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  2. 2. SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM • Large diversion of subsidized grains in open market • De-sustenance of PDS retail trade • Lower Consumer Off-take of grains • Large errors of exclusion(of BPL families) and inclusion (of APL families) by the prevalence of Ghost BPL Cards • Non-viable FPS distribution channel CAUSES OF THE PROBLEM Central Level • Variation in BPL quota • Low awareness about government policies related to storage facilities ( construction of godown, purchase of mobile vans/trucks & Training/Research and Monitoring) State Level • Allocation of preferred cereals (Wheat & Rice) only • Seasonality in demand for PDS grains (wage in kind and low price in harvest seasons) • Issuance of Ghost Cards FPS/Distribution Level • Improper monitoring of activities of FPSs through inspection by district/ taluka level officials • Low off-take of grains and other commodities by consumers • Less no of ration cards attached to a FPS and their BPL-APL break off • Cost incurred on transport and handling, rent etc • Market prices ruling above economic cost offered by this scheme Common Issues • Inadequate storage facilities • Higher administrative costs • Lack of Railway Rakes lead to transportation problems • Absence of information system among various levels REASON FOR SELECTING SPECIFIC CAUSE (S) • Broad day light leakages at various levels. • To increase viability of FPSs. • Information flow within various levels is absent • Improper record maintenance • Need of proper storage facilities • Presence of ‘middle-men’ in supply chain at State & FPS/Distribution level • Identifying deserving people for PDS policy • In co-ordination b/w State & Central government
  3. 3. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Andhra Pradesh Assam Bihar Gujrat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Karnataka Kerela Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Tamil Nadu U.P West Bengal Exclusion Error 0 5 10 15 20 25 Andhra Pradesh Assam Bihar Gujrat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Karnataka Kerela Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Tamil Nadu U.P West Bengal Shadow Ownership Error 0 10 20 30 40 50 Andhra Pradesh Assam Bihar Gujrat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Karnataka Kerela Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Tamil Nadu U.P West Bengal Inclusion Error *Data Source – PEO TPDS Social challenge BPL families have to be more vigilant towards their rights Ensuring Constant power supply and internet connectivity at the ration shops. Economic Challenge Increased Budget to install computers and servers Creating a separate smart card for PDS. Political Challenge State Government not keen to utilize the government policies which helps to increase storage and transportation facilities.
  4. 4. Delivery Tracking Application (DTA) – An integrated approach to visualize delivered items at any PDS geo location (Developed by our team using Google API, HTML & CSS, User Interface snapshots shown as images) Features • Use of customized Icon for each data row entitled to a location • Customized icons set by pre-specified range of data • Vary color of region & boundary color specifically for PDS node in check • Gradual change in colors for a specified range of values Implementation of DTA Central Pool Outflow Track Once grain is allocated to states on papers, dynamic update of physical delivery of stock at various godown/ warehouse facilities in state by concerned authority take place, subsequently to other levels Central Pool State Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Gradient diagram of food grain credit density by BPL/APL families throughout nation Analysis of transport channels b/w FCI godowns & State godown using rail, road, ship, air, ocean etc. *Food grain credit density is amount of food grain not reaching to BPL/APL families
  5. 5. User Interface has Drop-down menu, performance indicator slider and checkbox functionalities are utilized to put check at various levels of PDS • Central Pool • State Level • FPS/Distribution Level Impacts of DTA Central Pool System Check efficiency of PDS network geo locations based on  Past food grain demand in terms of quantum (Rs.) and growth (%)  Presence of agri- products growing centers for enrichment of pool  PEO can avail real time data to analyze dynamic picture of scenario State Level System Compare PDS geo locations based on  Presence of warehouse, suppliers etc.  Presence of pick-up and drop hubs for various modes of transport (rail, road, air, ocean etc.)  Rail / Road route between source and destination District Level System Compare PDS geo locations based on  Presence of pick-up and drop hubs for various modes of transport (rail, road, air, ocean etc.)  Rail / Road route between source and destination  BPL & APL families / Accounts  Distributors / Retailers etc. *Competitive Index Ratio (CIR) can be labelled at each node to evaluate the flow effectively. CIR explained in detail later
  6. 6. National Information Flow System (NIFS) – a mechanism to integrate and develop a co ordinated flow of information among various levels of PDS Implementation of NIFS Central, State & Zonal level database gets updated with BPL/APL family information Receive Information through UID & Electoral Database Distribution of PDS ID Smart Card PDS ID Smart Card used to swipe for each ration transaction at FPSs Impact of NIFS Monitoring of FPSs Inter State ration transactions possible for state wide cross flow of people Co-ordinated information flow b/w Central, State & Zonal level Tracking of resources allocated dynamically *Each Card swipe will result in minimum transaction of 5 Kg. ration
