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  2. 2. 2 N I I T U N I V E R S I T Y WHY PRIMARY EDUCATION??  Access to basic education lies at the heart of development. Lack of educational access, and securely acquired knowledge and skill, is both a part of the definition of poverty, and a means for its diminution. Sustained access to meaningful learning that has value is critical to long term improvements in productivity, the reduction of inter-generational cycles of poverty, demographic transition, preventive health care, the empowerment of women, and reductions in inequality.  It was first legally enshrined in Article 45 of the Constitution (1950), which obligated the state ‘to provide, within a period of ten years from the commencement of this constitution, for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years’.  Struggles between the centre and state governments are characteristic of planning activities in many areas of governance, and are especially strained due to the unequal nature of the relationships involved. Namely, while authorities in Delhi have the power to produce policy, they must rely on states for implementation. On the other hand, while states are largely dependent on funding dispersed by the national government, they can – to a certain extent – determine how that funding is applied. Struggles between the centre and state governments are.  Investments in education contribute to aggregate economic growth and enable citizens to participate in the growth process through improved productivity, employment, and wages, and are, therefore, a critical component of the inclusive growth agenda of the Government of India.
  3. 3. 3 N I I T U N I V E R S I T Y Low registrations and attendance of children in rural primary schools children who are excluded from pre- schooling children who have never been to school, and are unlikely to do so children who enter primary schooling, but drop out before completing the primary cycle because of irregular attendance, low achievement, or silent exclusion from worthwhile learning, drop out rates are high. DISSECTING THE PROBLEM
  4. 4. 4 N I I T U N I V E R S I T Y • In general terms, schools are located in a wide variety of geographical locations (mountains, coast, forest, desert, plains, urban, rural), and cater to student populations which represent diverse religious (Hindu, Muslim, Sikh, and various local tribal traditions) and linguistic (fourteen official languages, not including Hindi and English) traditions. Teachers thus tackle a range of challenges at the level of the classroom, and they do this with varying levels of support and in often widely differing institutional contexts. geographical locations • uneducated households, orthodox views, migratory or nomaadic livelihood, lack of information about gov.t program all add to childre not regitering or not attending the school. Bad financial condition also contribute for lesser enrollments as parents prefer their children to work and contribute to overall income rather than attending education. Personal problems • Small schools are a significant feature of the educational landscape in India, with approximately 78% of primary schools having three or fewer teachers to attend to all grade levels, and more than 55% with 100 or fewer students in 2005. characterised by the need for multigrade classroom management as a result of low enrolment and/or too few teachers, and usually face significant shortages in terms of teaching and learning resources and basic infrastructure. This frequently leads to poor educational quality, student disillusionment, high rates of drop-out and low rates of retention. Problems in the system GOING THROUGH THE PROBLEM
  5. 5. 5 N I I T U N I V E R S I T Y CASE STUDY Adarsh Vidyamandir Bhadvan is a primary school located in Bhadvan district, Kolhapur, Maharashtra. There are 12 teachers in the school and about 268 students from grades 1 to 7. Most of the teachers were not computer users. Despite having a well built computer lab, the computers were kept away, unused, in boxes. They were not used either for teaching or for administration work, which was all done manually. Students in this school, are primarily farmers' children so spent more time working in the field. They were interested in their agriculture work and absenteeism was a major issue in the school. Mr. Namdeo Mulik attended a 12 day training program in 2007 at Pune ITA. He was quite impressed with the new teaching aids using computer technology. So much so that he started training the other teachers on creating a lesson plan using computer technology during weekends. With total ICT enablement in the schools, students started enjoying the sessions even more, including difficult subjects like mathematics and their attendance improved considerably. This solved three big issues being faced by the school- absenteeism, lack of students' interest in learning and optimum usage of their resources like computer laboratory.
