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  1. 1. Realizing the Growth potential of North East POTENTIALS Agriculture Power Border Trade Skill development Physical infrastructure Slow growth rate: NE states occupy 8% of India’s geographical area but contribute to only 2.3% of the country’s GDP. Causes: 80% of GDP of state depends on agriculture. Agronomy- Hidden potentials •Rich bio-diversity, natural resources •Compatible climate •Rich potential to increase agricultural productivity •Organic agriculture •Robust sustainable use of land resources •Horticulture, Fishery, Farm power, plant resources, livestock, shifting cultivation, agro forestry & horticulture, Agricultural research & education Agronomy problems •Traditional agricultural practices. •Vulnerability to natural calamities and degradation of agricultural land. •Poor irrigation infrastructure. •Poor transportation & marketing management. •Poor monitoring of public distribution system. •Lack of entrepreneurship manpower in agro- sector.
  2. 2. Developmental protocol against present flaws Entrepreneurship growth & development as no active such factor is encountered. In hospitable agro-conditions, extensive commercialization of potential crops like tea, coffee, rubber, fruits, vegetables, spices, nuts, floriculture, livestock etc. to increase productivity , simultaneously will enhance GDP economic development. Start of technology based traditional methods to yield maximum of production. Bio-diversity research and innovation policy for creation of more institutes in the line of Indian Council of Agricultural Research(ICARs),CSIR laboratories in each of the eight states based on their geo-physical conditions best suited for research in particular topics. Agricultural products transportation via airways. Protection of ‘Flora & Fauna’ resources by augmenting security forces to combat poachers technically and increase in biotechnologically approved bio-products to combat bio-diseases in ‘Flora & Fauna’. Direct provision for selling of agro-goods.‚Production-Filtration- Consumption‛ policy. Improved houses for proper storage of agro-products in state-of-art storage houses . Infrastructure development is essential to avoid losses in produced goods. DONER, NEC, DST, ICAR, NEDFI to play a crucial factor in disbursing of monetary funds timely without any flaws and check timely disbursement of salary to earners. GREEN Revolution impact in the ‘’8 sisters’’ which was a complete loss in previous editions to promote extensive circulation o agricultural goods. Requisite index to nourish-protocol implementation & defend challenges  Well trained workforce to gain more advantage, agro- policies illuminate wisely . To improve public-private co-operation which will avoid conflicts in post-production delivery of production goods. R&D institutions, Rural institutions, Village panchayats supervise the program and its implementation and provide regular updates in sustainability of the plan. Challenging factors- Combat!  Transforming age-old traditional farming methods into technology constituted means. Cultivate the basics of newly established agro- practice methods to endemic farmers since ages. Environmental areas- It’ll be better to cultivate items based on favored locations to generate maximum items.  Transportation in hilly regions.
  3. 3. An estimated potential of 63,253 MW of which only 6% is fulfilled. Arunachal Pradesh has the potential of 50,000 MW making her ‘The future Power House of India’ by constructing over 168 dams. multi purpose hydel power projects enable the thermal and nuclear capacities to operate at base load, allowing the overall system to operate more economically and contributing to system reliability. Advantages All the north eastern states can be interconnected with power grids making the whole region a surplus region in terms of power. Supply of power to the border countries such as Bhuthan,Bangladesh and Myanmar improving bilateral relations and national security from the threats of China. Storage hydro schemes can also provide irrigation thereby boosting agriculture, flood control, and navigation benefits. Enhances infrastructure and industrial sectors and tourism besides being UNESCO heritage site Provides employment opportunities Transportation of 22,000MW to northern India after fulfilling its own region Power corridor from northeast to north India(8,000 MW) Power
  4. 4. Disadvantages: Imbalances river profile and ecological activities Havoc to few local tribal habitations Triggers active seismic zone Challenges: Land acquisition form local habitations. Disaster management such as flood control China’s strategic measures on the upstream waters of the Brahmaputra power transportation through 22km wide ‘chicken neck area’ Proposed solutions: •To decrease the construction of all proposed dams and increase the per capita dam potential •Providing job opportunities to the effected people •Develop agreed mitigation and resettlement measures to promote development opportunities and benefit sharing for displaced and adversely affected people •To strictly follow the recommendations of central water commission •A large network of irrigation canals from the dams which ceases floods during release of water downstream Scientific developments have enabled high dams to be built with confidence as at Nurek and Rogun (325 m high) in the Soviet Union, Sussodha in Alaska (280 m) and Micain Canada (245 m high) although they are located in highly seismic zones. •To work out a clear water resource sharing treaty over the Brahmaputra river. The treaty could be modelled over the 1997 UN Convention on the Law of Non-navigational uses of International Watercourses or the 1960 Indus Water Treaty between India and Pakistan. •Increase the free power to the home states from 12 percent to any other appropriate percentage to compensate for the additional submergence and for the loss of power due to the exclusive flood cushion. Execution: •To construct huge number of dams,the government can attract international funds and private enterprises with considerable share. •Reduce the interest rate on capital investment by 1 percent or as required to cover the cost of the flood control component. •Increase the income tax exemption limit on the power revenues from the present to 15 years. •Access funds from international institutions for this component as a grant for social uplift of the affected region. •Schemes with least problems of road access should be implemented first. • As the schemes for implementation are large in number and size, participation of established public sector organizations operating in the power sector would be required. •Private sector interest and participation in hydropower development in some states, for example Sikkim, Uttaranchal, and Himachal Pradesh, is a recent positive development. Such involvement of the private sector in schemes in the Northeast would accelerate progress towards implementation.
