Manthan
Stepping Stones: Enhancing the quality of Primary Education
Team: Koch & Co
IIM Kozhikode
Shiksha Ka Parinaam – My...
Primary Education In India
1
50% is the avg attendance in any
class of primary school(4)
96% of all children are
enrolled ...
Primary Education In India
30
40
50
60
70
80
Building Playground Girls' Toilets Library Drinking water
%ofschoolswithfacil...
The test application will assess the
students on mathematical and
language skills. The testing would
comprise of two compo...
Design of the ‘My Shiksha’ Tool
Area Components
Mathematics Number, space, measurement and pattern
Writing
Ideas, content ...
School accreditation
The cumulative test scores of individual
classes would be used to arrive upon an
overall score for th...
Solution efficacy – merits, sustainability & monitoring mechanisms
Merits:
The proposed system for testing student
capabil...
Flow of work-PHASE 1-year March 2014-Feb 2015
Collect information from all states- school wise
number of students, teacher...
1
Shiksha Parinaam Committee
Test Development Agency
The test development agency
is responsible to design the
tests based ...
Union Minister of
HRD
National Shiksha
Parinaam
Commissioner
State Shiksha
Parinaam
Comissioners
District Shiksha
parinaam...
There can be demo session before the actual test to
acquaint the students with its working
The test should be designed as ...
Appendix
S.No Item Price Quantity Total Expense
1 Implementing Agency Workers 225 10days; 2workers 4500
2 Tabs 1300 2 2600...
References
1. http://www.teachforindia.org/about-us/india-education-crisis
2. http://www.pratham.org/file/ASER-2012report....
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KochandcoIIMK

  1. 1. Manthan Stepping Stones: Enhancing the quality of Primary Education Team: Koch & Co IIM Kozhikode Shiksha Ka Parinaam – My Shiksha
  2. 2. Primary Education In India 1 50% is the avg attendance in any class of primary school(4) 96% of all children are enrolled in school(2) Overall, govt. and parents have ensured enrollment of their wards, now time is to turn the focus from inputs to outputs 13% of country’s population under 6yrs age(1) We have to accommodate and ensure quality education for 160m students in our primary schools over the next 5 years 83% of India has a primary school in less than 1km dist (3) The govt. has been reasonably successful in ensuring easy access of schools in the neighborhood of all children Attendance should be the main criteria to asses if children are in school rather than considering enrollment ratio. 432 The following are possible reasons for low attendance of pupils: 1. Poor Infrastructure 2. Difficult curriculum 3. Lack of learning material 4. Lack of teachers 5. Poverty/Involvement in income generation 6. Nutrition / Child sickness Alarming rate of drop in attendance in schools despite high enrollment ratio!
  3. 3. Primary Education In India 30 40 50 60 70 80 Building Playground Girls' Toilets Library Drinking water %ofschoolswithfacilities Infrastructure improvement over the years 2010 2011 2012 Examining the various possible causes for dropping attendance Reasonable improvement is being made in various domains of infrastructure development. The last leg is the most difficult and is said to take extra effort and funds. 38 40 42 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 2010 2011 2012 Noofstudentsperteacher Year Pupil-Teacher ratio Reasonable teacher – student ratio. However the absenteeism of teachers remains to be monitored. Currently, there is no proper system to record teacher attendance Lack of learning outcome could be main reason of absenteeism of students from govt. schools All pass policy does not ensure proper learning for students. On the contrary, students tend to be promoted without acquiring basic skill sets and eventually drop out. Increasing age diversity of class could hinder the learning outcome of students who attend govt. schools. This leads to variation in ability levels of students in a particular class. Fraction of those who could not read grade II text in that grade but moved to next grade 84% 87% 87% 83 84 85 86 87 88 2010 2011 2012 %ofschoolsunderMDM Year Mid day meal scheme Mid day meal scheme has been rolled out extensively and been a major motivation for parents to send their wards to school. Only 1 out of every 5 students has any print material to refer to at home. Percentage of classrooms with students from more than one grade The students are not provided with adequate learning materials and as a result classroom interaction becomes the only option for learning. On the whole, although there are sufficient efforts being taken to improve infrastructure and schooling, quality of education remains neglected. As a result there is no learning outcome.
