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  1. 1. Manthan Topic: THE SUNRISE STATES Realizing the growth potential of North East NER-”the treasure of the future INDIA” Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Technology Bangalore TEAM PRAYAAG: i. LIJO P JAMES( CO ORDINATOR) ii. XAVIER C V iii. CHINTHAN M iv. KALYAN N v. DARSHAN A
  2. 2. ABBREVIATIONS 1. NER: North Eastern Region 2. NEI: North Eastern India 3. NER: North Eastern Region 4. WWF: World Wide Fund 5. BSF: Border Security Force 6. ITI: Industrial Training Institute 7. CRPF: Central Reserve Police Force 8. UNESCO: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 9. ITBF : Indo Tibetan Border Force 10. NE: North East
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION • The sunrise states are referred to the Northeastern part of India which includes the states of Arunachal Pradesh,Assam,Manipur,Meghalaya,Tripura,Nagaland,Mizoram (commonly called as 7 sisters) and the Himalayan state of Sikkim. • This region connected to the main land India with a narrow corridor squeezed b/w Nepal and Bangladesh (Siliguri corridor of West Bengal). • These region shares more than 4500 KM of international border • ( about 90% of India’s entire border area) with Tibetan territory of China in the north, Myanmar in the east, Bangladesh in the south west and Bhutan in the north west. It also shares border with Nepal in the state of Sikkim (west of Sikkim). • These states cover 8% of India’s total geographical area and less than 5% of its total population. • Geographically these regions has a hilly terrain. (Eastern Himalayas). • These regions are rich in traditional tribal culture and rare art crafts.
  4. 4. • A major portion of the river Brahmaputra (longest river in India) is flowing through this region. • These regions are rich in minerals and petroleum products especially natural gas( Assam contributes up to 25% of India’s petroleum needs). • These regions are famous for its endemic wildlife and scenic beauty.( WWF identified eastern Himalayas as one of the global biological hotspot). • Tea plantation( mainly in the valleys of Assam) , paddy , rubber, fruits are the main agriculture practiced in these region. • Bio fuels like oil palm and Jetropha are encouraged in the state of Mizoram.
  5. 5. CHALLENGES Internal Insurgency:  It is the major concern by the NER in its dynamic development.  Some of these ethnic groups strikes for a separate state while some other fight for a regional autonomy and extreme groups demand for complete independence.  As per the Institute of Conflict Management reports more than 5000 people have been killed due internal insurgency in which it includes 384 military/paramilitary/police personals and more than 1800 civilians.  As per the official reports there are more than 100 active/inactive insurgent groups are reported in the NER and its neighboring countries.  Unofficial reports says that high amount of weapons and financial support (especially fake currency) are supplied for these insurgent groups through Myanmar border from China.  According to an Indian Intelligence report many Indian insurgent camps are located inside Bangladesh border and Bangladesh become a safe heaven for the Indian insurgents.
  6. 6. Border Insurgency:  Recollecting the facts of 1962 Sino-Indian war and a huge land border of 3380km(approx.) which include the border b/w NE states of Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh, China is our major concern especially in the NER.A recent report says that Chinese army was intruded 20km into the Indian territory in Arunachal Pradesh on August 11th 2013 just before India celebrated its 67th independence day. China lays claims on entire Arunachal Pradesh which is completely rejected by India. Hence the tension in the Indo-China border is always active.  Other than China, India shares a massive border of 4053 km with Bangladesh. (it is the country in which India shares its maximum International borders). Due to the very pours border and the presence of insurgent groups in the Indo-Bangladesh border, it is always venerable for a conflict. Recently in the year 2001(april 16th to 20th) a conflict took place between India and Bangladesh killed 17 of our BSF soldiers.  There is also a border dispute b/w India and Myanmar (Burma) in the state of Manipur. Recently it is reported that a group of Myanmar army is intruded into the Indian territory and constructed a temporary army camp at the Haolenphai village of Manipur. (reported on 22nd August 2013).India shares a 1600km of border with Burma and it is our main access to the South East Asia.
