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  1. 1. Future Cities: Problem and moreover their preventive measure in today’s world Our future depends not on what will happen to us, but on what we decide to become, and on the will to create it. Where the mind is without fear and the head is held high. Where knowledge is free. Where the world has not been broken up into fragments By narrow domestic walls. Where words come out from the depth of truth. Where tireless striving stretches its arms towards perfection. Where the clear stream of reason has not lost its way Into the dreary desert sand of dead habit. Where the mind is led forward by Thee Into ever- widening thought and action. Into that heaven of freedom, my Father, let my country awake. - Rabindranath Tagore PROJECT INCORPORATED BY: 1- SHUBHAM SINGH BAGLA 2- AMIT BANDHU 3- ASHISH VERMA 4- VISHAL SHARMA 5- MOHAMMAD ADIL ANSARI
  2. 2. WHAT GOVERNMENT BELIEVES ?  Recognizing the fact that by 2050, 49.7 crores people will migrate to urban areas, the Central government launched the Jawaharlal Nehru Urban Renewal Mission to provide basic civic facilities in 63 cities. The government has also approved a master plan to build seven new cities, in addition to the ongoing Delhi – Mumbai Corridor project.
  4. 4. GOVERNMENT ROLE!! More focus upon world’s prosperity. More refined structures – having more refined wealthy living, better workplaces and betterment of life and liberty of its people. Provide basic amenities like food, shelter, education, healthy environment, medical facilities, etc. + Economy wealth too. • The government has to take stringent measures to promote the emergence of future cities as they are boon for a country in which most of its population resides in cities. • Specially in context of India, it is very necessary to start its scheme from now because the actual situation of Indian cities are nowhere find in the lists of livable cities throughout the world.
  6. 6. IMPLEMENTATION Funding Governance Planning Sectorial Policies Shape
  7. 7. HOW THEY IMPLEMENTED? • India will have to ensure that cities have the financial capacity to fund their needs. Currently India’s urban spending lags behind international standards by a huge margin. Over the next 20 years, India needs to allocate $1 trillion to operating expenditure and $1.2 trillion) to capital expenditure. While the former can be covered by increasing property tax and user charges, a mix of three additional revenue streams is recommended to fund capital investments (a) monetizing land assets (b) formula-based government funding (c) tapping into debt markets and PPPs. The potential contribution of each source is estimated at $58, $43, $26 (=$127) pc pa respectively. Funding • India will need a system of governance customized for the metropolitan level to manage cities larger than some countries. The only G20 country without an elected or empowered mayor, India must encourage substantial devolution of powers from the state. Although the 74th Amendment has given the green signal, it still needs to be implemented. As cities encroach upon multiple municipalities, a single authority is needed for greater accountability. A first step is the modified mayor-commissioner system built on the Kolkata model. The quality of city leadership must be improved and governance must be separated from service delivery. This can be achieved through outsourcing key services (housing, transportation, water and sewage) to corporatized agencies such as BEST in Mumbai. Governance • India will have to build planning capacity and introduce modern planning technologies such as GIS mapping and traffic modeling. To delineate the roles of the various government institutions involved in the planning process, Metropolitan Planning Committees (MPCs) should be empowered to create statutory metropolitan plans binding on municipalities. Cascaded time plans with appropriate content can be developed by basing land-use, infrastructure and social planning on 20-40 year econometric forecasts. Finally, enforcement mechanisms must be tightened and project exemptions be made transparent. Planning
  8. 8. Implementation (cont.) •India will have to target policies for the development of key urban sectors including transportation, affordable housing, employment and environment sustainability. Failure to do so would result in further deterioration in quality of urban life from present levels. The approach to developing a comprehensive set of sectoral policies is illustrated through two examples: creating a stock of affordable housing to prevent slum proliferation and reducing GHG emissions to mitigate climate-change. The role of the government is highlighted in correcting market failures, for instance, in recommending that the state subsidize housing for the estimated 38 million who will not be able to afford a house at market price in 2030. Sectorial politics •Finally, India should actively try to ‘shape’ its future cities in line with its diversified economic portfolio. The report recommends a distributed model so that a large number of cities with a variety of size and type can develop simultaneously. For instance the largest Tier 1 cities should be renewed to drive sustained growth in high value added sectors like finance and real estate. New world class cities can be built but will be viable only if built in their proximity. Tier 2 cities should be developed with a view to avoid the mistakes of Tier 1 cities. Tier 3 and 4 cities should be developed as specialist cities specializing in an anchor sector like tourism, mining etc. Good connectivity between inter-regional clusters will encourage future urbanization along the transport corridors. Shape
  9. 9. SOLUTIONS Following the above recommendations will not only improve the quality of urban services but also boost India’s GDP by 1-1.5%. Effective planning will save over 6 million hectares of potentially arable land. GHG emissions can be abated by 28%. On the other hand, if India leaves its cities to their organic fate, consequences can be disastrous. Water supply (basic standard 150L per capita per day) will drop from 105L to 65L; 70-80% of sewage will be left untreated; private cars will increase six fold and the average journey could last five hours in peak traffic. However, even in such an ambitious financial model, Tier 3 and 4 cities will still need additional assistance, a policy measure that government programmes like JNNURM should incorporate immediately. However the impact of the recommendations is ambiguous on some issues. Although the report estimates that 200 million rural inhabitants living near cities will benefit, it does not provide numbers of those who will be displaced. The report claims that incomes will rise but whether this will be a real increase in income depends on the corresponding rise in cost of urban living. The real increase in wages may not be as substantial given the significant proportion of property tax, user charges and debt financing in the funding model. Although the economic costs of service delivery are lower in cities, the environment costs are significantly higher. Apart from an incomplete cost-benefit analysis on such issues, the report is extremely rich in data which is no less proficiently presented.
  10. 10. APPENDIX: REFERENCES: 1. http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/india-best- cities-winners-and-why-they-made-it- survey/1/251350.html 2. http://www.cprindia.org/content/indias- urban-awakening 3. http://m.indiatoday.in/story/best-cities- survey-india-today/1/252345.html 4. McKinsey 2010 Report, India’s Urban Awakening: Building inclusive cities, sustaining economic growth. 5. The Venus Project 6. http://www.mercer.co.in/press- releases/quality-of-living-report-2012