Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. Sowing Prosperity: Boosting Agricultural Productivity Team Members Mohsin Khan Jai Kumar Kshitij Tinku Mandeep Tewatia Chanan Sandal Swami Sarvanand Giri Panjab University Regional Centre, Hoshiarpur
  2. 2. • Ineffective farming techniques and wasteful post-harvest practices. • The average size of agricultural land holdings has decreased from 2.3 hectares in 1971 to 1.2 hectares in 2011. • No proper storage and transport facility for perishable Agro products. • Farmers suffer from financial exclusion and have no formal access to credit . • Old school irrigation & farming methods. • Stagnant production, low productivity, traditional technology & poor rural infrastructure. • Food self sufficiency adopted by the small farmers. • Lack in introduction, distribution and teaching to the farmers about modern agricultural technologies. • Exploitation of the farmers by the middle man. • Shortage of young people coming into agriculture because of the mental harassment being faced and traditional Indian mindset. • The core challenge is to support the small holder farmer many of whom struggle to subsist at or below the poverty line. In 2011-2012, Agriculture employed 70% of the country’s work force but only contributed to 13% of the GDP What is the PROBLEM ? Data Of 1990-91 Data of 2009-10
  3. 3. There is no “SILVER BULLET”- No quick fixes  Current scenario demands to produce more with less Land/Water/Labour .  It is in the agriculture sector that the battle for long term economic development will be won or lost.  Improving the mix of agricultural technologies Making sure the technology package is crafted with the India’s tremendously varied human, ecological and economic circumstances in mind.  Directed by public policy (subsidies, mandates, R&D investment, tariffs) Interventions most likely to improve agricultural productivity In the short term:  Strengthening human and institutional capacity for agriculture.  Empowering farmers by including them in policy and programme design, and  Improving farmer support systems and markets. In the medium term:  Making innovation systems more coherent.  Targeting external support more effectively and increasing investment in agriculture R&D. Strengthening the innovation capabilities of Indian agricultural systems Apply the innovation systems framework to Indian agriculture:  to identify weaknesses in agricultural production. Create linkages between farmers, global networks and value chains because:  Smallholder farmers are often the least educated participants in the system.  A majority of smallholder farms remain isolated from the Indian knowledge and information systems - the predominant channels for promoting agricultural development in the continent. Transfer of technology:  Promote demand - led approaches, through global value chains, which can be a useful mode of transfer of technology.
  4. 4. Key components of boosting agricultural growth • Improvement in the productivity of the entire food chain, by improving factor productivity, competitiveness, access to markets. • Diversification of agriculture and boosting high-value products. • Reduction of post-harvest losses and, • Tailoring agenda according to the major farm types. Commercial Farmers Strategy • Assistance to develop and employ food and biosafety regulations and systems for quality assurance, traceability and certification. • Strengthening of legal frameworks for property rights to promote private R&D and secure tenancy. • Strengthening producer organizations to represent member interests and promote initiatives in the industry. • Supporting development of diverse and competitive agricultural/agro- industrial innovation systems based on user-financing and private service delivery. Poverty impacts • Development of labor-intensive high-value systems to generate employment for the poor. • Increasing productivity to reduce food prices for non-tradable. Small Market Oriented Farmers Strategy • Developing an efficient agricultural technology system to meet the needs of small farmers. • Supporting innovative communication systems to supply relevant information on production, markets and alternative crops. • Promoting small farmers’ organizations to coordinate input and marketing needs. Poverty Impact • Broad-based growth to generate income for small-scale farmers. • Increased productivity to reduce food prices for non-tradable. Subsistence Farmers Strategy • Targeting investments to poorer regions, minorities, etc. • Strengthening local institutions and organizations that can best support farmers with scarce resources and develop market-oriented enterprises. • Facilitating participatory development of local infrastructure and technology in collaboration with NGOs. Poverty Impact • Development of human and social capital necessary to address wider problems. • Development of niche commodities such as organic produce that are labor intensive. • Reduction of vulnerability • Employment generation
  5. 5. Developing sustainable Agriculture infrastructure through collaboration of Public & Private Methods Agricultural Growth Model Implementation Model Advantages over existing system  Providing hybrid & Green manure seeds and organic fertilizers.  Sustainable irrigation methods & farming technologies.  Promotion of Integrated Farming System. • Integrated system reveals a strong complementarity in agriculture, public investment in public goods like R&D, rural infrastructure such as roads, power ,irrigation etc. would facilitate private investment in post harvest management, market, infrastructure and processing sectors .  Ensuring (CRF) Calamity Relief Fund subsidy & insurance.  Convert small land holding into larger farms to take advantage of co-operative farming and reducing the overall farming cost. E.g.: Heavy machinery, seeds etc.  Presence of support infrastructure and innovative marketing system to aggregate and market the output from such small holdings efficiently and effectively.  Creating a competitive zone among farmers by using methods of Exhibition and Awards.  Artificial soil enrichment methods like E.g. , BioChar.  Assessment needed at every level tentatively.  Awareness to the farmers through NGOs and volunteers/helper network.  Implementing of newer agriculture methods must be targeted to farmers.  Result oriented research.  Efficient working of APC to check prices and exploitation of farmers by middle man.  Better credit/finance to farmers.  Involving the young generation so as to sustain agriculture as an occupation.  Better Irrigation, Farming and market facilities made available to farmers.  Co-operative usage of heavy and expensive machinery i.e.. Cooperative farming.
