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  1. 1. Ensuring world class civic amenities in urban India URBAN DEVELOPMENT SCHEME Manthan Topic: Future Cities Team Members: Shubham Jain Kaore Omkar Deepak Kush Garg Kriti Garg Dheeraj Verma Contact: shub.iitroorkee@gmail.comIndian Institute of Technology, Roorkee
  2. 2. 31.16 % of India lives in urban centres but Indian cities are not able to meet the basic needs of their residents. Lack of skilled and trained manpower, lack of world class technologies for urban planning, weak urban local bodies (ULBs) and inadequate investment are basic factors contributing to poor service delivery Problems Statistics Cause Need for improvement Water Service Delivery • Only 1 to 6 hours water supply in Indian cities compared with 24 hours in Brazil and China • Water supply in Indian cities ranges from 37-298 lpcd (Litres per Capita per Day) for a limited duration while other developing countries supply 150-200 lpcd continuously Lack of water resources, Technical losses, Errors in metering, Unbilled water consumption, Plain theft To provide continuous potable water supply, efficiency and economic benefits to citizen, Reduce investment in domestic storage, pumps and filters Sewerage and Sanitation • 94% of Indian cities do not have even partial sewerage network • No sewerage connection for 50% households in other cities • 18% do not have any form of latrine facility • Less than 20% of the road network covered by storm water drains • Treatment of only 21% of the waste water generated Lack of facility of either an individual toilet or a shared toilet, Lack of waste water treatment facilities To reduce various pathological bacteria and virus produced due to improper sewerage facilities, To prevent losses to roads caused by storm water Solid Waste Management • Segregation of less than 30 per cent of the solid waste • Proportion of organic waste is much higher in India compared with other countries • Waste generation in Indian cities to increase five-fold to touch 260 million tonnes per year by 2047 Scientific disposal of waste is almost never practised, Increase in Municipal solid waste, Improper waste management To prevent contamination of surface & and ground water & uncontrolled landfill disposal of solid waste, To reduce amount of solid waste to be disposed Transportation • Share of the public transport fleet decreased sharply from 11% in 1951 to 1.1% in 2001 • Number of registered vehicles went up 7.75 times during 1981-2001 • Increase in the number of road accidents from about 161,000 in 1981 to over 400,000 in 2001 Declining reliance on public transport, Plummeting importance of non-motorized modes To reduce hours spent on road journeys, lives lost in road accidents, and air pollution
  3. 3. Our scheme aims at urban development by incorporating the following: 1. Capacity building i. e. new institutions, recognizing talent and involving them into mainstream planning 2. Empowering Local bodies and giving them autonomy 3. Introduction of centralized monitoring system Blend of skilled manpower, technologies, powerful urban local bodies and transparency in the system is necessary to exterminate the gravest of the problems and provide world class facilities in existing Indian cities and to develop new world class cities Proposed solution 1. Coverage to all cities irrespective of size 2. Inclusion of capacity building program will address lack of human resource and technology deficit at local level 3. Focus on development plan for city as a whole instead of project based approach of JNNURM 4. Focus on empowering ULBs and making them autonomous to reduce funding requirements from state and central government 5. Centralized monitoring system will monitor progress of work with time and also ensure transparency in fund investment Advantages over existing system
  4. 4. Empowerment of Urban Local Bodies Capacity Building Program Centralized Monitoring System Reforming the governance Level of Reform Organizational Units Works Government of India • Ministry of Urban Affairs • Setup Institutes of Urban Management • To make a centralized policy regarding urban affairs and to assist department of urban affairs at state level • To utilize and enrich human resources for providing assistance to ULBs State Government • Department of Urban Affairs • Setup Centralized Monitoring Cell • To provide assistance to ULB’s in those fields where only state government can act • To review plan and monitor progress of urban development by ULBs Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) • Central Body • Setup smart governance center (SGC) • Setup separate units for different civic amenities • To plan, execute and manage the individual urban development • To maintain database, address problems, coordinate different units etc. • To incorporate advanced technology for addressing different issues for a specific civic amenity Framework for governance The most weak and crucial link which needs to be repaired to bring urban reforms is Governance
  5. 5. Proposed Solution Implementation Purpose Setup 4-5 new Institutes for Urban Management as well as improve existing urban management courses Through partnership between Government of India and Private Sector • To provide new urban managers, regulators, finance specialists and planners • They will provide technical and management assistance to ULBs • These institutes will also serve as innovation center Training program for 500 officials selected through UPSC exam Through partnership between Government of India and Private Sector • To create a force of urban specialists to be placed in urban areas • They will work in the fields of urban planning, finance, project preparation, project implementation, project management, e-governance etc. Empowerment of Urban Local Bodies Capacity Building Program Centralized Monitoring System Framework for governance Initiating a comprehensive capacity building program The biggest asset contributing towards the success of project is proper utilization of its manpower
