can be run for profits by the SHGs 5. Bio-gas toilets Can get material benefits from using this toilet. 6. Ecosan toilets Very less setting up cost and operational cost. Can be individually managed.
  11. 11. OBSTACLES Sustainability issues ; especially in the case of desalination plants, which require a considerable amount of energy. There might be roadblocks in persuading industries to go for CSR/PPP. It will be difficult to coerce people, who are used to defecate in the open , to use the modern toilets.
  12. 12. REFERENCES • 1.) Handbook on technical options for on-site sanitation, Ministry of Drinking Water & Sanitation. • 2.) Handbook on Drinking Water Technologies, Ministry of Drinking Water & Sanitation. • 3.) east/water-surplus-in-israel-with-desalination-once-unthinkable-is- possible , article about desalination missions in Israel. • 4.) A scheme for large scale desalination of sea water by solar energy , by Anil K. Rajvanshi , published in Solar Energy Vol. 24, pp. 551-560, 1980. • 5.) plants.html#mineral-water-plants ; , Reverse osmosis plants. • 6.)