  6. 6. Macroeconomic & International Regulatory Environment Physical Infrastructure Farming & Soil Conditions Sector Performance Growth, Jobs, Competitiveness Product Market Conditions Education System & Training Agricultural Knowledge Generation, Diffusion and Use Firms and Networks Science suppliers Research & standard Setting Bodies Supporting Institutions FARMERS Global Innovation networks National Innovation System Industry,other supplyledsystems& valuechains Regionalinnovations systems Agricultural Innovation Capacity The Innovations Systems Idea(ISI) An innovation capacity development approach does not mean getting rid of old policy tools (such as research investment). But rather rethinking how these are used, sequenced, clustered, embedded and what additions might be necessary and how the role of certain policy tools might need to change to perform new functions. A Key strength of ISI It is an analytical tool that can help reveal the nature of innovation capacities and weaknesses in them. Focus in Technology Generation & Delivery Agricultural Innovation System Technology generation should become more holistic: – Cover the entire food chain (farm to table); – Greater attention to efficiency of input use (water, feed grain); – Use all tools (traditional breeding and bio- technology, agro-ecological approaches, IT); – Become much more client driven; and – Strengthen public and private partnerships and private investments. Technological progress in agriculture needs to become more pluralistic and knowledge intensive Evolving concepts and approaches – Greater differentiation between public, commercial and private services: • Public services, where market failures occur (poor, NRM, organizations). • Commercial and private services where markets function. – Pluralistic institutional arrangements • Decentralized, participatory, competitive. – Experimentation with new approaches • ICT, mass media, etc.
  7. 7. di Director Agriculture & Food Production Deputy Director of Agriculture (DDA) Administrative & Technical Officer Assistant Agriculture Officer Head at Block Agricultural Level Agricultural Oversees (A.O) & Village Agricultural Worker (V.A.W) V.A.W come across the day to day issues of farmer under supervision of gram pradhan Awareness program through selected NGO’s Management & Awareness Team NGO’s Finance TeamHuman Resource Team Managing Team Executive Team A.O and V.A.W at Gram Panvhayat level monitors the agricultural activities. Organizational setup for the initiative: Revenue district organization divided into Ranges Recruitment of additional directors, joint directors & technical officers. Mapping of trainees, administrative & technical officers Central & State fund management Schedule and curriculum design work Keep an eye Head of agricultural range Assists/Help DDA Plans seminar manages funds and supervise the report Works parallel with the government in collaboration with this institution Block and Gram Panchayat Level Minister of Agriculture Assisted by Administrative and Agro Technical team
  8. 8. The implementation functional and helper network will be managed by state level management team supported by the District, Block & Gram Panchayat. Recruitment of Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) Training Imparted Salient Feature District Offices Block Offices Gram offices Online NGO’s District Offices Modern Innovative Technology Training to A.O & V.A.W Training at Gram Panchayat Level Demonstrated by A.O & V.A.W Training by NGOs, Supporting Firms & Enterprises • SMEs like Professors of IRAI and Scientists for updating the technology at block & district level to NGOs and helper network. • Teaching by technical officers to V.AW. • Practically showing the new methods and techniques to farmer on their land by technical officers & V.A.W. • Efficient use of available human resource and hence cost effective. E.g:- Students from agricultural institutes , NGO.
