Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.



Published on

Published in: Business, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this


  1. 1. FUTURE CITIES TURNING TRASH INTO CASH A radical waste to energy scheme Team Members: 1. Mohamed Zeeshan 2. Sachin Bhat 3. Subhash Saravanan 4. Vamsi Krishna 5. Vignesh Shekhar Team Name: Josephites1 E-mail:
  2. 2. Source: Central pollution control board 2010-2011 It is estimated that Urban India generates 55 million tonnes of Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW) annually. MSW generation in top 10 cities 6800 6500 4500 4200 3700 3670 2300 1600 1300 1200 MSWINTONS/DAY Key points  India is set to surpass China’s total population by 2025.  Volume of MSW generated will increase proportionally.  The waste is collected in large land fills without proper planning  Only 1.4% of the MSW collected is disposed of properly.  The waste presently dumped on open land causes a myriad of environmental, health and development problems.
  3. 3. Demand for electricity in urban areas far exceeds the availability. All India generating capacity in MW (31/07/2013) 153848 4780 39623 27542 0 20000 40000 60000 80000 100000 120000 140000 160000 180000 Thermal Nuclear Hydro Renewable Key points  India is the 4th largest energy consumer in the world  City dwellers face constant power outages  Industries, Hospitals, Schools and colleges affected  Significant impact on the income of daily wage workers  Only 12% of energy is derived from renewable sources  There is a need to supplement the existing systems with the means to supply for increasing demand Source: Central Electricity Authority
  4. 4. Turning excess waste into usable energy is a step forward in mitigating these issues Waste to energy Renewable source Raw materials readily available Zero pollution Efficient waste reduction Implementation Waste to be collected door to door and from all other public places in an efficient manner Collected waste to be pyrolised to create syngas Burning syngas will create heat required to generate power Advantages Ensures the cleanliness in the city Reduces the risk of leachates from landfills polluting groundwater Supplements conventional energy generation Residues left behind can be used in making roads, fertilizers etc.
  5. 5. The composition of MSW across urban India is consistent, hence Waste to energy (WtE) is viable  Almost half of the solid waste generated in urban India is organic  This high percentage of organic matter hits the sweet spot for various WtE schemes  WtE is similar to thermal energy generation  Instead of fossil fuels it aims to take advantage of the carbon present in the organic matter  From the graph, it is observed that MSW in India has a high moisture content
  6. 6. Segregation Collection Treatment Generation A bird’s eye view of the solution proposed • Segregation of the wastes is the most essential stage • It will be done in the household level as well as in public spaces • It will employ colour coded waste bins and bags • The following colour code is to be used Organic Paper Plastic Metal Glass Hazardous • Collection of the waste will be on a door-to-door basis • The collected trash will be transported to the treatment facility in closed vehicles • This system particularly helps in formally employing the rag pickers in the cities • The collected waste is transferred to the landfill area • The treatment facility will be in-situ • This stage requires segregation of the collected waste into degradable, recyclable and other inert wastes • The organic waste is converted chemically into a gas which is used in generationWill employ 3000+ workers • Heat energy can be derive by burning this gas (syngas) • This heat energy is used to generate electricity and/or provide for heating systems • According to the MNRE its is estimated that WtE can yield an approximate 1500 MW of power on a national scale
  7. 7. Pyrolysis Syngas Energy Wet waste Dry waste Treatment Method  The waste is segregated into degradable, recyclable, and inert wastes.  The wet degradable waste is dried using blowers.  This would result in reduction of the weight by half.  The dry waste is subject to PYROLYSIS.  Pyrolysis is a thermochemical decomposition of organic material at elevated temperatures in the absence of oxygen.  This results in the production of syngas which is a flammable mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide.  The syngas is used to drive dynamos to generate electricity.  The generated power will vary with the quantity of waste.  Processing 300 tons per day will yield an average of 3 MW per hour. Surplus energy
  8. 8. Impact of the proposed solution Criteria to measure the impact  Total power generated  By-products of the process  Revenue generated  Generation of new jobs Immediate impact  The proposed solution will seek to improve or resolve the intermittent power supply in urban centres  The by-products at the end of the process will aid in providing raw materials and/or additives for various products in different sectors  Selling of the segregated recyclables and residual matter will generate additional revenue  An estimated 500,000+ jobs to be created across urban India for technical graduates as well as for illiterates
  9. 9. Scalability  The initial phase incorporates MSW only  The technology is present to include sewage treatment as well which can be incorporated in subsequent phases.  Deployment of digesters, incinerators and biogas generation plants in later phases will increase overall efficiency.  The scaled up project not only helps the public sector but also manufacturing, transport and agricultural sectors.  The mainstream deployment of the proposed system is shown below.
  10. 10. The challenges and risks involved Concept Risks • Financially, the initial investment cost is high • The technology used to implement the plan has to be imported Implementation challenges • The general public may not comply to the strict onsite garbage segregation norms • A “No Littering” policy is difficult to implement Mitigation factors These issues can be resolved by forming a Public Private Partnership between the Government and Private firms Camps and movements to help raise awareness and educate the public should be initiated
  11. 11. References  2009-10 Annual Report the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)  The Hindu, “India's population to surpass China's by 2025”  "ALL INDIA REGIONWISE GENERATING INSTALLED CAPACITY OF POWER". Central Electricity Authority, Ministry of Power, Government of India.  The New York Times, “Drowning in a sea of garbage”.  The New York times, “A City That Turns Garbage Into Energy Copes With a Shortage”.  Greenearth  Wikipedia  Central pollution control board  The World Bank Data Bank