  7. 7. Some active/inactive Insurgency Groups In North East India:  ULFA (United Liberation Front of Assam)-ASSAM  NDFB (National Democratic Front of Bodoland)-ASSAM  People’s Liberation Army-MANIPUR  UNLF (United Liberation Front of Manipur)-MANIPUR  NSCN (National Socialist Council of Nagaland)-NAGALAND  National Liberation Front of Tripura-TRIPURA  All Tripura Tiger Force-TRIPURA  ANVC ( Achik National Volunteer Council)-MEGHALAYA  BNLF ( Bru National Liberation Front )-MIZORAM ANNEX 1
  8. 8. Unemployment:  A person is unemployed when he is willing to work at the going wage rate but finds no job. The unemployment rate of NER represent one of the highest rates of unemployment in the country with an unemployment rate close to 15% against the national average of 9.4%(2009-2011).  As the known fact, unemployment leads to poverty. Hence NER has 11% of its entire population under the national poverty line. Poor Transport system:  Due to the rough terrain and high altitude implementation of roads and railway lines are risk and of high expense due to the requirements of brides or tunnels frequently.  Just 3042 km of railway line of entire India is passing through the NER. Out of this, a major portion is running only trough the state of Assam and West Bengal.  This affects these regions economy by decreasing industrialization, trade, and infrastructure development. Landlocked:  As mentioned earlier, the NER is connected to the main land India through a very small(22km) corridor called the Siliguri corridor. This affects the region in developing further road and railway lines connecting the NER and the main land India which discourage the trade and hence the economy. No Costal Area:  Due to the absence of costal area in the region, direct sea route trade cannot be possible in this region and the absence of active Naval force weakens the combined military action.
  9. 9. MERITS  A highly literate population (a good English speaking community). Except the Arunachal Pradesh(), all the states have a literacy rate above than the national average of 64.8%. But a poor skill development leads to unemployment.  Direct exposure to east Asia (border trade). As China is the main growing economy in the Asia, trade b/w India and China will increase NER economy as well as India’s.  Presence of natural resources and minerals including crude oil and natural gas.158 m crude oil and 23000 million m3 of natural gas is estimated in this region. Other than petroleum, NE is rich in Coal, Iron ore, Marble, Granite, Quartzite and Dolomite etc.  High potential in the field of tourism and cultural development. Rich in wildlife, hill stations and panoramic surrounding, tourists can be easily attracted to NE. But due to poor transportation , security and facilities tourists are discouraged to explore NER.  Highly Identified Potential in the field of Power generation (hydro electric potential). If this potential is well exploited, electricity can be supplied to other regions of the country. (a new permanent source of income for the NER). The spill over benefits include the infrastructure development like road and railways. It also provide uninterrupted power supply to the high altitude villages, hence quality of life will be increased. All the main development goals and measures are interrelated like a food chain. Below depicted diagram will give a vague idea of dynamic development goals and challenges.
  11. 11. COUNTER INSURGENCY  Insurgency can be eradicated by counter insurgency operations. But such an operation will produce bloodshed and economic instability. After studying the root cause of the conflict ,awareness and proper education among the insurgent community is the broad way to eliminate insurgency in the future. Also proper discussions and friendly talks with the insurgent community will lead to a peaceful NEI.  CRPF,BSF,ITBF and the state police are the major forces working for counter insurgency operation and peace keeping in the NES.  Border insurgency can be avoid by proper understanding b/w the two countries. Friendship treaty ,bilateral trade agreements and combined military actions on the border will strengthens the oversees relationship with neighboring countries. EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES  Investment in agriculture and food processing will increase the employment opportunities in the agri sector.(80% above population in NER depends on agriculture and related activities).  Conventional farming Technique of jhum is sustainable system, But improper implementation leads to crop failure and fragile ecosystem. Hence more scientific ways of farming should be implemented. Agriculture research centers and universities should be established region wide.  Sill development: Even after a high literate population in NER ,skilled working sector is very less. This is due to lack of technical knowledge and training. Implementing ITIs ,technical institutes ,engineering collages (IITS) and Research Universities will overcome this challenge.  Govt. policies like vision 2020 is implemented in NER is for aiming a skilled community by the year 2020.  We can use the IT sector as a backbone for upgrade the skills.
