Sowing Prosperity :
Boosting agricultural productivity
SECOND GREEN REVOLUTION:
Solution to boost productivity in agriculture sector
Dr. Ram Manohar Lohiya National Law University,
•Aditya Shankar Pandey
It is strange that food- the most fundamental requirement of human beings, which also
forms the bulk of our agriculture produce- is largely considered an unrewarding sector in
Sector-wise GDP share
•3 out of every 4 Indian rural dwellers are dependent on
agriculture for their livelihood.
•8 out of every 10 Below Poverty Line(BPL) families in
India reside in villages.
The Share of rural economy in
Growing enough food is important because food output has to
match the growing population. 2
Low Productivity of Indian Agriculture
•The area of cultivated land per cultivator has declined
from 0.43 hectare in 1901 to 0.23 hectare in 1981 despite
an expansion of area under cultivation. HYPOTHESIS-
Agricultural sector has become overcrowded by high
population and this has adversely affected the agricultural
• The co-operatives and other institutional agencies have
not been able to eliminate the village money lenders.
Storage facilities for farmers are not still available to
preserve their agricultural product for a better price.
HYPOTHESIS- Shortage of finance, marketing and
storage facilities are also responsible for agricultural
backwardness in India.
•If monsoon becomes favorable, we have a good crop.
HYPOTHESIS- Indian agriculture is dependent on
•Indian agriculture is a gamble in monsoon due to non availability of
irrigation facilities. In spite of several measures, irrigation has not
substantially increased in India.
•The technique of production adopted by Indian farmers is old,
outdated and inefficient. The tradition-bound poor farmers have not yet
been able to adopt the modern methods to get the best yield from their
land. The seeds they use are of poor quality and the age- old, traditional
wooden plough still exists in Indian agriculture. The farmers do not
enjoy the benefits of agricultural research and development
programmes. They consider agriculture as a way of life rather than a
business proposition. Therefore, production remains at a low level.
•The small size of holdings in India is an impediment in the way of
progressive agriculture. The average size of holdings in India is less
than 2 hectares. In case of very small firms, it is difficult to introduce
new technology. Further, due to fragmentation of holdings a great deal
of labour and energy is destroyed in cultivation.
•The agrarian structure in India is not conducive for a progressive
agriculture. The tendril relationships were such that the big landlords
used to have a considerable influence on their respective areas. The
actuarial cultivator had known incentive for improvement and more
production. Though the zamindari system has been abolished, absentee
landlordism still prevails; heavy rents are still extracted and there is no
security of tenancy. Under these circumstances, it is unwise to expect
any remarkable increase in agricultural productivity due to the
apathetic attitude of the tillers of the land.
The first Green Revolution has yet to reach large
parts of the country - especially dry land areas,
where poverty incidence and farming risk tend to be
India’s heart resides in its villages, and just like a doctor whose work begins with the
diagnosis of the heartbeat, the planning and execution of any policy for the nation of a
billion, has to begin with the learning derived from its 600,000 villages.
Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam
Main points of the
•Matching the seeds
India now has to
embark on the
Input Side (Higher
•Research into high-
•Access to credit
•Transfer of farm
•Matching into local
Access & Storage)
•Quality Power Supply
•Physical & Electronic
both demand & supply
•Use of less land, less
soil, less pesticides
Focal Areas in our
•Harvest and post-
Million ton grain
( organic farming)
400 Million tons
COMPARING THE TWO GREEN
•The 2nd Green Revolution focuses on matching
soil to seed, and product to market.
•Other characteristics include- better use of
resources, diversifying products, changing
mindsets of farmers.
•In the ‘60s and ‘70s the priority was to resolve
food shortages, and environmental issues were
poorly understood. Today we have a clearer
understanding of how to monitor, control –
even reverse – land and water degradation.
The important technologies required for Second Green Revolution
Soil Matching- Modern sensors will be used to examine the soil and
find out its deficiencies and excesses. Excessive salts will be neutralized
by biological treatment and deficiencies will be rectified by adding
Water technologies- Technologies like drip irrigation, using
microelectronic circuits to control irrigation, will be increased.
