Future Cities: Problem and moreover their preventive measure in
today’s world Our future depends not on what will happen to us, but on
what we decide to become, and on the will to create it.
Where the mind is without fear and the head is held high.
Where knowledge is free.
Where the world has not been broken up into fragments
By narrow domestic walls.
Where words come out from the depth of truth.
Where tireless striving stretches its arms towards
Where the clear stream of reason has not lost its way
Into the dreary desert sand of dead habit.
Where the mind is led forward by Thee Into ever-
widening thought and action. Into that heaven of
freedom, my Father, let my country awake.
- Rabindranath Tagore
PROJECT INCORPORATED BY: 1- SHUBHAM SINGH BAGLA
2- AMIT BANDHU
3- ASHISH VERMA
4- VISHAL SHARMA
5- MOHAMMAD ADIL ANSARI
WHAT GOVERNMENT BELIEVES ?
Recognizing the fact that by 2050, 49.7 crores
people will migrate to urban areas, the Central
government launched the Jawaharlal Nehru Urban
Renewal Mission to provide basic civic facilities in
63 cities. The government has also approved a
master plan to build seven new cities, in addition
to the ongoing Delhi – Mumbai Corridor project.
More refined structures –
having more refined wealthy
living, better workplaces and
betterment of life and liberty
of its people.
Provide basic amenities like food,
shelter, education, healthy
environment, medical facilities, etc.
+ Economy wealth too.
• The government has to
take stringent measures
to promote the
emergence of future
cities as they are boon
for a country in which
most of its population
resides in cities.
• Specially in context of
India, it is very
necessary to start its
scheme from now
because the actual
situation of Indian cities
are nowhere find in the
lists of livable cities
throughout the world.
THERE MIGHT BE LACK OF AWARENESS
HOW THEY IMPLEMENTED?
• India will have to ensure that cities have the financial capacity to fund their
needs. Currently India’s urban spending lags behind international standards
by a huge margin. Over the next 20 years, India needs to allocate $1 trillion
to operating expenditure and $1.2 trillion) to capital expenditure. While the
former can be covered by increasing property tax and user charges, a mix of
three additional revenue streams is recommended to fund capital
investments (a) monetizing land assets (b) formula-based government
funding (c) tapping into debt markets and PPPs. The potential contribution of
each source is estimated at $58, $43, $26 (=$127) pc pa respectively.
• India will need a system of governance customized for the metropolitan level
to manage cities larger than some countries. The only G20 country without
an elected or empowered mayor, India must encourage substantial
devolution of powers from the state. Although the 74th Amendment has
given the green signal, it still needs to be implemented. As cities encroach
upon multiple municipalities, a single authority is needed for greater
accountability. A first step is the modified mayor-commissioner system built
on the Kolkata model. The quality of city leadership must be improved and
governance must be separated from service delivery. This can be achieved
through outsourcing key services (housing, transportation, water and
sewage) to corporatized agencies such as BEST in Mumbai.
• India will have to build planning capacity and introduce modern planning
technologies such as GIS mapping and traffic modeling. To delineate the roles
of the various government institutions involved in the planning process,
Metropolitan Planning Committees (MPCs) should be empowered to create
statutory metropolitan plans binding on municipalities. Cascaded time plans
with appropriate content can be developed by basing land-use, infrastructure
and social planning on 20-40 year econometric forecasts. Finally, enforcement
mechanisms must be tightened and project exemptions be made transparent.
•India will have to target policies for the development of key urban sectors
including transportation, affordable housing, employment and environment
sustainability. Failure to do so would result in further deterioration in quality of
urban life from present levels. The approach to developing a comprehensive
set of sectoral policies is illustrated through two examples: creating a stock of
affordable housing to prevent slum proliferation and reducing GHG emissions
to mitigate climate-change. The role of the government is highlighted in
correcting market failures, for instance, in recommending that the state
subsidize housing for the estimated 38 million who will not be able to afford a
house at market price in 2030.
•Finally, India should actively try to ‘shape’ its future cities in line with its
diversified economic portfolio. The report recommends a distributed model so
that a large number of cities with a variety of size and type can develop
simultaneously. For instance the largest Tier 1 cities should be renewed to
drive sustained growth in high value added sectors like finance and real estate.
New world class cities can be built but will be viable only if built in their
proximity. Tier 2 cities should be developed with a view to avoid the mistakes
of Tier 1 cities. Tier 3 and 4 cities should be developed as specialist cities
specializing in an anchor sector like tourism, mining etc. Good connectivity
between inter-regional clusters will encourage future urbanization along the
Following the above recommendations will not only improve the quality of urban
services but also boost India’s GDP by 1-1.5%. Effective planning will save over 6
million hectares of potentially arable land. GHG emissions can be abated by 28%. On
the other hand, if India leaves its cities to their organic fate, consequences can be
disastrous. Water supply (basic standard 150L per capita per day) will drop from 105L
to 65L; 70-80% of sewage will be left untreated; private cars will increase six fold and
the average journey could last five hours in peak traffic.
However, even in such an ambitious financial model, Tier 3 and 4 cities will still need
additional assistance, a policy measure that government programmes like JNNURM
should incorporate immediately.
However the impact of the recommendations is ambiguous on some issues. Although
the report estimates that 200 million rural inhabitants living near cities will benefit, it
does not provide numbers of those who will be displaced. The report claims that
incomes will rise but whether this will be a real increase in income depends on the
corresponding rise in cost of urban living. The real increase in wages may not be as
substantial given the significant proportion of property tax, user charges and debt
financing in the funding model. Although the economic costs of service delivery are
lower in cities, the environment costs are significantly higher. Apart from an
incomplete cost-benefit analysis on such issues, the report is extremely rich in data
which is no less proficiently presented.