  6. 6. 6 N I I T U N I V E R S I T Y DEVISING THE SOLUTION The school Infrastructure (typology of the school) School Atmosphere (discipline, orderliness, punctuality) Academic Emphasis School Leadership (principal, administrators) The curriculum (Intended and Implemented) Ability to engage problem- solving and “higher-order” cognitive skills Language of instruction Teachers Level of education Pre-service training In-service training Knowledge of subject matter Pedagogical practices (lesson prep., teaching style, etc.) Motivation and job satisfaction Professionalism, dedication and attitude towards job Students Distribution by gender, age, no. of repeaters and drop-outs9 Number per class (teacher- student ratio) Teaching-Learning Materials Textbooks (quality, how they map to curriculum, availability) Teacher Guides Basic school materials (exercise books, paper/slates, pencils/chalk) Subsidies Learning Time Official time for learning Absenteeism (teachers and students) TARGETING THE KEY AREAS
  7. 7. 7 N I I T U N I V E R S I T Y RECOMMENDED SOLUTION I do, I understand • Education should be more practical than theoretical for faster learning and greater intrest. • Lessons should be abundant in audio and visuals • Children learn by taking in their surroundings rather than from reasoning at primary level. So classrooms should be designed accordingly Coming together for education • Thoroughly analysing the landscape for population density and terrain. Accordingly providing boarding facilities for places with scantily spread population • Providing clean water and other resources in places where scools have been set up Building awareness and harmony • Using radio and televsion in an interactive manner to spread awareness about government schemes for the underprivilaged regarding schools and resources • Educating rural and relatively uneducated people out of orthodox veiws on caste and customs hindering holistic education and development for all
  8. 8. 8 N I I T U N I V E R S I T Y IMPLEMENTING THE SOLUTION RECOMMENDED CHANGES 1. Redesign the system of district level education administration and school management:- • Redefine role and job description of school heads; • Move towards school-based management ; • Re-engineer supervision structure – demarcate administrative and academic supervision; • Make inspection officers responsible for administrative supervision and Block Resource Centres responsible for academic issues; • Institute formal pre-service training for school heads and Inspection Officers to bolster institutional capacity building; • Institute supervision mechanisms reinforcing good teacher management and strengthen accountability systems; • Give monitoring responsibilities to local communities; • Strengthen the role and capacity of District Training Institutes to handle the onerous task of grassroots capacity building; 2. Institute a system of monitoring and evaluation of student learning:- • Administer a standardized assessment to a sample of students in Standard V every 4 years to monitor student learning progress; • Establish a common examination paper for all Standard III - V completers;
  9. 9. 9 N I I T U N I V E R S I T Y RECOMMENDED CHANGES 3. Improve the efficiency of the teacher training process:- • Use a participatory methodology in the trainings to build teachers’ capacity for improving their teaching; • Include multigrade instruction techniques in pre-service and in-service trainings; • Allow Inspection Officers, school heads and teachers to give input in the content areas of training; 4. Explore innovative options for financing the reforms:- • Studies that assess the return on investment of incentive schemes such as free uniforms must be conducted to determine the impact of such programs; • In a system with scarce resources, schemes that do not have demonstrable impact should be abandoned to mobilize funds for other more meaningful interventions that are known to have a larger impact; • Another option that may be explored is that of disinvestment of state-owned enterprises to raise resources for quality; IMPLEMENTING THE SOLUTION
  10. 10. 10 N I I T U N I V E R S I T Y EFFECTIVE AND EFFICIENT IMPLIMENTION USING TECHNOLOGY IN ITS CORE. EFFECTIVE MONITORING SYSTEM. USING BASIC AND EFFECTIVE PRINCIPLES AT GRASSROOT LEVEL. • Extensive use of audio visuals and motion pictures to make learning effective and entertaining • Using internet for distant learning programs solves the unavailability of teachers • Making use of basic modern age technologies like computers and internet to train teachers and to make them stay updated. • the use of RFIDs can be implemented to track and check the resources meant for schools. • Installing a massive ERP software for monitoring all the data flow whether in a district, state or the whole country. • Taking Active, frequent and accurate surveys into account from both private government institutions would provide for an improved response mechanism. • Training programmes for willing people with secondary level education to inspire and motivate them into teaching children up till 5th grade. • Spreading awareness among parents as well through volunteering representatives from among themselves.
  11. 11. 11 N I I T U N I V E R S I T Y PROBLEMS:- • An estimated 45 percent of the increased education budget that was dedicated to elementary education , had been spent poorly spent. • An average 30 percent funds remain unspent every year. • States having highest increases in investments are also the poorest spenders • Funds flows are extremely slow breaking the link between planning and expenditures . • The links between school needs, plans, allocation and expenditures are weak. SOLUTIONS:- • Inspectors should be appointed per block for regular inspection of schools in those areas. This would give an accurate idea of the needs of school, resources available, and funds needed • Projects should have strict deadlines that should be monitored by judiciary rules. • These should be done in collaboration with local NGOs so as to cover greater area and spend wisely • Local budgets should be formed and discussed before and after projects to avoid resuidual funds. MONITORY ISSUES AND PLUGGING THE HOLES
  12. 12. 12 N I I T U N I V E R S I T Y APPENDIX REFERENCE WEB LINKS:- •,Rashmi%20Diwa n.pdf • • • • • education.html • • CASE STUDY:- gets_ict_enabled.aspx