  4. 4. The test application will assess the students on mathematical and language skills. The testing would comprise of two components:  Objective evaluation – through a pre loaded test  Subjective evaluation – through the test facilitator  Web-enabled tablets for administering the test.  Preloaded with an interactive application that would be children friendly.  Native language audio support.  The questions will be made available from the server only at the time of the test, to avoid malpractices like prior preparation by students and teachers The test scores for each child will be stored in a central server that would maintain a database of scores. This would be updated every time the child takes a test.  This would serve as a progress report for performance monitoring over the years.  The cumulative scores for a school would be used for determining other factors The tablets would be used as an interactive teaching aid during the academic year. It would help supplement the current pedagogy with:  Multimedia content  Self- evaluation tools  Customized input delivery based on previous performance Our Solution - ‘My Shiksha’ tool for measuring the learning outcome
  5. 5. Design of the ‘My Shiksha’ Tool Area Components Mathematics Number, space, measurement and pattern Writing Ideas, content knowledge, structure,style, vocabulary, spelling, grammar Reading Phonic , Fluency, comprehension Communication Fluency, vocabulary,  To evaluate and quantify the level of primary education at a school, district and state level  To continuously monitor the improvement of student learning achievement year-wise throughout his/her primary education  To analyse variations in student performance by age, region, gender, location and language of instruction  To generate recommendations for policy making to improve educational quality Objectives of the assessment Components of assessment Mathematical Language Grade I Vocabulary of spatial relationship; identifies numbers with physical objects Follow simple instructions, identify a person, singing rhymes Grade II Identifies 2D and 3D shapes; Understands place values and reads and writes numbers up to 99 Read and write simple phrases Grade III Draws 3D objects; counts in different ways, understands 3 – digit numbers Read a story/poem Grade IV Multiplies two and three digit numbers; Draws intuitively the plan, elevation of simple objects Write a short description of a person/place/thing Grade V Understands numbers beyond 1000; explores symmetry in 2D and 3D objects Proper group activity role play and dramatization Overview of standards to be met by students in different grades Examples of Psychographics/General Questions:  Do you like coming to school  Do your parents support you in your studies  Do you face any inconvenience in the classroom  Do you understand what the teacher says Pattern/Format of Assessment  Interactive audio/video questioning  Native language writing  Multiple and short answer  Activity based evaluation
  6. 6. School accreditation The cumulative test scores of individual classes would be used to arrive upon an overall score for the school. Based on this, schools would be given a rating. The rating will help schools attract funding and also good quality students. 0 5 10 15 20 25 Mathematical Writing skill Reading skill Speaking skill SAMPLE OUTPUT FROM ‘MY SHIKSHA’ TEST End term Student level assessment The test score will help understand the student better. This can be used to customize some of the teachings for the particular student. The assessment will also help monitor the progress of the student over the years. Teacher performance assessment The cumulative test scores of a class of students will be used to compute teacher efficiency scores. This can in turn be used to compute performance related bonuses. Test output measurement Each student will be tested on his/her level of competency with respect to four key factors – Mathematical ability, Writing skills, Reading skills and Speaking skills and an extensive result sheet would be available at the end of the testing. CurriculumTrainingneedsSystemicchanges Improvements to curriculum & pedagogy Identify specific gaps in the current training (if any) Helpful in formulating design changes to education system Implications of Usage
  7. 7. Solution efficacy – merits, sustainability & monitoring mechanisms Merits: The proposed system for testing student capabilities has the following merits over the currently available systems:  Almost instantaneous results  Scientific and objective evaluation  Shall provide useful data for further analytics to determine the levels of various other factors that determine learning outcomes  Student friendly testing experience  Enables continuous progress monitoring Sustainability: Our system will be built on the latest available platforms of smart mobile devices and would be upgradable as and when there are updates.  The system shall consist of handheld devices, a central server and a cloud based platform  There shall be a uniform platform over which customizable modules can be added on for easy roll out and delivery  The system entails just a one time investment for the handheld devices, the software and the server after which it is almost maintenance free Monitoring mechanism: In order to maintain the integrity of the testing process, the following checks shall be in place:  The test shall be based out of an extensive pool of questions that would prevent malpractices by offering a unique test experience for each student  The test difficulty level shall be maintained uniform across the population  The implementation agencies shall be NGOs and PPPs that would prevent influences of the government machinery