Crop rotation & better seeds- Multiple cropping and judicious crop
rotation will help in protecting the soil. High yielding and hybrid seeds
available nowadays ,will be used to give new and varied types of
genetically improved seeds.
Fertilizers & pesticides- Biotechnology will be used in creating organic
fertilizers. Biological control of pests will be done.
Agriculture technology would assist the Indian farmers so that they need
to hire fewer workers, as there will be growth in the services and
industrial sector and people will move to these sectors to earn more
•Grass root level technology transfer to the under privileged farming community.
•Conservation agriculture through land management, integrated nutrient management,
comprehensive pest and disease management, water resource management including in
•Farm friendly cost effective tools and machineries development, introduction and
•Crop rotation including marketable alternate crops.
•Monitoring pesticide residue levels in agro foods for compliance to food safety norms.
•Facilitation of bank credit
• Market tie-up.
•Facilitation of agriculture support systems.
First of all, the Parliament of India should pass a unanimous resolution that India will adopt 2nd green revolution in the
Investment. Greater investment is essential. The government’s role would be to
facilitate such investment, and also to provide oversight to ensure fairness and
transparency. Research centers and universities must work with agribusiness to
develop products for specific markets. We also need greater integration between
agriculture and industry, e.g. establishing food processing plants near production
areas, linking farmers directly to buyers, reducing the role of middlemen ― in short,
creating an efficient value chain.
Policies. The country must move from consumption subsidies to capital subsidies to
encourage farmers to invest in new technologies and equipment. Subsidies on water,
electricity and fertilizer were crucial to the Green Revolution, but led to severe
environmental consequences. These subsidies must be phased out, and replaced with
targeted subsidies to encourage the adoption of new technologies that use resources
2nd GREEN REVOLUTION
We need to create a single chain linking every step from inputs and farm equipment to
production to food processing and retail. We also need to link research and extension
into this chain. This will require integration at multiple levels.
Research integration. The emphasis must shift from commodity-oriented or
disciplinary research to multidisciplinary, farming-systems-based programs. We need
not only new varieties and crop management methods but also innovations for crop
planning, warehousing and food processing. Researchers must not only resolve current
problems, but also anticipate and forestall future ones such as the impacts of climate
change on dry land agriculture.
Implementing the plan
MEETINGS (To be
initiated by the Ministry of
FARMS to be started
The division will engaged in agriculture technology transfer initiatives. As a
first step, street corner meetings will be conducted at village level to create
awareness about the present status of agriculture in their respective
locations, the problems faced by farmers, technological interventions
available and the need to apply those technologies. The meetings would be
participatory. The village awareness meetings will be used to identify lead
farmers for technology adoption.
100 farmers from each village will be shortlisted first. Once the lead farmers
are shortlisted, Demonstration Farms will established in farmers’ fields to
showcase the benefits of technology adoption
The soil from the farms of lead farmers will tested comprehensively for all
the 12 essential nutrients apart from other fertility determining parameters.
It includes testing for pH, Electrical Conductivity, Organic Matter %, CEC,
% Base Saturation, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Calcium, Magnesium,
Sulfur, Zinc, Manganese, Iron Copper, Boron and Sodium. Based on the test
results, the scientific experts will make integrated nutrient prescriptions
including organic, bio and inorganic inputs specific to the crop chosen by
farmers. General prescriptions for the suitability of soil to crop based on the
test results will also made.
Land preparation forms an important part of our model. Deep tilling using
chisel plough up to 1 ½ - 2 ft depth is advocated. Flat bed as well as raised
bed cultivation is advised based on crop choice and topography of the land.
Special purpose tools like direct seeder, seed cum fertilizer drill,
tropiculture, Rice Transplanter will also be extended to the farmers
Establishment and promotion of following would be done to implement the idea of second green revolution.
