FUTURE OF THE NATION ON THE PILLARS OF PRIMARY EDUCATION….
Elementary Education: crucial indicator of Economic Development
Team details: -
College name: Fr. Agnel College of Arts & Commerce, Goa
Member 1 : C. Malathy (TYBA)
Member 2 : Chandrakant Kundaikar (SYBA)
Member 3 : Melita D’Costa (SYBA)
Member 4 : Roshwin Levis Fernandes (SYBA)
Member 5 : Roystan Paul Fernandes (SYBA)
LATEST SCENARIO OF INDIAN GRASSROOT LEVEL EDUCATION SYSTEM
A strong education system is the cornerstone of any country's growth and prosperity. Over the last decade, India has made great strides in
strengthening its primary education system. The District Information System for Education (DISE) reported in 2012 that 95% of India's rural
populations are within one kilometer of primary schools. The 2011 Annual Status of Education Report (ASER), which tracks trends in rural
education, indicated that enrollment rates among primary-school-aged children were about 93%, with little difference by gender.
However, behind the veil of such promising statistics, the learning outcomes of India's children show little progress. The country ranked 63
out of 64 in the latest Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) study, with some of its best schools ranked about average among
those surveyed. As per ASER 2012, 96.5% of all rural children between the ages 6 – 14 were enrolled in the schools.
The 2011 ASER stated that only 48.2% of students in the fifth grade can read at the second grade level. The number of students completing
their primary education with inadequate numeracy and literacy skills is startling. The vast majority of 80% of recognized schools giving
primary education are government aided. In 2008-2009, rural India accounted for more than 88% of India's primary-school students, of
whom over 87% were enrolled in government-run schools.
This is where we see some of the nation's toughest challenges. There is agreement that quality needs to be improved. Yet, there appears to
be very little consensus on what improved quality really means in India and what factors contribute to its development. According to
research, a child’s participation in school and the amount that he or she learns is dependent on several factors such as familial influences,
education, occupation and income. Other household and school-related factors are also important. It is noteworthy that Right to Education
Act (RTE) 2009 has noticeably changed the primary education scene in the country.
Rapid population growth accompanied by incompetence in the
growth of number of schools - Indian population grows at a
rocketing rate the result of which is more number of children,
supposed to get primary education. Whereas the number of schools
do not increase at the same rate.
Commercialization of education by politicians – broader scope of
corruption in the disbursement of funds allocated for educational
purposes. This is one of the main concerns of India, as the funds
allocated could only be seen in budget and not in reality.
Private schools v/s Government aided schools – it is not deniable
that the quality of primary education provided by the private schools
differ from that of the government – run schools. So naturally the
weaker section of the society cannot approach the private schools
for “quality education ” due to high fees meanwhile the low fees
government run schools do not provide good education.
Shortage of resources - Even though colourful schemes are on
paper, one cannot find them in real life. The promise of making
books and study materials available to the students of economically
backward classes remained a joke. Due to the lack of resources and
study materials the skills are underdeveloped in those students.
Shortage of infrastructure – lack of proper buildings, drinking water
facilities, toilet facilities, furniture, electronic gadgets helpful in
teaching leads to the creation of an uninteresting environment for
Primary school attendance and completion by
year of birth, India 1950-2000
Lack of political will – The desire to end corruption remain absent among
politicians at all time. A highly bureaucratic administrative system that
discourages bold decision making and makes implementation difficult.
Midday Meals Scheme – the scheme was initially implemented with the
intension of increasing the enrollment ratio with the expectation of improving
the education standards. Apparently the scheme’s intension became upside
down with the increase of poverty. Now there is no importance for education,
greater stress is on filling the stomach. This stereotype of the public has to be
Obsolete teaching methods - some schools even now follow all types of
outdated teaching methods. These are to be ruled out in order to enhance
the quality of the students. The teaching cannot only rely on chalk and
blackboard. Also it would be helpful if some kind of vocational teachings were
Lack of psychological understanding - the teachers are now not able to
connect with each and every student due to a big sized class. This creates
difficulty in understanding the students’ mental condition.
Lack of proper teacher trainings – nowadays teachers remain isolated from
the latest updates happening in their own sphere or subject. This contributes
to declining quality of primary education. Their should be some remedy in
place so that the teachers are properly trained and do not remain inadequately
Underpayment – since the teachers are underpaid in the government run
schools they show a very casual attitude towards teaching. They also oppose
less remuneration and overworking.
Linguistic Diversity - Finally, India's linguistic diversity creates unique
challenges for the nation's education system. The country's 22
official languages and hundreds of spoken dialects often differ
considerably from the official language of the state or region.
