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  1. 1. MANTHAN A journey towards Evergreen Revolution… Submitted by Krishak-Mitra Rahul Saini Gaurav Kumar Mayank Lodha Nilotpal Mukherjee Vidyarthi Baddireddy
  2. 2. Milk Largest Producer 128 Mn T F & V Rank #2 Food Grains Rank #2 (218 Mn T) Cattle / buffaloes Largest in the world Tea Largest Producer (0.85 Mn T) Poultry Over 65 Bn Eggs Annually Goat & Sheep 182 million Fisheries Aquaculture: 2nd Mariculture : 8th INDIAN AGRICULTURAL SCENARIO Reduction in per capita availability of land Fragmentation due to land ceiling acts & family disputes Improper Management of Irrigation Inefficient System Management of Surface water High rate of Urbanization Urbanization has led to Global Warming &unproductive lands Additional jobs in Farming unavailable inadequate Processing units,has restricted jobs to farming Use of Technology is inadequate Due to ignorance, high cost & impracticality of small land holdings MACRO ISSUES
  3. 3. MAJOR PROBLEMS FACED IN INDIA Land:  Increasing Salinity,  Friability of soil  Reducing fertility,  Bringing more marginal land under cultivation, while fertile land is being diverted to non-productive activities  Average size of operational holding= 1.23 ha, with 83% below 2 ha India’s Productivity= ¼(World’s highest) Irrigation: Still only 35-40% of all arable area Man-Power:  In last 15 years, over 3 lakh farmer committ- ed suicide Rural labor is shifting to non-agricultural works, putting pressure on farm wages  Seed-banks need to be developed and accessible to the farmers Climate Change:  Lower mean rainfall and higher variability  No single-policy can satisfy all the 15 Agro- climatic regions of India  No value-addition in agricultural goods  Monoculture and nutrient imbalance  Post-Harvesting losses as high as 25-40% due to shortage of warehousing and Cold-storage facilities  Over 17,500 tonnes of food-grain damaged between 2009 and 2012 in FCI godowns , Institutional finance, insurance and marketing inaccessible Forestry: Use JFMC mechanism in coordination with Panchayat bodies Agro-forestry and Agri-silvi-pastoral farming depending on slopes Livestock: Pasture protection and management Usufruct sharing with regulated grazing Involving Dairy cooperatives in breed and feed issues, revisit breeding strategies and make fodder-development higher priority in both animal husbandry and cropping  Integrate livestock with dry land farming in dry areas In humid areas, emphasize more on cross-bred hybrids Fishery:  Diversify to inland areas  Improve quality seeds at lower prices  Storage and preservation facilities  Using GPS-based boats in marine fishing Irrigation Issues Failure of PDS System Opportunity cost in All India River Linking Plan ATMA (Not much Tangible Impact) NAFED (Ill Equipped) DEMOCRATICSETUP ((Bureaucracy and lack of Collective Effort)
  4. 4. S.No. Problems Implementation Plan Impact 1 Poor Soil and soil management Topo-Sequencing: 1.Gentle Slope- Agro-Silvi- Pastoral-Farming Making the best use of the sloping surface of the north-east for sustainable productivity 2.Medium Slope- Silvi-Pastures 3.Steep Slope- Silviculture 2 Over-grazing leading to soil-erosion Scientific Regulated Grazing (Stall-feeding) It will allow for the sustainable quantity of soil-binding grasses and equitable share for all 3 Frequent floods leading to crop-loss Decentralize flood-water management and integrate with fishing It will lead to buffer against water stress/excess in extreme conditions 4 Low productivity Sericulture, Horticulture, Olericulture, Floriculture and Herbiculture can be promoted in the hilly areas These are high value, low volume agri-products feasible for the climatic conditions of the north-east 5 Supplementary Income not there Apiculture is apt for tribal and hilly regions Eco-friendly, women-oriented way for supplementary income Implementation Plan: Agricultural productivity in North-eastern India