  12. 12. TOURISM:  A major source of employment opportunities can be seen in tourism. But tourism is not completely utilized in the NER. Implementation of roads and railways increase the tourism sector.  With 7 national park and wildlife sanctuaries, NER can be easily attracted by nature lovers, travelers and wild life photographers. Kaziranga national park famous for its one horned rhinos , Namdapha National park (spread over 2000 KM2) and Manas national park( world heritage site by UNESCO) are the main wildlife tourist destinations. Eco tourism ,trekking ,river rafting can be easily implemented in these areas attracts adventure sports lovers.  Also in the areas of Sikkim, mountaineering tourism can be further exploited by commercializing it through clubs, institutes and package tours.  Implementation of resort tourism in Assam tea plantation will also attracts tourists.  Further Implementation of waterways connecting river Brahmaputra will also support tourism in a great extent.  Implementation of cable car in this area can boost up the tourism. Cable car system is implemented by Switzerland tourism and it was a commercial success. •Cable cars are one time investment. •Maintenance free and works in electricity without pollution. •Irrespective of the terrain ,altitude and climate , it can be implemented. •Since it works with pillars , there is no much destruction in the ecosystem as in the case of roads and railway lines. •Tourists can be easily attracted and it is eco friendly. •Proper implementation can avoid the possibilities of accidents.
  13. 13. TRADE: As explained earlier, NER contributes India’s 90% of land border. Proper utilization of this boon for trade and overseas relationship with Southeast Asian countries increase the economy as well as market of NER. As a part of Govt’s look east policy of 1991 India signed trade agreements with Burma and increased its investment in the country. But lack of private sectors in the investment field ,affected it. • Also India has provide military support to Burma for controlling drug trafficking in the NE India-Burma border. • NER landlocked from costal area. But in the future a combined establishment of a port in the Myanmar coast or Bangladesh coast will boost up International trade. • Nathu La pass: It connects India with the China’s Tibetan autonomous region. Sealed after Indo-Sino war in 1962,it reopened in 2006 following numerous bilateral trade agreements. But trade was not a success through this corridor ,may be due to rough terrain and limitations of goods item to be transported by the governments. But it dramatically decreased the travel distance to important Hindu and Buddhist pilgrim centers in this region. (pilgrim tourism) • Nathu La is said to be the ancient silk route connecting India and China. Hence in the future more successful trade can happen. • Inland water transit and trade between India and Bangladesh through river Brahmaputra can be further developed in the future. POWER: A high amount of hydroelectric potential is identified in this region. Properly trapped and converted to electricity will increase the total economy of NER. Currently, A major portion electricity in the NER is produced by natural gas and coal.  Development of dams and hydroelectric power stations helps to conserve natural gas.
  14. 14. ANNEX 2 RESULTS: 1. From the first graph we can see a huge potential of 50328 Mega watts of electricity can be obtained from the state of Arunachal Pradesh if properly trapped and utilized. 2. From the second graph we can see that 90% of the capacity is yet to develop in the states of Arunachal Pradesh and the remaining NE states other than Meghalaya and Sikkim.
  15. 15. APPENDIX References: • Wikipedia • Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region ,Government of India • KIRAN Empowering Agricultural Knowledge and Innovation in North East • Google maps and • Planning commission ,Government of India • World bank data • North East India summit 2013 • Meghalaya Times , Times of India • UNESCO ,WWF • Ministry of Agriculture ,Government of India • Department of Forest ,Government of India • Ministry of Tourism, Government of India • Department of Tourism , Switzerland • Journal of North East India Studies • North East Frontier Railways , Ministry of Railways Government of India
  16. 16. Special Thanks to : THE END