PROVIDING CLEAN DRINKING
WATER AND SANITATION
TEAM DETAILS :
ARUN B , IITM
HARISH SRINIVAS , IITM
SRIVATSAN S , IITM
VIVEKANADAN S , IITM
B SARATH KUMAR , IITM
WHY IS THE ISSUE IMPORTANT?
Water –borne diseases
• Human wastes carry
typhoid, cholera, etc.
• About 38 million
people are affected
• 73 million working
days are affected
annually due to the
• About 1.5 lakh
children die of
Unavailability of quality
• Water contaminated
by fluorides , arsenic,
• In 2011, about 1.21
lakh habitations in
the country are
affected by chemical
• There is an urgent
need to change the
mindset of people.
• Quoting GOI , “ a
proportion of people
prefer to buy a
mobile phone rather
than investing on
OVERVIEW OF THE PROPOSED MODEL FOR
PROVIDING CLEAN DRINKING WATER
Wherever devolved treatment becomes non-viable (places with very less density)
1.)Establishment of water treatment at
2.) State funding in extreme cases.
Water treatment to be devolved (Qualitative responsibility)
2.) Funding from various sources (CSR, PPO
Responsibility of the state to provide water (Quantitative responsibility)
State to ensure water supply and fund the building of pipelines throughout.
PROPOSED TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS – RO
Cheap and easy O & M as
compared to alternatives like ion
A number of small plants
– easier to use
renewable energy with
backup – research has
shown possible running
such plants using solar
energy with diesel as the
1.) Reverse osmosis plant is
cheaper than other alternatives
which provide similar quality
treatment like ion exchange,
2.) An ideal plant to people ratio
would be approximately 1 :
3.) Industries can be promoted
to adopt villages/panchayats
around its belt and sponsor this
facility as part of CSR.
4.) Wherever CSR does not
work, a PPP can be arranged
between a company and the
5.) In extreme cases, the state
can pitch in funds.
PROPOSED TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS –
1.) We can
make use of
coastline in the
on rainfall and
3.) More water
fed the coastal
areas) will be
diverted to the
1.) This model has been
successfully implemented in
Israel and Australia.
2.) Large scale plants will be
cost-effective in coastal cities ,
whereas small scale plants can
be more sustainable (powered
by renewable energy) and can
be implemented in pockets of
3.) A partnership with private
sector is a sustainable venture.
Tamil Nadu’s plant (India’s
largest) is a partnership with a
Spanish org. and is expected to
provide water at INR 50 /1000L
for the first 25 years.
PROPOSED TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS –
• There are some places where community
based water treatment might not be viable –
places with very less population density, etc.
• In such places , simple household solutions go
a long way towards ensuring clean water
– Flocculation / Disinfection (Ex : Alum)
– Ceramic Filters
– Boiling water.
OPEN DEFECATION – A SOCIAL STIGMA
Main contributors to open defecation
1.) Rural areas – Mainly
due to lack of
water/facilities. A mindset
2.) Urban slums – Public
toilets exist in some areas,
but are poorly maintained.
Effects of open defecation include :
1.) Spread of disease causing pathogens.
2.) Poor image/reputation of our country in the eyes of
• 1.) Take a leaf out of Amma’s canteen model in TN – SHG maintaining
1.1) A nominal fee can be charged, with the only requirement being
that the toilets be clean.
1.2) Regular inspections to check the efficiency of the system.
• 2.) Improvement in slums :
2.1) Not possible to construct toilets for each house.
2.2) Can build a community toilet(s) , for the maintenance of which, a
small amount is collected from each member.
• 1.) Incentivizing the use of toilets :
• 1.1) Some technologies like bio-gas toilets , which utilize the
nutrients present in the wastes for providing manure and other
• 2.) In areas where there is water scarcity , the government can
promote the usage of ecosan toilets, which require very less setting up
costs and operational costs. This model is also eco-friendly
in rural areas.
• By college
• Each college can
adopt a belt of
villages and aim
• On the same
lines of ‘Jaago
Subject in schools
• Secondary level
• Similar to the
The problem of open defacation is the major hurdle against
achieving sanitation . Hence, awareness is the most important
step towards tackling this problem.
S.No Proposal Operational Costs
1. Reverse Osmosis CSR; The cost can be sometimes as low
as Rs 0.6/L , hence the system can be
managed by community itself in
2. Desalination State ; PPP
3. Household Measures Very cheap & can be individually
4. SHG-managed public toilets Can be run for profits by the SHGs
5. Bio-gas toilets Can get material benefits from using
6. Ecosan toilets Very less setting up cost and
operational cost. Can be individually
issues ; especially
in the case of
There might be
industries to go
It will be difficult
to coerce people,
who are used to
defecate in the
open , to use the
• 1.) Handbook on technical options for on-site sanitation, Ministry of
Drinking Water & Sanitation.
• 2.) Handbook on Drinking Water Technologies, Ministry of Drinking
Water & Sanitation.
• 3.) http://www.jta.org/2013/05/28/news-opinion/israel-middle-
possible , article about desalination missions in Israel.
• 4.) A scheme for large scale desalination of sea water by solar
energy , by Anil K. Rajvanshi , published in Solar Energy Vol. 24, pp.
• 5.) http://www.h2oindia.com/reverse-osmosis-
http://www.watertreat.in/industrial_ro_plant.html , Reverse
• 6.) http://www.ecosan.co.za/