  5. 5. S.No. Problems Implementation Plan Impact 6 Lack of technological intervention Technology like Mist-Formation system and fertigation for tea, coffee, orchards, herbs, horticulture, olericulture, etc. Low volume high value crops can utilize these costly interventions feasibly 7 Supplementary Income not there Rural and Plantation Tourism can be promoted as a subsidiary source of income This is a new way for reaping higher incomes 8 Low morale of farmers for lack of high remuneration Low-volume, high-value agro-industries like pharma,fragnance, food-processing, etc.need to be developed These industries can be easily integrated with the agricultural output and lead to high value- addition 9 Jhumming/Shifting Agriculture Benefits of Settled agriculture can be communicated through local Panchayats This will result in better agricultural productivity 10 Ignorance about the use of modern technology Extension Services including R&D to be targeted Optimum usage of technology for higher productivity 11 Poor Quality Livestock Cross-bred hybrids of Livestock It will lead to better disease- resistant and high-productivity cattle Implementation Plan: Agricultural productivity in North-eastern India
  6. 6. Reasons for selection Hilly area with high availability of fog Wind speed favourable for fog harvesting Unaffected by drought Low project implementation and maintenance costs Simple technology and maintenance When fog collection is used for irrigation to increase forested areas or vegetation coverage, it can help to counteract the desertification process Can be used as Safe drinking water: Water quality meets WHO guidelines Problems Droughts affect this part of the country Hilly area, not economically and technically viable to provide water through regular sources Rainwater harvesting is relatively harder in hilly areas What is fog harvesting? Collection of water from fog Principle of condensation: Atmospheric water vapour from the air naturally condenses on cold surfaces into droplets of liquid water known as dew Using large pieces of vertical canvas to make the fog condense into droplets of water Mid-1980s: Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC) began constructing and deploying large fog collecting devices on Mount Sutton in Quebec Irrigation Potential in North-East
  7. 7. Disadvantages of Fog Harvesting Steps which will be followed by us to tackle Frequent fog presence is needed. Minimum 90% relative humidity is required The north-eastern areas have an average humidity of 94% Vandalism and lack of maintenance, due to the distance between structures and a population Installation of fog collectors will be done on hills near to residential areas Effects of storm damage due to site and fragility of nets if maintenance is not performed Continuous maintenance will be done by institutes in charge Relatively small water quantities can be harvested This will be improved by combination of fog collection and rain-water harvesting Polypropylene mesh is hard to find in some areas Community participation will help to reduce the labour cost of building the fog harvesting system In the hills of Nepal, water sources such as streams and springs are generallylocated at lower elevations Only technology availableto rural Nepalis is gravity- flow water systems. As a result, villagers must carry water up from sources at lower elevations. NEWAH has been researchingand developing practical fog water collection systems for rural communities since late 1998 Working with local NGOs, NEWAH identifies potential communities through field studies that evaluate the potential for fog collectionand the social demand for water The Large Fog Collectors (LFC) are constructed using 4 x 8 meter sheets of polypropylene mesh Warm air from Bay of Bengal moves inland where it intercepts varied topology of Himalayas. As air moves up into valleys it mixes with cooler air and condenses Water droplets cling to the weave of the mesh, and filter down into a discharge system that stores the water in 20,000 litre ferro-cement tanks Implementation in Nepal
  8. 8. A non-profit, registered Canadian charity Dedicated to implementing water projects for rural communities in developing countries Utilizes innovative fog collectors as well as effective rainfall collectors Makes optimum use of natural atmospheric sources of water Working on projects since 1987 FogQuest Small Fog collectors cost between US$75 and US$200 each to build Large 40-m² fog collectors cost between US$1,000 and US$1,500 and can last for up to ten years A village project producing about 2,000 litres of water per day will cost about US$15,000 (FogQuest, 2011). Material: Polypropylene mesh per 1 m2 (Peru and Chile): US$ 0.25 Labour: construction and installation of large fog collectors, reservoir tanks and taps: • Skilled labour: 140 man days (Nepal): US$4 per day • Unskilled labour: 400 man days (Nepal): US$2.75 per day All inclusive (materials, labour): • Fog collectors including building materials: US$100 - 200 • 48 m2 fog collector providing 3 l/m2/day: US$378 • Cost per m2 (Nepal, including reservoir and tap): US$60 Costs depend on Size of the fog catchers Quality of material s Access to material s Labour Locatio n of the site Implementation Financial Feasibility