  6. 6. • ULBs will lay out the development plan for their city with the help of trained officials • Use international best practices to develop plans for individual civic amenities • State governments to amend their Municipal Acts or enact overarching acts to facilitate PPPs • Increasing private funding and developing projects via PPP • Exclusive taxes to empower ULBs • Sharing of revenues by state government • Land based financial resources • Levy water & sewerage charges separately • Constitutional reforms to introduce local bodies financial list • Centralized monitoring system to monitor progress of reforms and fund transfers at ULB • Local Fund Audit Commission for independent and professional audit • Preparing Citizen Report Cards and Social Audits • All details of plan and funding to be uploaded on server at SGC ADMINISTRATION HUMAN RESOURCESTRANSPERANCY FINANCE Empowerment of Urban Local Bodies Capacity Building Program Centralized Monitoring System Framework for governance • Competitive exam for recruitment at Local Urban Bodies • Lateral hiring of Professionals • High level executive committee consisting members from training program and urban management institute • Recognizing new talent through college recruitment plan Empowering Urban Local Bodies Decentralization is the most necessary aspect for development at ground level
  7. 7. Smart Governance Cell (ULB LEVEL) Problem Solving Division (Analysis & Recommendation to ULB) Information Management Division • Maintain Database and Website • Keep records of projects, plans, human resources and fund transfers • Handle e-governance Centralized Monitoring Cell (STATE LEVEL) • Review plan and monitor progress • Prepare annual progress report for each ULB based on reports received from SGCs • Recommend required alterations for proper development utilizing research done at IIUMs Monitoring & Assessment Division Coordination Division Complaint Centers Website Progress report in each 3 months Problems State Govt. Individual Units Information and Assistance Empowerment of Urban Local Bodies Capacity Building Program Centralized Monitoring System Framework for governance Ensuring transparency and improving efficiency The keys for the success of any project are transparency, coordination and accountability
  8. 8. Financial Requirements (20 years period) in crore rupees Capacity Building Program 1,00,000 Centralized Monitoring System 2,00,000 Major Civic Amenities Water Supply 3,20,000 Sewerage 2,40,000 Solid Waste Management 48,000 Urban Roads 17,20,000 Storm Water Drains 1,90,000 Urban Transport 4,40,000 Traffic Support Infrastructure 97,000 Street Lighting 18,000 Renewal and Redevelopment Including Slums 4,10,000 Total 37,83,000 Proposed sources of funding: • Govt. of India • State Government • Public Private Partnership (PPP) • Tax and constitutional reforms to fund ULBs • Direct Taxation for Civic Amenities Funding Requirements and Sources
  9. 9. Impact of the solution •Filling of response forms for checking the satisfaction • Personal unscheduled inspections • Installation of gauges to measure water supply •Increment in revenues generated by public transportation • Percentage Utilization of money • Comparison of development in individual sectors before and after the implementation • To check the results of the response forms •Comparing long-term and short- term impacts •To compare the revenues generated before and after the implementation •Ensuring the congruity with nature and use of renewable sources • Solution spanning from ULB, state government and central government • Decentralization at the national and state level • Centralization at the ULB level Criteria to measure Sustainability Scalability Monitoring No matter how outstanding a policy may look in its conception, the success will always be determined by its impact on the society
  10. 10. CHALLENGES MITIGATION FACTORS Social Challenge • Some organizations are against urbanization • Protest again imposition of new taxes at ULB level Economic • Government do not see the viability of funding this solution • Underutilization of funds due to corruption Political • State government reluctant to share power with ULBs and to provide them autonomy Legal • Delay in constitutional reforms Technological • Lack of innovative technology • Deficit of funds to ensure high quality technology • Server hijacking • Awareness campaign to remove negative myths about urbanization • Reduction of state level taxes • Increasing funding through private partnership and charges to use services from public • Ensuring transparency using monitoring system • Eliminating state government’s concerns about proposed scheme • Bring amendments only after considering opposition’s views$ • Recognizing new technologies at innovation centers at Institutes for urban management • Using high security web services • Planting trees in new areas and at side of road network Environmental • Protest against cutting of trees to lay down new roads and other projects When you don't come across any problems, you can be sure that you are travelling in a wrong path
  11. 11. References • Wikipedia • Ministry of Urban Development Official Website • (JNNURM official website) • Census of India.(2011). Rural Urban Distribution of Population. Retrieved from • McKinsey Global Institute. (2010). India’s Urban Awakening: Building Inclusive Cities, Sustaining Economic Growth. Retrieved from • Dhar, A. (2012, April 6). India will see highest urban population rise in next 40 years. The Hindu. Retrieved from years/article3286896.ece Thank You