  5. 5. Border Trade With emergence of globalization economic interactions among the nations become necessary. Cross-world trade is the most imp medium for this. Under the ‚LOOK EAST‛ policy India seeks cooperation with neighbouring counties. . Out of $254.4 billion exports North east share is only about $0.01 billion. Nearly 94% of exports from this region consist of tea and coal. Trade with Bangladesh: 1. Over 15% Bangladeshi imports come from India. But only 1% of Indian imports from Bangladesh. 2. Illegal trade between the two countries amounts to 3/4 of regular trade. 3. Geographical proximity also makes the region lucrative for Bangladesh to invest in areas such as hydelpower, an area in which the country has already expressed its interest since it will have to invest very less in transportation. 4. Another argument is that importing goods from Bangladesh will be cheaper than products which are brought in to the region from other parts of the country as the cost of transportation will be minimal. This will implicitly impact the lives of the people of the region as the cost of living will come down subsequently Government initiatives: 1. Bangladesh and India have agreed to set up a number of ‘Border Haats’ (border markets) along the boundaries, which, if opened, are expected to witness bilateral trade worth $20 million every year. 2. The border haats would be allowed to sell local agricultural and horticultural products, small agriculture and household goods, e.g. spices, minor forest products (excluding timber), fresh and dry fish, dairy and poultry products, cottage industry items, wooden furniture, handloom and handicraft items, etc. No local tax would be imposed on the trading, and both Indian as well as Bangladeshi currencies will be accepted. Hidden potentials: The North-East located at the crossroad between 3 major economics. (East Asia, South Asia, South East Asia) but this geopolitical advantage, has however, not really translated into regions economic development.
  6. 6. Trade with Myanmar: Myanmar is India’s gateway to ASEAN as it is the only country of this grouping which has a land and maritime boundary with India. With India becoming a summit level partner of ASEAN and a member of the East Asia Summit, improved relations with Myanmar will be beneficial in many respects. Benefit to the North-East: 1. Better connective will lead to better and faster development. 2. Living standards of the NE people will increases because of imports from ASEAN countries will be cheaper. 3. NE handmade and food materials would get better and compatible prise. Government Initiatives: 1. During Prime Minister Manmohan Singh’s visit to Myanmar (May 2012), memoranda of understanding (MoUs) were signed not only to enhance border development, but also to increase connectivity between the two countries and through Myanmar with Thailand and the Indo-Chinese states. Also, building infrastructure is on the top of the list. 2. India has agreed to upgrade an extensive network of roads and bridges in Myanmar that will effectively connect the region (and the rest of India) to Thailand as soon as 2016. 3. There has been an agreement between India and Myanmar on the construction and up gradation of the Kalewa-Yargyi stretch of the trilateral highway during recent meetings. Problems with Look-East policy: There is also a concern regarding illegal migration, which will also increase. Thus, there appears to be some incompatibility between the various development initiatives and approaches adopted in the region and the needs of the local people. Many of the movements, agitations and local protests being witnessed in the region are directly linked to such incompatible approaches. Our vision: 1. If we can develop border haats like Bangladesh border, which will benefit local people as well. 2. If we see Amul cooperation in Gujarat , It is the best example how the cooperation market will get benefit . So same way if government take initiative to development the local agro and food products will get international value. Conclusion for the Border trade: North-East has potential to develop with in their limit of resources. Government has to implement the initiatives which have been taken till and policies should also concern with the sustainable development. Geographical advantage has to be converted to real advantage.
