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  1. 1. Citizen’s Appeal: Ensuring Expeditious and Timely Justice for All Preamble WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens: JUSTICE, social, economic and political; LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation; IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.
  2. 2. Judiciary of India • The Indian Judiciary is partly a continuation of the British legal system established by the English in the mid-19th century based on a typical hybrid legal system known as the Common Law System, in which customs, precedents and legislative are all components of the law. • There is a strict hierarchy in Indian judiciary system with supreme court as the apex court followed by the high courts of states and sub-ordinates to them are the district courts . • The supreme court of India is headed by the chief justice and 25 other judges appointed by the president of India. • There are 24 high courts in India ,with the Calcutta high court the oldest established on 2nd July 1862.the judges of supreme court are appointed by the C.J.I. And the governor of the respective states. • The district court is set up by the state governments on the basis of the population of the district and various other factors. the district courts are presided by the district judge or metropolitan session judge if the district is metropolitan.
  3. 3. Issues • According to the World Bank, "although India's courts are notoriously inefficient, they at least comprise a functioning independent judiciary. A functioning judiciary is the guarantor of fairness and a powerful weapon against corruption. • Corruption in the judiciary goes beyond the bribing of judges. Court personnel are paid off to slow down or speed up a trial, or to make a complaint go away. Judges are also subject to pressure from above, with legislators or the executive using their power to influence the judiciary, starting with skewed appointment processes. • With over 3 crores of cases and sanctioned strength of some 16000 judges. The system has expanded rapidly in the last three decades, reflecting India’s social, economic and political development in this period. It is estimated that the number of Judges/Courts expanded six fold while the number of cases expanded by double that number – twelve fold. • the Delhi High Court has a backlog of 466 years according to its chief justice.[8] This is despite the average processing time of 4 minutes and 55 seconds in the court. • Citizens are often unaware of their rights, or resigned, after so many negative experiences, to their fate before a corrupt court.
  4. 4. Case Studies Uttam Nakate Case • Uttam Nakate was a helper in Bharat Forge. He was caught asleep on the job at 11:40 A.m., it was the fourth time this had happened, yet various courts (including Bombay High Court) did not grant the company the right to fire him. At the end, 22 years the Supreme Court of India upheld his dismissal. • In the above situation even thought the management of the company was right it took almost 22 years to solve the case. This represents how the labour laws of india have loopholes in them which helped worker in the above case. • Aside from highlighting the problem of India's lethargic legal system, Uttam's case dramatizes • “How the country's labor laws actually reduce employment, by making employers afraid to hire workers in the first place. The rules protect existing unionized workers – referred sometimes to as the "labor aristocracy" -- at the expense of everyone else. At this point, the labor aristocracy comprises only 10 percent of the Indian work force”. — Gurcharan Das on the Foreign Affairs magazine.
  5. 5. The above labour laws were formulated during the post independence era there the major employer were the zamindaars and the formal employment was’nt that relevant in the country. today with 25 million in organised sector albeit comprising just 6% of the population, the number has gone up since 66 years and the employers too. with globalisation in effect mnc’s,service sector is a major recruiter in organised sector after the public sector. The law which protects the organised labour unions have caused failure of several textile mills in Ahmedabad as well as in mMumbai , resulting in several skilled workers too unorganised sector such as the vendor lorry drivers rickshaw drivers etc. The Indian Labour Law is not at par with the global standards.
  6. 6. Nirbhaya case • We have taken up this case because we feel there is still lot to be done in rape,molestation,women harassment laws. • The infamous incident doesn’t require any case history as it was well and sensibly covered by the media. • The case was given to the fast rack court and even though given to the fast track court it took 9 months for its first conviction by the juvenile board. • The juvenile board awarded only 22 months of sentence to the under aged and was one of the most brutal among the gang • One of the most well known was the torture and murder of toddler James bulger in britain by two ten year olds in 1993.Despite their young age,Britain tried Jon Venables and Robert Thompson as adults. • Why couldn’t the same applicable to the case in Nirbhaya and fresh incidents at Shakti Mills in Mumbai? • Is birth certificate an easy route to escape crime??