  9. 9. The mandate of the Directorate is development in agriculture sector through transfer of improved technologies, timely supply of agricultural inputs to the farmers, capacity building of the extension personnel and farmers, increasing agricultural production & productivity and over all development of the economic status of the farmers. Activities • Transmitting improved technologies evolved from the Research Institutes to the farmers. • Creating awareness among the farmers on different developmental schemes and Implementation thereof. • Imparting training to the farmers, conducting field demonstrations. • Organizing district level agricultural exhibitions. • Organizing exposure visit of farmers within and out side the State. • Production of quality seeds in the departmental farms as well as in the farmers’ field. • Supply of quality seeds to the farmers through departmental Sale Centers. • Monitoring the supply of fertilizer and pesticides to the farmers. • Popularization of farm machineries and equipment's. • Creating irrigation potential through private lift irrigation program. • Quality control of seeds, fertilizer and pesticides. • Soil testing, providing soil health cards to farmers and fertilizer recommendation for different crops basing on soil nutrient status. • Updating knowledge of extension personnel through training. • Suggesting suitable cropping program especially for irrigated ayacuts. • Motivating the farmers to take up Crop Insurance and estimating the yield of Arhar, Niger and Cotton for insurance purpose. • Providing CRF subsidy to natural calamity affected farmers. • Transfer of modern technology and promote farm mechanization, seed replacement, plant protection, soil and water management etc. through Agriculture Extension. • Ensure quality inputs for better production • Varietal intervention • Demonstrations • Farmer’s capacity building • Cooperation with allied departments/ agencies • Promotion of Agro-entrepreneurship. • Provision of incentive/subsidy to farmers • Formulation of plans programs & schemes for the agricultural development of the state. • Increase crop production in a sustainable manner through transfer of modern technology. • Utilization of various state & central funds.
  10. 10. TOTAL FUNDING REQUIRED Organizational Cost Logistics Cost Technology CostFunding Central Govt. State Govt. Business (private and Parastatal sectors) Scalable Funding: Taking it to be 100Cr. Parts of the funds will be used to support practice oriented research & development projects. 65 Crore 25 Crore 10 Crore Govt. Research Inst. State Agricultural University Other Public R&D Inst. Business Organization & NGO (Private & Semi Public) 50 Crore 25 Crore 20 Crore 5 Crore Transportation Cost Establishment Cost Expenditure Heavy Machinery Cost Seeds and hi-tech fertilizers Technology Delivery Cost
  11. 11. This Model may face some challenges and implementation risk: Challenges and Risks Mitigation Factor  Organic farming makes a significant contribution to climate change and to the bio diversity conservation.  Use of stress resistant seeds.  Banks should work on special structured schemes for farm financing and increasing there outreach to interiors.  Agriculture lies under ‘state subjects’ under the constitution of India.  FDI in agriculture Agro based industries of product, machinery & technology.  Organic products are more expensive than conventional foods.  Effects of climatic conditions and natural calamities.  Flagship programs of the government have become a problem against implementing new approach because people find these flagship programs easy.  Lease system to convert small land holding into large, may not be welcomed by farmers.  The degree and the extent of credit risks in agriculture.  Fund and resource intensive mechanism, which may result in less interest by central govt.  Private firms may show less interest.
  12. 12. Appendix • United Nations Sustainable Development knowledge base: • Institutional Credit to Agriculture Sector in India: Status, Performance and Determinants rminants/file/32bfe5110c5d93be60.pdf • Modern Agriculture and Its Benefits %20Modern%20Agriculture%20and%20Its%20Benefits.pdf • Africa progress panel policy brief 2010: • NDTV India, A report by Ravish Kumar on agriculture. • Mitigating Credit Risk in Agriculture: A Note by YES Bank . %20Modern%20Agriculture%20and%20Its%20Benefits.pdf • Small Farmers in India: Challenges and Opportunities. %20Modern%20Agriculture%20and%20Its%20Benefits.pdf • Sharma, V.P. (2012). Accelerating Agriculture Growth for Inclusive Development. Vikalpa, 37(1). Retrieved from • Gulati, A. & Jain, S. (2012, December 20). Credit inclusion, farm lease and forming clusters can help small farmers overcome poverty much faster. The Economic Times. Retrieved from farms-farm-output-farm-lease • Khajuria, J. (2013). Think before you throw. Retrieved from • Planning Commission, Government of India. (2008). Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-2012). Retrieved from • Ahluwalia, M.S. (2011). Prospects and Policy Challenges in the Twelfth Plan. Economic and Political Weekly, 46(21). • World Bank. (2012). India: Issues and Priorities for Agriculture. Retrieved from • Agricultural Census, Government of India. (2012). All India Report on Agricultural Census 2005-06. Retrieved from • Gulati, A. & Jain, S. (2012, December 20). Credit inclusion, farm lease and forming clusters can help small farmers overcome poverty much faster. The Economic Times. Retrieved from farms-farm-output-farm-lease • Rural lending. Retrieved from banks-lending • Gross Capital Formation in Agriculture 2011 , Bharti & Vijay, NABARD. Retrieved from