  8. 8. Flow of work-PHASE 1-year March 2014-Feb 2015 Collect information from all states- school wise number of students, teachers, infrastructure, facilities Identify an test development agency to design software taking into account all the factors Ministry of Education agrees upon the framework of the ‘My Shiksha’ toolkit and expected learning outcome for each component for each grade. Subject Specialists draft the blueprint and questionnaires These inputs given to the test development agency and required format is mentioned (in audio/video/online etc) Flow of work-PHASE 2- 8 months (Apr 2015- Nov 2015) Madhya Pradesh is chosen for the pilot run. It is divided into 5 zones and a set of 10 (2 schools each) government schools are chosen for pilot run Implementation agency is identified. These could be private companies CSR units or NGOs willing to take up the same. Implementation agency conducts tests in these schools and records results. Appropriate training is given to the implementation agency organizers. The data is analyzed and the scores are compared to reflect with the actual situation. The meaning of each score is given by the test development agency and guidelines to the States are drafted accordingly by the panel Feedback (technical issues, comprehension, logistics etc) from students, teachers, school administration and implementation agency taken. This feedback is used to alter the learning outcome tool kit before rolling it out in a large scale. The validation of the implementation budget is ascertained and modified accordingly The implementation of the toolkit throughout all primary schools in Madhya Pradesh toward end of academic year (Jan-Mar) Assessment of data results done by test development agency and submitted to the Shiksha Parinaam Committee Analysis is done at State level, District level and School Level and appropriate steps are taken at each level to improve the scores of learning outcome before the onset of next academic year (May end) Repeat the phase 2 steps region-wise to all states Flow of work-PHASE 3- 5 months (Jan 2016- May 2016) Flow of work-PHASE 4-1 year Align different performance related funding and incentives at different levels with My Shiksha Flow of work-PHASE 5 – Future Prospects Roadmap for implementation Phase 1&2 expenses: 5 crores and 15 lakhs Phase 3: 35 crores Phase 4: 838 crores After that Year on Year Expenses: 100 crores
  9. 9. 1 Shiksha Parinaam Committee Test Development Agency The test development agency is responsible to design the tests based on the inputs by the panel. Different modules for each native language is made. 2 A panel containing representatives from the Centre and one from each state + subject specialists gather to decide the inputs for the assessment and expected learning outcome gradewise. States analyze the results obtained and take decisions to improve its performance 3 States Implementation Agency The State appoints implementation agencies like NGOs or through Public Private Partnerships to conduct these assessments across all schools in all districts in the State 4 5 Schools The various assessments are conducted in schools scores of which are directly available with the test development agency The analysis report of the tests are generated by the test development agency 6 7 The generated reports are used to identify the focal problems that need to be addressed on priority basis . Shiksha Parinaam – method of working (MHRD + State)+ Subject Specialists
  10. 10. Union Minister of HRD National Shiksha Parinaam Commissioner State Shiksha Parinaam Comissioners District Shiksha parinaam commissioners Village level supervisors/ School Principals My Shiksha Tool Development and Analytics Agency Implementation Agencies Teachers Students Parents Subject level experts Shiksha Parinaam Committee 1 2 3 4 5 8 6 7 Responsibilities: • Monitoring the entire program • Sanction of funds 1 Responsibilities: • Coordination with the different state level SPCs • Setting of national level standards to be achieved in conjunction with Shiksha Parinaam Committee • Awarding tender to My Shiksha tool development and analytics agency • Periodic Monitoring functioning of state level Committees • Coming up with recommendations for different levels of performance 2 Responsibilities: • Ensuring attainment of national standards by coordination with district level SPCs • Deciding Corrective course of action at the state level and funding required from center • Coordination with National SPC to incorporate state level requirements into the testing tool • Arranging for different Implementation agencies and the revenue models 3 Responsibilities: • Coordinating with Allotted Implementation agencies • Promoting awareness and benefits of the system to different stakeholders • Ensuring coverage of all villages under the district • Coordinating with village level supervisors to help with proper scheduling of test 4 Responsibilities: • Understand the current standard of education in India • Study the acceptable levels world over • Come up with acceptable standards for the country to be achieved in the near future • Continuously review status and modify standards 8 Responsibilities: • Develop the test based on inputs given by Shiksha Parinaam Committee • Modify the test format and questionnaires after feedback from phase 2 • Provide Analysis of the collected data to the Committee every year • Continuous improvement and modifications as per insights gained during implementation of the program 6 Responsibilities: • Proper coordination with the state level Commissioner, District level and village level supervisors • Timely execution of all tests • Build up sufficient capacity to interact with all students, teachers and parents 7 Responsibilities: • Ensure coordination and goodwill of all stakeholders • Test implementation at school • Ensure all students take the test 5 Stakeholders and responsibilities