  7. 7. Family ID Individual Family Member BiometricInfo Issue Date Valid Till Year Jan Feb Mar April … Dec 25 30 35 35 … 40 5 10 10 5 … 5 25 35 45 30 … 25 10 20 5 … 5 35 25 35 30 … 25 0 10 5 … 10 25 30 35 35 … 40 5 10 10 5 … 5 25 35 45 30 … 25 10 20 5 … 5 35 25 35 30 … 25 0 10 5 … 10 BP<Pincode>Serial_no. Kamal Kishor Lilavati Kishor Allocated Credit Allocated Credit Allocated 23-05-2011 23-05-2021 2011 2012 2013 Chiraunjee Lal Kishore DivyaKumari Allocated Credit Credit 2011 Allocated Credit Allocated Credit 2013 AP<Pincode>Serial_no./ AAY<PinCode>Serial_No. Suhas Banwari 14-07-2011 14-07-2021 Bhagwati Pinki Kumari MeenaBanwari 2012 Sample of Database Form of BPL/APL families -it will be saved for further reference for check/distribution at various levels Competitive Index Ratio (CIR) In each zone we keep track of remaining inventory of all FPS. The remaining inventory of all FPS are then normalized which is then used as performance index which we call competitive index ratio. Based on CIR, commission on selling per quintal of food grain will be decided. This is done to introduce competitiveness in the FPS chain. Re Re i i maining Inventory CIR Total maining Inventory at Zonal Level 
  8. 8. Hybrid Accessibility Approach System (HAAS) STATIC PDS MOBILE PDS Highly Accessible Areas Inaccessible Areas Medium Accessible Areas Inaccessible Areas Medium Accessible Areas Highly Accessible Areas Implementation of HAAS • Division of transportation channels across nation into three categories as shown • Static PDS suggests use FPSs for distribution • Mobile PDS suggests use of Van/Truck for delivery of items to customers • Cross-section of both suggests use of mix of both strategies This solution will create nation wide impact to have high off take by BPL/APL families
  9. 9. COST ESTIMATE PROJECT TASKS NUMBER OF UNITS TYPE COMPUTERS (Rs.) POS TERMINALS (Rs.) TOTAL PER LEVEL Total Investment At All Zonal / Taluka Offices 229.0 Offices ₹ 1,01,37,87,580.00 ₹ 1,01,37,87,580.00 ₹ 2,02,75,75,389.00 Total Investment At All FPS 16,500.0 FPS ₹ 1,82,32,50,000.00 ₹ 1,82,32,50,000.00 ₹ 3,64,65,16,500.00 Total Investment At All Godown Centres 192.0 Offices ₹ 9,93,28,896.00 ₹ 1.00 ₹ 9,93,29,089.00 Total Investment At All DSM Offices 26.0 Offices ₹ 2,06,03,700.00 ₹ 1.00 ₹ 2,06,03,727.00 Total Investment At All DSO Offices 26.0 Offices ₹ 1,37,13,700.00 ₹ 1,37,13,700.00 ₹ 2,74,27,426.00 Total Investment At One FCS & CAD, GOG Offices 1.0 Office ₹ 21,45,654.00 ₹ 21,45,654.00 ₹ 42,91,309.00 Total Investment At GSCSC Head Office 1.0 Office ₹ 26,77,784.00 ₹ 26,77,784.00 ₹ 53,55,569.00 Total Investment Of The Project 0.0 - ₹ 2,97,55,07,314.00 ₹ 2,85,55,74,720.00 ₹ 5,83,10,99,009.00 Source : E-PDS System Gujarat NIFSPROJECTCOST • DTA proposed solution is already developed as an application, needs skilled operators who can fill data at backend. This resource can be availed in co- ordination with government agencies like NIC • NIFS can be implemented broadly at national level by employing financial estimates done above. • HAAS is a strategic solution which can be included in government national scheme of Public Distribution System Financial Viability of proposed solutions Set up rural development funds which can be of two forms • Voluntary donations • Compiled with employment programs ( eg. NREGA), where people can earn their living by acting in PDS itself. Human Resource Management Beside we discuss estimate for implementation of National Information Flow System (NIFS)
  10. 10. Non-Implementation of Government Policies •Central provides a maximum financial assistance of 50000 INR for week's training course •Funds for supporting research/studies/seminars depend upon the size, merits of each case. • Financial assistance for purchase of Mobile Vans/Trucks for rural/hilly or inaccessible areas • Under this scheme for a 4 tonner truck a assistance of Rs. 4 lakhs is provided with 50% loan and 50% subsidy • And for a 8 tonner truck a assistance of Rs. 8-10 lakhs is provided with 50% loan and 50% subsidy. • Funds for small godowns where Central agencies like CWC, FCI do not operate. • A Financial assistance of 50% loan and 50% subsidy is provided. • However, In UTs without legislatures the entire assistance is in the form of subsidy only Purchase of Mobile Vans/Trucks Training, Research and Monitoring. Construction of Godowns Challenges and Mitigation factors -Government policies can give employment and promote better infrastructure development of India to support the various social safety nets Challenges Mitigation
  11. 11. Appendix • Trends in Diversion of Grain from the Public Distribution Sytem, Reetika Khare, EPW • Mid-Day Meals in Primary Schools, Reetika Khare • Guidelines for Computerization of TPDS • Justice Wadhwa Committee Report on Public Distribution System • Performance Evaluation of TPDS, Planning Commission, March 2005 • Reforming the Public Distribution System: Lessons from Chhattisgarh, Raghav Puri,2012 • Coverage and Leakages in PDS in Andhra Pradesh, S Indrakanth,1997 • Public Distribution of Rice in Andhra Pradesh: Efficiency and Reform Options, Surajit Deb • Integrated Weight Management-cum-mis Solution For PDS In Gaya – An Iap Initiative • Food Stamps: A Model for India, Centre for Civil Society