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  1. 1. Team Details Himanshu Panday, Kirti Singh, Hariprasad KV, Upasna Rana, Midhun George Manthan Topic Towards Cleaner India: Providing clean drinking water and proper sanitation facility to all
  2. 2. Only 21 % of India’s rural population have access to sanitation facilities, out of which only 14% actually use that. Present Scenario of Sanitation in India: 88 15 6.4 31 28 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Access to Clean Water Child Moratality (Below 5 ) GDP loss because of Improper Sanitation Access to Improoved Sanitation Facilities Health Care facilities within 5 kms 79% 14% 7% Sanitation Conditions In Rural India People who don't have access to proper sanitation facilities People who use sanitation facilities People who have access to sanitation facilities but don't use 42% 58% Sanitation Conditions in Urban India People who don't have access to proper sanitation facilities People who have access to proper sanitation facilities 97 90 0 20 40 60 80 100 People who have access to clean drinking water in Urban Area People who have access to clean drinking water in Rural Area Present Clean Drinking Water Scenario in India Source: Word-Bank Data, Ministry of Drinking water & Sanitation, Reports of Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan, Unicef Reports .
  3. 3. Causes of Improper Sanitation in India: • No access to sanitation facility • Psychological aspects related to restricted use of existing sanitation facility (Regional, Religion Faith, Tradition) • Social Acceptance • Lack of awareness • Lack of Maintenance of existing sanitation facility • Child feces are considered to be harmless • Shortage of water Effects of Improper sanitation: • Increased danger of communicable diseases, Like- Diarrhea, Cholera etc. • Safety issues of women and girls • High mortality rate of children under 5 • Increased cost of healthcare • Decreased productivity of Nation • Degraded quality of domestic water resources
  4. 4. Existing Government Policies & Plans: Initiative Description Target Shortcomings Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan • Construction of Individual Household Latrines • Rural Sanitary Marts and Production Centers • Community Sanitary Complex • Institutional Toilets- School and Anganwadi • Solid and Liquid Waste Management • Maintenance of facilities created under NBA • Motivate communities and Panchayati Raj Institutions promoting sustainable sanitation facilities through awareness creation and health education. • Accelerate sanitation coverage in rural areas to achieve the vision of Nirmal Bharat by 2022 with all gram Panchayats in the country attaining Nirmal status. • To make India Open Defecation Free (ODF) by 2022. • Households that have benefited once would not be eligible for any further assistance. • No or very less involvement of private sector. • Less clarity at ground level implementation • Issue of local leadership. Nirmal Gram Puraskar • An award based Incentive Scheme for fully sanitized and open defecation free Gram Panchayats, Blocks, Districts and States. • launched to recognise the achievements and efforts made in ensuring full sanitation coverage. • Improving and maintaining sanitation facilities. • Solid & Liquid Waste Management and Creation of additional sanitation facilities • Ofiicial’s vested interests in clocking higher numbers • Quality of total sanitation not assured before awarding the status National Rural Drinking Water Programme • Associated with problem of sustainability, water availability and supply, poor water quality. • Emphasize on water supply systems which are planned and managed by the village community. • sustainable drinking water availability, convenient delivery systems and achieving water security at the household level. • To ensure 100 percent drinking water availability to everyone. • Maintenance of existing facility with community efforts. • Though the initiative have performed excellent by achieving 91% people access to clean water, but misappropriation of funds is the major issue. Scope of challenge: • 4 out of 5 people in rural India doesn’t have access to proper sanitation facility. • GDP loss due to improper sanitation conditions is 6.4 %. • On an average, 3 out of 10 children in villages are not able to survive above 5 year because of improper sanitation conditions. • 4 out of 10 people in rural area who have access to sanitation facilities don’t use it because of less awareness. • On an average, each family (approx. family size – 4 members) in rural India has mobile phone but only one fourth of them have access to toilets.
  5. 5. • National Rural Drinking Water Programme has shown an excellent performance at real grounds and achieved target of clean drinking water access to 91% population. • Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan gives most emphasis upon construction and maintenance of proper sanitation facility. Though spreading awareness is second motive of this initiative but the awareness campaign seems ineffective. • 4 out of 10 people who have access to sanitation facility, doesn’t use the sanitation facility because of lack of awareness. • 40% people in rural area uses mobile phones. It means that even if we consider a minimum family size of 4, each family has mobile phone. While only 2 people out of 10 have access to sanitation facility. • In the same scenario, even if there will be 100% access to sanitation facility in rural India, 40 % people would not use it due to lack of awareness. So spreading awareness is an important aspect in achieving Nirmal Bharat target. Selection of medium for spreading awareness: • Television has good presence in locations which are connected to road network however interior villages are excluded. But since people use it for entertainment proposes, Its reliability is low. Ex- People may not watch awareness advertisements and can switch the channels. • Doctors, ASHA can be another medium but their exposure is limited. • Gram Panchayat Representatives are not reliable because of lack of communication. • School teachers can also be a part of awareness campaign but there exposure is limited to school going children only. • Mobile phones are emerging new media channels with strong potential. Television Mobile Phones Loudspeaker Posters School Teacher Radio, PRI News Paper Doctors, ASHA Reliability E x p o s u r e Low Medium High LowMediumHigh
  6. 6. Plan Advantage over existing sanitation Campaign Use of Mobile phones as media channel for spreading awareness regarding improper sanitation habits • Identification of regions with poor sanitation conditions and their specific sanitation problems. • Convincing Telecommunication service provider for utilizing funds related to CSR(Corporate Social Responsibility) in this campaign and broadcast voice messages related to improper sanitation habits. • Recording of voice messages in regional language. • Monitoring of sanitation related parameters in the particular region. • High reliability because of pushing nature of model. • Since voice messages links expenditure on health care with sanitation habits, which has more impact over stakeholders. • Audio messages in regional language have more impact than existing printed posters or news paper advertisements. • Operational cost of campaign is not a burden on government budget since funds can be managed through CSR only. • This method of spreading awareness is having very high and even exposure among stakeholders.
