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  1. 1. Integrated Governance Model for Sustainable City Development TERI University Manthan 2013 Future Cities: Ensuring World Class Civic Amenities in Urban India Shweta Arora Madhuri Mittal Rohit Sadaphal Arushi Sirohi Neeraj Nair 1
  2. 2. Surge in Population leading to steep decline in quality of services 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1991 2001 2008 2030 Total Population Urban Population Source: Graph 1 & 2 – India Urbanization Econometric Model, Mckinsey Global Institute Analysis India’s Urban Awakening,April 2010 Urbanization Rate 26 28 30 40 54 46 42 31 46 54 58 69 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1990 2001 2008 2030 Rural Urban 15903 29100 49043 238041 Urban Agglomerations are suffering from - Ineffective Regulation of Land Use - Unforeseen Migration - Stress on Utility Resources - Social Crime - Poor Human Development Index  590 million people will live in cities, nearly twice the population of United States  270 million people will be the net increase in working age population  70 % of net new employment will be generated in cities  68 cities will have a population of 1 million plus each  700 – 900 million square metres of commercial and residential space needs to be built every yearGraph 1 – Urbanization and Population Forecast Graph 2 – GDP Share of Urban Areas Forecast 2
  3. 3. Rapid Urbanization’s impact on Resources To Mitigate the Demand-Need Gap by Regulating the City Growth and Optimizing the Resource Utilization with help of a governance model in place. 3
  4. 4. New Regulatory Model for Governance 195 331 52 104 93 155 2008 2030 Tier 1 (> 4 Mln) Tier 2 (1 Mln - 4 Mln) Tier 3 & 4 ( < 1 Mln ) 340 Cities 590 Cities Slums have grown in almost all major cities due to the inability of major chunks of population to afford accommodation in the planned areas of the city. Expected Results: Avoiding the lag between the growth of population and construction of houses. Active monitoring of migration will help us to foster affordable housing. There is a huge and widening gap between demand and supply of essential services and infrastructure. the urbanites do not have access to safe drinking water and sanitary facilities. Expected Results: Essential Infrastructure development will be taken into account well in advance before the city expands due to availability of real time data. It will help to exercise best possible options within available resources. Traffic congestion has assumed critical dimensions in many metropolitan cities due to massive increase in the number of personal vehicles, inadequate road space and lack of public transport Expected Results: Communication routes will ensure smooth flow of traffic channelized by the well designed junctions based on nature and volume of traffic. Source: Graph 3 – India Urbanization Econometric Model , Census 2011, Mckinsey Global Institute Analysis Graph 3 – Population Forecast in Cities Tier 4
  5. 5. Governance Model for Regulating Urban Local Government ------------------------------- Integrated Development Mechanism Provision of Superlative Services Inclusive Growth 5 Consequences of the provision of utility services are an imperative to policy makers and urban planners
  6. 6. Industry Monitoring & Survey Regulatory Body Town Planning Department Neighbourhood Plan State Industrial Development Corporation Industrial Plan Integrated Plan Municipal Corporation Analytics for Better Services Monitor& Regulate Provision of Services Migrants ---------------------------------- Recruited Candidate Wife - 1 Parents -2 Children -2 Maid – 1 Driver - 1 Services Providers and Unskilled Labour Forces Migration Morphology Reside at New Locations away from working areas Live in Open Areas, leading to formation of Slums 6 A Consumer oriented approach towards quality service delivery, a conscious shift from Technique oriented approach.
  7. 7. Empathetic Implementation: A pragmatic approach to Urban planning involving increased interactive participation of all stakeholders Research Analysis Modelling Implementation Analyze the Land Use pattern in existing town  Check for the Investment Regions and its Geographical conditions Integrate the Urban Local Body as one of the nodal agency in Industrial Development  Set Guidelines for Regulatory Framework  Integrating the Neighbourhood Plan with Industrial Development Plan  Reporting the Migrating Population  Facilating Better Utility services with integrated data stats amongst all development  Setting up a department for data and resource collection  Promoting PPP Projects implementation for providing Rental housing and other infrastructure 7
  8. 8. Citizens Industry Elected Representatives Municipal Corporation Financial & Human Capital Grant in Aids, Revenue Sources Leveraging existing human capital employed  Independent Regulatory Body  Hiring Expertise  Trainings  e- governance implementation  Focused on resource optimization  Aimed at addressing disparities in distribution  Building Low carbon city Stake Holders Urban planning is about ‘values’ and decision- making cannot be relegated to technical specialists or representative thought leaders. The need for taking planning from a closed Black box to a more demystified transparent forum is urgent. India Scores below poor on four, and below average in one in following parameters, that constitute a best performing Urban Local Government. 8 Designing Adaptable and sustainable mechanism for successful implementation of Governance Model is an obligation
  9. 9. Derived Benefits and Impact Areas  Achievement of Service Level Benchmarks  Improved Transportation Facilities  Low Carbon City  State of the Art Technology Implementation  Regulating Haphazard development 9  Growth management  Economic development  Environmental quality  Energy and other resource conservation and development  Aesthetics and historic preservation  Public Utility Services  Health, Education and Welfare  Public safety  Leisure, Recreation and cultural opportunities  Tourism Development
  10. 10. Resistance to Implementation Achieving operational integration of the law would require strong political and administrative will. The current practices and models of planning for infrastructure need a major overhaul. 10
  11. 11. Outcome of the effective implementation of the model With latest technologies and trends in urban infrastructure management, cost effective and eco-friendly urban infrastructure management plans are possible. 11
  12. 12. Appendix  Industrial estate planning and management in India- An integrated approach towards industrial ecology by Shaleen Singhal,TERI; Amit Kapur, School of Forestry and Environmental Studies,Yale University  India Urbanization Econometric Model , Census 2011  Indian Constitution, 74th Ammendment, 1992  Mckinsey Global Institute Analysis India’s Urban Awakening,April 2010  Indian Legislation,The urban land (ceiling and regulation) act, 1976 Act no. 33 of 1976 [17th February, 1976.]  (2001). Census of India 2001, Government of India Publications, New Delhi.  GOI (1988). Report of the National Commission on Urbanization, Ministry of Urban Development, New Delhi.  CPR (2001). The Future of Urbanization, Spread and Shape in Selected States, Centre for Policy Research, New Delhi  Dupont, Véronique (2002). TheWorld ofTowns : Population and Development in India  McKinsey (2003). Vision Mumbai,Transforming Mumbai into a World-class City,A Bombay First—McKinsey Report, Mumbai.  An Exploration of sustainability in the provision of basic urban services in Indian cities,TERI, 2009  Report ofWorking Group on Capacity Building of Urban Development and Management for 12th FiveYear Plan  Book on Town Planning by S. C. Rangwala  Book on Fundamentals of Town Planning by G. K. Hiraskar 12