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  1. 1. FUTURE OF THE NATION ON THE PILLARS OF PRIMARY EDUCATION…. Elementary Education: crucial indicator of Economic Development Team details: - College name: Fr. Agnel College of Arts & Commerce, Goa Member 1 : C. Malathy (TYBA) Member 2 : Chandrakant Kundaikar (SYBA) Member 3 : Melita D’Costa (SYBA) Member 4 : Roshwin Levis Fernandes (SYBA) Member 5 : Roystan Paul Fernandes (SYBA)
  2. 2. LATEST SCENARIO OF INDIAN GRASSROOT LEVEL EDUCATION SYSTEM A strong education system is the cornerstone of any country's growth and prosperity. Over the last decade, India has made great strides in strengthening its primary education system. The District Information System for Education (DISE) reported in 2012 that 95% of India's rural populations are within one kilometer of primary schools. The 2011 Annual Status of Education Report (ASER), which tracks trends in rural education, indicated that enrollment rates among primary-school-aged children were about 93%, with little difference by gender. However, behind the veil of such promising statistics, the learning outcomes of India's children show little progress. The country ranked 63 out of 64 in the latest Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) study, with some of its best schools ranked about average among those surveyed. As per ASER 2012, 96.5% of all rural children between the ages 6 – 14 were enrolled in the schools. The 2011 ASER stated that only 48.2% of students in the fifth grade can read at the second grade level. The number of students completing their primary education with inadequate numeracy and literacy skills is startling. The vast majority of 80% of recognized schools giving primary education are government aided. In 2008-2009, rural India accounted for more than 88% of India's primary-school students, of whom over 87% were enrolled in government-run schools. This is where we see some of the nation's toughest challenges. There is agreement that quality needs to be improved. Yet, there appears to be very little consensus on what improved quality really means in India and what factors contribute to its development. According to research, a child’s participation in school and the amount that he or she learns is dependent on several factors such as familial influences, education, occupation and income. Other household and school-related factors are also important. It is noteworthy that Right to Education Act (RTE) 2009 has noticeably changed the primary education scene in the country.
  3. 3.  Rapid population growth accompanied by incompetence in the growth of number of schools - Indian population grows at a rocketing rate the result of which is more number of children, supposed to get primary education. Whereas the number of schools do not increase at the same rate.  Commercialization of education by politicians – broader scope of corruption in the disbursement of funds allocated for educational purposes. This is one of the main concerns of India, as the funds allocated could only be seen in budget and not in reality.  Private schools v/s Government aided schools – it is not deniable that the quality of primary education provided by the private schools differ from that of the government – run schools. So naturally the weaker section of the society cannot approach the private schools for “quality education ” due to high fees meanwhile the low fees government run schools do not provide good education.  Shortage of resources - Even though colourful schemes are on paper, one cannot find them in real life. The promise of making books and study materials available to the students of economically backward classes remained a joke. Due to the lack of resources and study materials the skills are underdeveloped in those students.  Shortage of infrastructure – lack of proper buildings, drinking water facilities, toilet facilities, furniture, electronic gadgets helpful in teaching leads to the creation of an uninteresting environment for the students. Primary school attendance and completion by year of birth, India 1950-2000
  4. 4.  Lack of political will – The desire to end corruption remain absent among politicians at all time. A highly bureaucratic administrative system that discourages bold decision making and makes implementation difficult.  Midday Meals Scheme – the scheme was initially implemented with the intension of increasing the enrollment ratio with the expectation of improving the education standards. Apparently the scheme’s intension became upside down with the increase of poverty. Now there is no importance for education, greater stress is on filling the stomach. This stereotype of the public has to be changed.  Obsolete teaching methods - some schools even now follow all types of outdated teaching methods. These are to be ruled out in order to enhance the quality of the students. The teaching cannot only rely on chalk and blackboard. Also it would be helpful if some kind of vocational teachings were provided.  Lack of psychological understanding - the teachers are now not able to connect with each and every student due to a big sized class. This creates difficulty in understanding the students’ mental condition.  Lack of proper teacher trainings – nowadays teachers remain isolated from the latest updates happening in their own sphere or subject. This contributes to declining quality of primary education. Their should be some remedy in place so that the teachers are properly trained and do not remain inadequately qualified.  Underpayment – since the teachers are underpaid in the government run schools they show a very casual attitude towards teaching. They also oppose less remuneration and overworking.