  11. 11. There can be demo session before the actual test to acquaint the students with its working The test should be designed as user friendly as possible simulating slate chalk conditions Challenges and mitigation plan 1 • Students may find operation of the tablet during test conditions to be difficult 2 • Tablets have to be maintained properly without allowing for vandalisms and damage 5 • Training of volunteers of the implementation agency The tablets could be maintained by a team of volunteers who are made responsible of visiting various rural schools to record the learning outcomes students 4 • Identification of implementation agency maybe be difficult In order to conduct the assessment in a transparent and efficient manner the state government will have to specify criteria for selection There should be proper mechanisms to validate the credibility of the implementation agency 3 • Developing testing tools with different native language support may be a problem The tool can be developed in a few languages that are more commonly understood. Employing appropriate language specialists and testing the language aspect of the tool Apart from written based test the assessment may involve other aspects like viva voce/ activity based tests for which proper training of the organizers is required 6 • Cooperation of school administration, teachers and students School authorities and teachers must be made aware of the significance the assessment . In case of failure to oblige/ cooperate, there should be appropriate control mechanisms to ensure against the same. Based on the proactive participation of the schools, appropriate incentives can be given 7 • Cooperation of States to take up the assessment Though the assessment is designed at the Centre Level (with inputs from each of the State representatives) to achieve a better learning outcome, it lies with the State to understand the implications of the same and implement policies which will help achieve a greater learning outcome of primary school 8 • Understanding the analysis report of the assessment Proper and easy guidelines which will help the concerned authorities at State/District/School level to understand the results of the analysis report
  12. 12. Appendix S.No Item Price Quantity Total Expense 1 Implementing Agency Workers 225 10days; 2workers 4500 2 Tabs 1300 2 2600 3 Transportation Costs forimplementing workers 300 10 3000 4 Software implementation 50000000 1 50000000 5 Conventions in Delhi and finalising of objectives 100000 10 1000000 6 Training of workers 20000 1 20000 7 Collection of database 500000 500000 51530100 Phase 1& 2 S.No Item Price Quantity Total Expense 1 ImplementingAgencyWorkers 225 110days;2000workers 49500000 2 Tabs 1300 200000 260000000 3 TransportationCostsforimplementingworkers 300 95517 28655100 4 Software implementation 10000000 1 10000000 5 ConventionsinDelhi reviewof objectivesandperformance100000 10 1000000 6 Trainingof workers 2000 2000 4000000 353155100 Phase 3 All India Phase 4 S.No Item Price Quantity Total Expense 1 Implementing Agency Workers 225 110 days; 56000 workers 135520000 2 Tabs 1300 200000 7280000000 3 Transportation Costs for implementing workers 300 95517 802342800 4 Software implementation 10000000 1 50000000 5 Conventions in Delhi review of objectives and performance 100000 10 1000000 6 Training of workers 2000 2000 112000000 8380862800 838 crores Year on Year costs 1 Implementing Agency Workers 225 110 days; 56000 workers 135520000 3 Transportation Costs for implementing workers 300 95517 802342800 5 Conventions in Delhi review of objectives and performance 100000 10 1000000 938862800 100 crores
  13. 13. References 1. http://www.teachforindia.org/about-us/india-education-crisis 2. http://www.pratham.org/file/ASER-2012report.pdf 3. http://www.firstpost.com/india/why-the-state-of-indias-primary-education-is-shocking- 598011.html 4. http://www.indexmundi.com/india/demographics_profile.html 5. http://forbesindia.com/article/briefing/primary-education-in-india-needs-a-fix/35287/1 6. http://www.ssa.mp.gov.in/educationalprofile.htm 7. http://www.paycheck.in/main/salary/minimumwages/madhya-pradesh 8. http://www.uis.unesco.org/Education/Documents/Ferrer.pdf 9. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EDUCATION/Resources/278200- 1099079877269/547664-1099079993288/assessing_national_achievement_level_Edu.pdf 10. http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTEDUCATION/0,,contentMDK:21911 176~menuPK:5495844~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~theSitePK:282386,00.html

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