Government-school-educated children from rural India struggle to
speak even basic sentences in English. Students with rural primary
schooling are at a significant disadvantage as they transition to
higher education, because India's best universities teach exclusively
Low Teacher Motivation and High Absenteeism & Drop outs- A key
factor affecting the quality of primary education appears to be low
levels of teacher motivation. In 2002-2003, 25% of primary-school
teachers in rural India were absent on any given day. The impact of
absenteeism is exacerbated by the fact that the average primary
school in India has a workforce of no more than three teachers.
Child labour – absence of stringent laws curbing child labor leads to
employment of more and more rural children in factories and
industries at a very young age. Due to family poor background their
earning becomes unavoidable. Hence they tend to keep working and
High student to teacher ratio – this factor also deteriorate the
quality of primary education.
THE PROSPECTIVE PANACEA
Home schooling – As we all know that charity begins at
home, education should also begin at home. Parents can
play an active role in making an apt learning environment
at home. Educated homemakers can also teach their kids.
Basic culture and values may be imparted by parents at
home at a very young age could do wonders.
Checking drop out rate at elementary level – Monitoring
at grass root levels for probable tendencies of dropping
out of school for various reasons.
More vocational in nature - To make the education more
vocational and job oriented may help in improving the
quality of primary.
Working out infrastructure related issues.
To shift education based on rote learning to problem
Adherence to curriculums – An apt curriculum is to be
designed and followed (99% of pre – schools do not have
Bold decision making – it is high time that we make bold
decisions and implement right schemes for enhancing the
quality of primary education.
Some tangible school-related factors which have a positive
impact on quality:
a. Class size
b. Separate learning spaces for each class
c. Child-centred teaching-learning practices
d. Use of classroom relevant teaching-learning
e. Availability of clean drinking water materials
f. Separate toilets for girls
Continuous assessment of students understanding –
Connecting with the students. Teaching them with full care and
taking personal care in their mental condition would improve
the relationship between the student and the teacher.
Teacher knowledge & Attitude– a teacher must keep himself/
herself abreast with all latest updates as well as widen their
knowledge in their area of teaching. Strong measures to curb
prolonged or unauthorized absence of teachers from
government schools should be taken
Regular evaluation methodology of teaching-learning
practices - Continuous professional development for the
teacher should be provided for teachers through various in –
service training programs.
Time devoted to teaching by teachers – a reasonable time
should be spent by teachers with their students so as to
understand them and carry out team work. Helping them in
creativity, abstract thinking, intellectual independence.
Health programmes – Health care must be provided in each an
every school , such as de-worming, supplying vitamins and
mineral tablets of good quality (before expiry date), regular
weight checking and proper physical education.
If quality education is provided for students it would enable
them to develop their skills and get employment in India
hence they can do away with Brain – Drain.
Strict laws against child labour - indulging in child labor or
who are recruiting children for child labour should be strictly
Midday meals - people should be made clear about the
objective of the introduction of midday meals.
Politicization and Commercialization of education by
politicians should be stopped at any cost. Funds
Disbursement – funds allocated for primary education
should reach the needy. It should be stopped from going
into the wrong hands. Corruption and inefficiency should be
brought to an end.
Schemes should come real - Various schemes meant for
the improvement of educational standards should no more
be a dream, they should come true in real. Books &
materials should be provided as per schemes.
Institutional set up (NGOs)– institutions like the Bal Bhavan
& Sarva Siksha Abhiyan should be recognized , as they
recognize children with a marked talent for a particular
education stream. Appropriate funds should be raised for
E – learning - Students should design their own pace of
learning, better computer & internet facilities at schools
would enable this process. Those students who don’t have
time to attend schools can make best use of it. Children
could even be given free laptops, tablets etc…
Challenges in Implementing the Solutions:
1) Political interference in a wrong way.
2) Non availability of resources due to lack of funds
3) Irresponsible parents not sending their children to
4) Children showing disinterest in coming to school.
5) Recent midday meal disasters across the country .
6) Wastage an d improper usage of the food which comes
7) The problem of sexual abuse of small children.
1) Politicians should change their attitude and try to serve
the nation instead of robbing it.
2) More investments should be made in educational sector.
Provide schools with more and more latest laboratory
equipments, computers, laptops, bicycle for students
3) Time and again irresponsible parents should be
approached by the school authorities and make them
realize the importance of education.
4) Children should be properly instructed to attend school
5) No self help groups with such records should be given
the contract of cooking the food for children.
6) Black-marketing should be severely punished.
7) People indulging in such anti – social activities should
brought under the law and should be rusticated , they
should not be allowed to enter the school premises.
• Curriculum Framework for Quality Teacher Education: NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR TEACHER EDUCATION(NCTE) www.ncte-india.org
• DISE-District Information System for Education Reports 2000 – 2010 (combined)
• UNESCO UIS Data
• UNESCO Institute for Statistics (graphs and tables)
• United Nations Human Development Program
• Points given by individuals (Sunil Yadav, Naresh Sa, Mahendra Kumar Yadav) working in the O/O The Accountant General, Goa