  5. 5.  Linguistic Diversity - Finally, India's linguistic diversity creates unique challenges for the nation's education system. The country's 22 official languages and hundreds of spoken dialects often differ considerably from the official language of the state or region. Government-school-educated children from rural India struggle to speak even basic sentences in English. Students with rural primary schooling are at a significant disadvantage as they transition to higher education, because India's best universities teach exclusively in English.  Low Teacher Motivation and High Absenteeism & Drop outs- A key factor affecting the quality of primary education appears to be low levels of teacher motivation. In 2002-2003, 25% of primary-school teachers in rural India were absent on any given day. The impact of absenteeism is exacerbated by the fact that the average primary school in India has a workforce of no more than three teachers.  Child labour – absence of stringent laws curbing child labor leads to employment of more and more rural children in factories and industries at a very young age. Due to family poor background their earning becomes unavoidable. Hence they tend to keep working and avoid education.  High student to teacher ratio – this factor also deteriorate the quality of primary education.
  6. 6. THE PROSPECTIVE PANACEA  Home schooling – As we all know that charity begins at home, education should also begin at home. Parents can play an active role in making an apt learning environment at home. Educated homemakers can also teach their kids. Basic culture and values may be imparted by parents at home at a very young age could do wonders.  Checking drop out rate at elementary level – Monitoring at grass root levels for probable tendencies of dropping out of school for various reasons.  More vocational in nature - To make the education more vocational and job oriented may help in improving the quality of primary.  Working out infrastructure related issues.  To shift education based on rote learning to problem solving.  Adherence to curriculums – An apt curriculum is to be designed and followed (99% of pre – schools do not have a curriculum)  Bold decision making – it is high time that we make bold decisions and implement right schemes for enhancing the quality of primary education.
  7. 7.  Some tangible school-related factors which have a positive impact on quality: a. Class size b. Separate learning spaces for each class c. Child-centred teaching-learning practices d. Use of classroom relevant teaching-learning e. Availability of clean drinking water materials f. Separate toilets for girls  Continuous assessment of students understanding – Connecting with the students. Teaching them with full care and taking personal care in their mental condition would improve the relationship between the student and the teacher.  Teacher knowledge & Attitude– a teacher must keep himself/ herself abreast with all latest updates as well as widen their knowledge in their area of teaching. Strong measures to curb prolonged or unauthorized absence of teachers from government schools should be taken  Regular evaluation methodology of teaching-learning practices - Continuous professional development for the teacher should be provided for teachers through various in – service training programs.  Time devoted to teaching by teachers – a reasonable time should be spent by teachers with their students so as to understand them and carry out team work. Helping them in creativity, abstract thinking, intellectual independence.  Health programmes – Health care must be provided in each an every school , such as de-worming, supplying vitamins and mineral tablets of good quality (before expiry date), regular weight checking and proper physical education.
  8. 8.  If quality education is provided for students it would enable them to develop their skills and get employment in India hence they can do away with Brain – Drain.  Strict laws against child labour - indulging in child labor or who are recruiting children for child labour should be strictly punished.  Midday meals - people should be made clear about the objective of the introduction of midday meals.  Politicization and Commercialization of education by politicians should be stopped at any cost. Funds Disbursement – funds allocated for primary education should reach the needy. It should be stopped from going into the wrong hands. Corruption and inefficiency should be brought to an end.  Schemes should come real - Various schemes meant for the improvement of educational standards should no more be a dream, they should come true in real. Books & materials should be provided as per schemes.  Institutional set up (NGOs)– institutions like the Bal Bhavan & Sarva Siksha Abhiyan should be recognized , as they recognize children with a marked talent for a particular education stream. Appropriate funds should be raised for such institutions.  E – learning - Students should design their own pace of learning, better computer & internet facilities at schools would enable this process. Those students who don’t have time to attend schools can make best use of it. Children could even be given free laptops, tablets etc…
  9. 9. Challenges in Implementing the Solutions: 1) Political interference in a wrong way. 2) Non availability of resources due to lack of funds 3) Irresponsible parents not sending their children to schools. 4) Children showing disinterest in coming to school. 5) Recent midday meal disasters across the country . 6) Wastage an d improper usage of the food which comes for children. 7) The problem of sexual abuse of small children. Mitigations Suggested: 1) Politicians should change their attitude and try to serve the nation instead of robbing it. 2) More investments should be made in educational sector. Provide schools with more and more latest laboratory equipments, computers, laptops, bicycle for students etc….. 3) Time and again irresponsible parents should be approached by the school authorities and make them realize the importance of education. 4) Children should be properly instructed to attend school regularly. 5) No self help groups with such records should be given the contract of cooking the food for children. 6) Black-marketing should be severely punished. 7) People indulging in such anti – social activities should brought under the law and should be rusticated , they should not be allowed to enter the school premises.
  10. 10. BIBLIOGRAPHY • Curriculum Framework for Quality Teacher Education: NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR TEACHER EDUCATION(NCTE) • • DISE-District Information System for Education Reports 2000 – 2010 (combined) • • • UNESCO UIS Data • UNESCO Institute for Statistics (graphs and tables) • United Nations Human Development Program • Points given by individuals (Sunil Yadav, Naresh Sa, Mahendra Kumar Yadav) working in the O/O The Accountant General, Goa •