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  2. 2. WHAT IS MALNUTRITION? Malnutrition is:  poor nutrition due to an insufficient, poorly balanced diet, faulty digestion or poor utilization of foods. (This can result in the inability to absorb foods.)  Malnutrition is not only insufficient intake of nutrients. It can occur when an individual is getting excessive nutrients as well.
  3. 3. WHAT CAUSES MALNUTRITION? Human beings need a wide variety of nutrients to supply essential energy. Do you know what nutrients we need?  protein  vitamins  minerals If any one of these nutrients is deficient in a person's diet, he/she may suffer from malnutrition
  4. 4. WHAT CAUSES MALNUTRITION? (continued) Malnutrition also occurs when there is an imbalance of energy and protein in an individual’s diet. The body may become unable to absorb the nutrients it requires to function properly. *For example, if a child is suffering from energy and protein malnutrition, they will most likely have deficiencies in iron, calcium, and other vitamins and minerals.
  5. 5. WHO IS AFFECTED BY MALNUTRITION?  Individuals who are dependent on others for their nourishment. (infants, children, the elderly, prisoners)  Mentally disabled or ill because they are not aware of what to eat.  People who are suffering from tuberculosis, eating disorders, HIV/AIDS, cancer, or who have undergone surgical procedures are susceptible to interferences with appetite or food uptake which can lead to malnutrition.
  7. 7. POVERTY…  Nearly 3 billion people in the world are living on less than $1 a day. They have little access to their basic needs, including adequate nutrition to help their bodies stay in balance. Poverty may also prevent individuals from accessing education, which can lead to misinformation about adequate nutrition.
  8. 8. Effects of malnutrition Nutritional deficiencies can contribute to various diseases which can be found everywhere, but most often go without cures/treatment in Less Developed Countries (LDCs).
  9. 9. Kwashiokor/Marasmus  Kwashiokor, which means “disease of the displaced child” in the Ga language of Ghana is a protein deficiency which results is characterized by inability to gain weight, diarrhea, lethargy and a swollen belly. Kwashiokor can lead to comatose as well as death.  Similarly, Marasmus is a disease resulting from protein deficiency which affects chidlren early in life (typically in the 1st year) slowing growth, decreasing weight and hindering proper development.  Nutrition supplements, rehydration and education all can all serve to cure and prevent these diseases.
  10. 10. Beriberi  Beriberi is a thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency which is common in South East Asia where many diets consist solely of white rice.  Beriberi affects the proper functioning of the nervous system as well as the circulatory system and heart.  Pregnancy, breast feeding mothers and those who are ill with fever may have a heightened dependency on thiamine and may develop a deficiency.  Thiamine is best acquired through foods such as pork, beef and whole grain (unrefined) breads and grains.
  11. 11. Pellagra  Pellagra ”rough skin” is a niacin (or Tryptophan) deficiency which often results in the “3 Ds”; diarrhea, demetia and dermatitis.  The large scale consumption of corn has resulted in many cases of pellagra because corn is poorly absorbed in the body. The best sources of Niacin are broccoli, eggs, dates, beef, salmon, seeds and peanuts.
  12. 12. Scurvy  Scurvy is a disease which is born of Vitamin C deficiency. It is characterized by bleeding around hair follicles, anemia and gingivitis.  Scurvy may occur in those who consume large amounts of junk foods, smokers (as smoking depletes Vitamin C) and those who don’t have proper access to sources of vitamin C. Namely, the poor.
  13. 13. Rickets  Vitamin D deficiencies may result in “Rickets” which is a lack of proper calcium characterized by poorly developed and deformed bones.  Vitamin D can be best found in beef products (especially cows milk) but is very low in breast milk. Thus, women in developing countries are contributing to this disease if their babies sole source of nourishment is breast milk.