The farmers are trained and their capacity is built to adopt the modern technologies. Training
in the form of classroom interactions, field visits etc are extended to the farmers for better
implementation of technologies
Apart from establishing the demonstration farms, NAF offers field extension services to such
farms with periodic monitoring for inter-cultivation and pest management strategies. Mid
course actions are suggested and hand holding services are offered to the farmers
The farmers are advised to follow water saving irrigation methods like alternate wetting and
drying, raised bed / broad bed irrigation, skip furrow irrigation depending upon the crop
To promote technology adoption, the farmers will be organized to form Farmers Clubs in
each village. These Clubs will be supported by NABARD. The farmers clubs will help
disseminating knowledge and technology to more farmers in short period of time as they
Substitution of Irrelevant Items
from Annual Budget Allocation
Funds are being allocated to many
areas in the agricultural sector that
are not relevant anymore. The
Budget should be adjusted to
implement the newer, much-relevant
Pooling of Funds from Farmers’
Farmers that become members of the
farmers’ clubs would be asked to pool
their resources so that economies of scale
regarding seeds, machines, training and
research for newer ways of improving
food quality and quantity can be availed
of. This idea needs to be marketed by the
govt. so as to inform the farmers that this
policy is for their own benefit.
The government would issue in the market
agricultural bonds at a suitable interest for
private persons, which will be an investment
for them. This would achieve the three-fold
1. Agricultural sector will be
2. Private funds will be raised without
pressure on government to do the same.
3. The right of the tiller over the land and
resources will not be lost.
Collectivization of Farm Resources and
Apart from pooling of funds, heavy
machinery, fertilizers, seeds and research
fee would be shared by farmers and would
be community property and initiative,
without control exercised by the
government. Thus, incentive of ownership
to farmers will not be compromised and
still, the goal of having co-ordination in the
sector would be achieved.
If cultivation of land is continued without conservation of soil fertility and replacement of
large local varieties of plants with one or two varieties, then there will be a disastrous
effect, so we must have a ‘Evergreen Revolution’ in terms of increasing productivity
without perpetuating any associated ecological harm
IMPACT AND REACH
• Access to input markets and
• Improving the yield and
reducing the risks
• Confluence of technology &
• Access to incentives for
better farming practices
• Securities against weather
•Storage & transport
Processing • Establishing higher value
proposition for better
• Management of waste
products and their
Reach- 600,00 villages of
More than 300 million Below
Poverty Line (BPL) people to be
Sustainable development in the
agriculture sector to be achieved
Challenges and Mitigation Factors
•Second Green Revolution may take a long
time to show its effect.
•Use of chemical fertilizers & pesticides
would not stop at one go.
•Farmers might not adopt technology for
•The Government should provide incentives to
farmers that they should continue practicing
second green revolution till successful results
•Use of chemical fertilizers will be slowly
reduced along with adoption of organic farming.
•Farmers will be given education about
technological farming through village camps
and on spot solutions will be given by experts.
•Indigenous pest control methods are
not fool proof.
•Purchasing of seeds by farmers will
not be easy.
•Assessment of water consumption
would be difficult.
•The government can look into the method
used by Amway Corporation in controlling
•Seed conservation and manure production:
Collection of fruit, vegetable & other organic
waste from each household thereby segregating
organic and non- organic waste.
•Appointment of district agriculture
committees headed by BDO level state
•Economic Survey of India, 2010-11, Statistical Appendix
•Encyclopedia of Food and Culture, ed. Solomon H. Katz, Vol.2 (Gale
•‘India: Reducing Poverty in India: Options for More Effective Public
services’, documents of the World Bank, 1998.
•Data from Sikkim Organic Mission, available at
•B.R. Shah, ‘ Gujarat Agriculture: Prospects and Problems’, in Dholakia (ed.),
Frontiers of Agricultural Development in Gujarat.
•‘Agricultural Policy Reform in Brazil’. OECD Policy Brief. October 2005
•‘Agricultural Policy Reform in China’. OECD Policy Brief. October 2005