  7. 7. 1. Division of rural area on the basis of percentage of people with access to proper sanitation facilities. 2. Arranging them in order while giving priority to the region with least access. 3. Carrying out research in divided areas to find out specific sanitation problems. Research methods can include surveying, informal communication or formal interview. 4. Making of a formal document stating particular area of rural India and specific sanitation problem of that area. Plan and Implementation A. Identification of regions with poor sanitation conditions and their specific sanitation problems: B. Involvement of Telecommunication Service provider 1. According to clause no. 135 of new companies bill, companies with a net worth of more than ₹ 500 crore or revenue of more than ₹ 1,000 crore or net profit of more than ₹ 5 crore have to spend at least 2% of their average net profits of the preceding 3 years on CSR. It means that telecommunication giants like Airtel and Vodafone will have to spend around ₹ 13-17 crores in activities related to corporate social responsibility. 2. These telecommunication service providers can be convinced to use this fund of CSR for broadcasting voice messages about good sanitation habits before call. 3. Since they can do it by using their existing setup so it is feasible for them. Spending one rupee at sanitation facilities saves 9 rupees in terms of health care, education and economic development.
  8. 8. C. Recording and broadcasting of voice messages related to sanitation habits 1. Awareness messages would cover the following topics: • Linkage between expenditure on healthcare and sanitation habits. • Awareness about the need of proper sanitation Awareness about how improper sanitation effects health • Open defecation is a shame • Safety of their beloved ones • Proper sanitation is more important than independence Proper sanitation is the best preventive medicine. Proper sanitation contributes to gender equality, access to education and dignity. • Improper sanitation reduces poverty and fosters economic growth. • Proper sanitation sustains human settlement and protects our planet's environment. • Messages requesting people to take part in the campaign and spread the message. 2. The messages shouldn’t be repetitive. 3. The messages should be short – 10 seconds and it should come before the actual communication takes place. 4. The messages may be recorded in the voice of prominent celebrities. 5. The messages need not show up for every call that a person makes in a day, as it might become irritating and forceful. Time can be selected according to sanitation problems 6. The campaign will go for one month as a small project only after which the effectiveness of the campaign will be studied. D. Feedback: Monitoring of Sanitation related parameters in the particular region 1. This idea can be implemented at a very small scale. 2. Some parameters can be used for measuring results of campaign like- • Percentage access to proper sanitation facilities, • Reduction in child mortality rate • Decreased expenditure on health-care • Increased school attendance of children • Increased productivity • Reduction in no of deaths occurred due to communal diseases etc. 3. Other methods can include surveying, informal communication or formal interview. 4. The results will be the measure of success of campaign. 5. If this pilot project is successful then this can be implemented over large scale. 6. Data came through this feedback will be compared with data came through the first step and a comparative study will be done between them to have a good understanding of effects of campaign. In India, more than 1000 children under 5 years of age die each day only because of diarrhea caused by lack of sanitation.
  9. 9. Impact: • Since the flow of awareness is in pyramid manner, response might be quick. Ex- Information is passing to children through elder family members, so they are likely to follow sanitation habits. • Audio messages in regional language has more impact then existing paper posters and newspaper advertisements because of lower literacy among stakeholders. Reach: • Mobile communication is a potential media channel in both urban and rural area with a wide reach. • It covers a broad age spectrum. • Involvement in regional language may make a great reach among stakeholders. Challenges: • In equal gender penetration ( Mobile phone usage is biased towards male in rural areas). • In emergency cases, people might not like this intervention but probability is very low because of restricted timings of broadcasting. • People using mobile only for receiving call might not get covered. • Maintaining a cordial relationship between government and private authorities can be a problem, but intervention of DOT (Department of Telecommunication) can make it smoother.
  10. 10. References • Swajal Nirmal Bharat, News letter, Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation. • World Development Indicators, World Databank • Nationally representative survey of diarrhoeal deaths: World Bank • UNICEF’s report on Child health and sanitation • Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan- beyond the hype: Livemint • Squatting rights – Dasra • Economics of Sanitation Initiative: WSP (Water and sanitation program) • Progress on Sanitation and Drinking Water: Unicef • What is ailing sanitation sector in India: D S Kapur, Water Aid India • Reports of National Rural Drinking Water Programme • Reports ofNirmal Bharat Abhiyan • Reports of Nirmal Gram Puruskar