  9. 9. • Topo sequential cropping – most economical with effective soil and water conservation measure – integrate different components of ecosystem – sustained production from waste, rainfed and degraded lands – Selection is critical • Cultivation of crops in topo-sequences is useful on hill slopes • Slopy land  crop growth affected by excess moisture. • Not congenial for cotton crop  lower part of topo sequence with soybean in kharif & chickpea in rabi by replacing cotton on 30 per cent area (refer to pic) • yields of soybean and chickpea - higher under lower topo-sequence as compared to cotton. • Monetary returns of different topo-sequence show higher values for soybean- chickpea double cropping as compared to cotton under lower topo-sequence. – Reduced run-off – Minimized soil tablet – Agri-horti-silvi-pastoral land use • Agri-horti-silvi-pastoral land use – horticulture in the mid portion – silvi-pastoral crops in top portion • Contour bunds, bench terrace, half moon terrace, grassed ways • mixed land use with agri-horti-silvi-pastoral system with appropriate topo sequence has been found to be one of the most sustainable means to provide an alternative farming system to replace Jhumming • micro watershed based namely Agri-Horti-Silvi Pastoral System established on 1.58 ha land Integrated Farming System Approach- Topo Sequencing
  10. 10. Micro watershed based namely Agri-Horti- Silvi Pastoral System established on 1.58 ha land Provides an alternative farming system to replace Jhumming Mixed land use with agri- horti-silvi- pastoral system with appropriate topo sequence Contour bunds, bench terrace, half moon terrace, grass ed ways • horticulture in the mid portion • silvi-pastoral crops in top portion Agri-horti- silvi-pastoral land use Micro watershed based namely Agri-Horti- Silvi Pastoral System established on 1.58 ha land Provides an alternative farming system to replace Jhumming Mixed land use with agri- horti-silvi- pastoral system with appropriate topo sequence Contour bunds, bench terrace, half moon terrace, grassed ways • horticulture in the mid portion • silvi-pastoral crops in top portion Agri-horti- silvi-pastoral land use Agri-horti-silvi-pastoral land use
  11. 11. Top-5 challenges in Food Processing identified by FICCI survey 2010 (250 companies, 125 respondents from food organizations) 44.25% 34.46% 28.51% 28.08% 25.03% Inadequate infrastructural facilities Comprehensivenational level policy on food processing sector Food safety Laws Inconsistency in central and state policies Availabilityof trained manpower Weighted % of respondents Long and fragmented supply chain, lack of integrated cold chain solutions, last mile connectivity, technology adoption and govt. support An effective policy should be comprehensive and adopt a number of legislative, administrative, promotional measures (tax waivers) Multiplicityof ministries and administrative authorities at central and state level has resulted in a complex unintegrating regulatory system Shortage of skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled workers due to demand-supply mismatch, impacting competitiveness of the industry Driver5: Government’s vision of increasing level of processing to 25% by 2015 drives new players* Source: andKPMG Analyses Product Key Segments Market growth rate Extent of processing Share of organized sector Unprocessed unorganized sector growth Scope for Enhancement Dairy Value added milk products like Butter, Cheese and Ghee 15% 37% 15% 8% Moderately High F&V Raw F&V, Fruit Pulps, Canned Fruits & Pickles 20% 2% 48% 10% Moderately High Meat & Poultry processing Cattle, Buffalo & Poultry 10% 1% 5% 9% Moderately High Fisheries Marine Fisheries, Frozen Products and Minced Fish Products 20% 12% 0% 18% Very High Packaged Foods Noodles/Vermicelli 8% 0% 80% 2% Extremely Low Beverages Fruit-based Drinks and Carbonated Drinks 27% 0% 77% 6% High Staple Foods Sugar, Wheat Flour and Salt 85% 0% 50% 43% Moderately High *Products which meet the needs of convenience, health & variety will drive the demand in high value processed products.