  7. 7. • Why did the bus which didn't meet any rules and regulation set up by the R.T.O. was allowed to be on the roads of Delhi?? • This may be considered as an apathy on the part of Delhi police but isn’t this lack of co-ordination between the executive system and the judiciary system?? • The system of checks and balances keep all the 3 levels at par with each other but the some cases like this and the Coalgate scams in which files itself gets lost disturbs the thin line of error causing loss of faith in the executive system and hence in the judiciary system of the country. • According to our group we think the system of check and balances should be followed strictly and to reinstate faith of people especially women in the justice faster justice should be provided with daily hearings without adjournments and to save the dignity of women several steps should be taken, like protection of identity not unrevealing the past records to prove that the character of the women is dubious so she may engage in act with her consent.
  8. 8. The above shows slow and in some cases negative growth of case disposal. This is due to one major reason that is in high courts the number of judges appointed aren’t up to the mark reflecting the number of decrease in case rate by just meagre 1.73%.Even the district courts performed worst with negative disposal rate .the blame should go on the state governments who appoint them.
  9. 9. The above data can be interpreted in a way that lawyers or eminent jurist aren’t interested in taking up jobs due to several factors such as: The number of vacancies at the bottom of the judiciary level is highest in numbers in the subordinate courts due to selection criteria of judges which do not allow the judge to practice law when he is acting as a judge.the facilities as well as their pay scale given to them is lower than what they could earn if they are lawyers.  Judicial Corruption-Prashant Bhushan social activist and famous lawyer filed an affidavit that out of the 16 of the 17 previous C.J.I were corrupt. If a mechanism is developed which forces the courts or judges accountable to the public and status of the case discussed in public and adjournments which took place unnecessarily stopped than several important cases can be solved with its essence still held.
  10. 10. Identification of Bottlenecks · Studies have shown that cases under certain statutes and areas of law are choking the dockets of magisterial and specialized courts, and the same have been identified as follows: 1. Matrimonial cases. 2. Cases under the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988. 3. Regular murder cases/appeals. 4. Civil cases, including suits which may have been rendered in fructuous. 5. Petty cases such as Traffic Challans. 6. Motor Accident Claims. · Prioritization has to be worked out for an expeditious resolution of certain category of cases, such as those filed by senior citizens, terminally ill persons, cases pertaining to Pretrial and Juvenile prisoners, women who are victims of violence. These must receive fast track and out of turn disposal but in a uniform, organized and systematic manner. · There must be certainty in the law. Restricting the number of judgments is necessary to avoid uncertainty in the law. Quality and precision assist the lower judiciary in the expeditious and final disposal of cases.
  11. 11. Removal of Bottlenecks · Fast Track procedures must be evolved to deal with the cases earmarked as causing bottlenecks. · Special Court Rooms, additional buildings and other infrastructure must be provided for the above purpose. Increased infrastructural support must be considered on a war-footing. · Timetables should be established for every contested case and monitored through a computerized signalling system (NJA has developed and piloted such a model). · Special Courts to process cases on a non-stop day-to-day basis with no adjournments except in rare circumstances. · Courts may also take resort to Section 89A of the Civil Procedure Code, 1908 in order to ensure that litigants first exhaust all modes of alternative dispute resolution. This will not only decrease the pendency of cases before courts, but would also substantially reduce litigation costs and ensure timely and amicable resolution of disputes. · Commercial and arbitration cases have to be put on a separate track. Though a system of alternative dispute resolution / specialized dispute resolution aims at reducing (and in some cases, eliminating) time spent in court, the existing position does not reflect this. Judges, who are well versed with commercial laws and practices, as well as specialist arbitration judges, should be requested to put such cases on fast track