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  1. 1. Increasing the employability of Youth. BY: K.Gouri Charanya, Sameera Taqdees, Shagufta Ruhi, T.Sai Priya, Dilbahar Kaur.
  2. 2. Why is YE so important? Youth is a period of transition and vulnerability Vulnerability appears to increase with globalization and increased competition, everywhere Long periods of unemployment have a lasting impact on youth: – Individual level: self-esteem, respect, sense of achievement – Societal: integration, cohesiveness, citizenship
  3. 3. The Present 88 million young people out of work 59 million kids (17-19) in hazardous work Youth are 41 percent of all unemployed Youth unemployment 2-3 times higher than average unemployment
  4. 4. The Best-Educated Generation Ever!* Yet… still large differences globally: 130 million children not in school 133 million youth are illiterate Large gender differences Large differences between groups of countries *(And healthiest ever too.)
  5. 5. An educational achievement league of 24 rich countries The Top 5 Other countries 1 Republic of Korea 1.4 12 France 12.6 2 Japan 2.2 18 USA 16.2 3 Finland 4.4 19 Germany 17.0 4 Canada 5.0 21 Spain 18.6 5 Australia 6.2 22 Italy 20.2 The table shows average ranks of all five measures. Source: UNICEF Innocent Report Card No 4, November 2002.
  6. 6. The Future Over 1 billion young people in need of jobs every 10 years = 100 million jobs a year 130 million kids not in school now -> what will they be in 10 years? (Importance of MDGs) More unemployed young people in urban areas with little hope for decent work Globalization –> increased competition between young people in more countries?
  7. 7. 4 E’s to address youth unemployment 1. Employability – investing in education 2. Equal opportunities – for men and women 3. Entrepreneurship – start and run businesses 4. Employment creation – as part of macroeconomic policy
  8. 8. The First E. Employability  Definition: a key outcome of education and training to instill skills, knowledge and competencies of workers  Reality: high cost of investment, skills mismatch  Invest in life skills, life-long learning, ICT, entrepreneurship, SSEs in and out of school
  9. 9. The Second E. Equal opportunities for young men and women  Before school: equal access and entry for boys and girls  In school: “tracking” out of TVE, career guidance, double burdens, cultural barriers, gender stereotyping, harassment  After school: credit access, lower skills  In the job: discrimination in pay, training, promotion
  10. 10. The Third E. Entrepreneurship  Cultural attitudes: negative perceptions of entrepreneurship, corruption, social entrepreneurship  Education: a system that stimulates entrepreneurial spirit, teachers’ training  Skills training: career training, ICT  Business support: skills and services to run your own firm  Regulation: taxes, laws and burocracy  Finance: youth as risky investments
  11. 11. The Fourth E. Employment creation  Yes, it is the economy that creates jobs!  Labor market policies  Macro-economic policies  Exchange rate policies  Sectoral policies  External economic shocks, disasters and wars  Institutional support for youth employment: governance, national employment strategy, monitoring
  12. 12. What’s next: National action plans for youth employment by March 2004 Mobilizing financial resources for youth employment Linking youth employment with education Expanding on youth participation in policy and action: “No decision making without youth participating”
  13. 13. Unemployment is the problem. Youth are the solution.
  14. 14. Thank you