  7. 7. Challenges:- The region will develop 2.6 million job with the current rate of development in 2011-2021. The expected man power population will be around 16 million . This implies we will be needing 13 million excess job in north east between 2011-2021. Now the question arises, how to tap this excess human resources of north east for the development of this region and in long term the whole country. Skill Development Resources and opportunities of skill development: The literacy rate of the Northeastern states are high. A great deal of possibilities for job creation in Northeast are as follows- 1.Tourism sector:- there are lots of tourist sports in north east which can be, if properly developed, can generate a huge amount of revenue for the state. 2.Petroleum and natural gas industry:-there is a great possibility of petroleum and natural gas industry to expand which can create lots of jobs for north east folks. 3.To improve connectivity:-investment in the field of transport and communication will increase the overall trade of the north to other parts of India and also abroad which will ultimately increase GDP of north east states and creates job opportunity for the people. 4.Tea plantation sector:-By increasing the skill set of tea plantation workers and making them more productive economically. For rural population:- 5.Rural art and craft industry:-There is lots of potential of traditional rural art and craft industry for increasing family income. We can promote this sector in various ways, like:-better market access of rural art and craft etc“.
  8. 8. 6.Agricultural and allied activities:-The above two mentioned sectors are for increasing the income of rural population as a huge population of north is dependent on agriculture. We can encourage animal husbandry, cooperative initiative at grass root level like Amul of Gujarat. 7.Devloping skill set for natural disaster management:-Since every year huge amount of money and capital are lost in natural disaster like:-flood, earth quakes. We can reduce this loss by better equipping the youth of north east in disaster management skill set. 8.Flourishing call center:-Generally it is believed and also true that north east people have better command in English language, so the call center industry can be a flourishing industry in this area. 9.Music industry:-This is again a very promising industry in which north east people have huge potential of developing a music industry of it’s own if proper facilitation of resources are met. May be one or two inaugural of grand music carnival in this region kick start this aspiring industry. Financing or ways of meeting challenges for the development of above mentioned sectors:- The Govt. have to invest hugely in education and training particularly for vocational education. The private investors can be encouraged to invest in human resource development along with there core business activities, may be by providing some incentives to such business group. Government can also open some new centers of existing institution in north east. Investment in ppp mode can also add a lot to the skill development of north east people.
  9. 9. Current scenario: 1.Roadways is the important mode of travel in the NR region since other mode of transport is too difficult or expensive. 2.Road density per-capita of the region is higher than the rest of India. 3.But road length per unit area is higher only in 3 out of 7 north eastern states. 4.Railway network is very poor throughout the region. 5.Significant growth in air navigation sector over the last 10 years. 6.Failure to realize that inland waterways can be used as a very good and economic medium for transportation of freight thereby improving the trade and commerce with other states. Govt Initiatives 1.Ministry of Road transport and highways has earmarked 10% of total allocation for ner. 2.NHDP proposals to link east west corridor from Porbandar to Silchar via Guwahati,improve connectivity of state capital towns,district headquarters etc. 3.To develop the infrastructure of the region as a whole under the "LOOK-EAST" policy. 4.Proposal of transforming the Guwahati airport as a strategic center for connectivity with the south east Asian countries. Hindering Factors 1.Complicated Topography of the region. 2.Delay in land acquisition. 3.Poor performance of the contractors(Inefficieny of the Central and respective State Governments to get the works completed in time). 4.Terrorist Organisations attempt to stagnate the development of the region. 5.Unsupportive weather conditions(mainly for the air navigation). 6.Stiff opposition from environmentalists to create infrastructure at the expense of damaging the forest ecosystem. Possible ways to improve the infrastructure at a faster rate and in an efficient manner 1.Encouraging the PPP(Pubic-Private Partnership) type projects. 2.Welfare Schemes on the lines of MGNREGP(Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employent Guarantee Program) should be implemented on large scale since both the infrastructure creation and employment generation for the local tribes go hand in hand. 3.By focusing on developing the inland waterways(building ports at strategic places to facilitate freight transportation),by doing so employment can be generated in tourism sector as well. 4.Connectivity(Airways and Roadways)with neighbouring countries is to be given prime importance as it can come to be very handy for boosting economic situation of the region. Physical Infrastructure
  10. 10. References Hydropower in the Northeast; Potential and harnessing analysis by V.V.K Rao Vision 2020: Northeast NEDFI Planning Commission of India Indian Council of Agricultural Research