PDS means distribution of essential commodities to a
large no of people through a network of FPS (fair price
shop) on a recurring basis.
The commodities are as follows:-
3 . Sugar
Public Distribution System (PDS) is a poverty alleviation programme
and contributes towards the social welfare of the people. Essential
commodities like rice, wheat, sugar, kerosene and the like are
supplied to the people under the PDS at reasonable prices. PDS is a
boon to the people living below the poverty line. PDS is the primary
social welfare and antipoverty programme of the Government of
It is not possible to neglect the PDS in India, because majority of the
Indian population are living in rural areas and their standard of living
is also poor and they cannot afford to pay the prevailing market
prices for the essential commodities.
Started in 1960s. It was for everyone till 1992 when it was tried for
tribal blocks of far and difficult areas to improve the reach and in 1997
it was made targeted to poor people.
State Government responsibility is to identify the poor and ensure
that they get benefited.
When started its aimed for 60 millions (6 crore) people with 72 lakhs
PDS is operated under the joint responsibility of the
central and State Goverments.
The Central Government responsibility for
procurement, storage, transportation and bulk
allocation of food grains.
The State Government responsibility
- For distributing the same to the consumers through
the network of Fair price Shops (FPSs)
- The operational responsibilities including allocation
within the state, identification of families below
poverty lines (BPLs), issue of ration cards, supervision
ANTYODAY ANNA YOJANA (AAY)
AAY is a step in the direcition of making TDPS aim at
reducing hunger among the poorest segmennt of the
In order to make TPDS more focused nd targeted
towards this category of population, the ‘Antyodaa
Anna Yojana’ (AAY) waslaunched in December, 2000
for one crore poorest of the families.
providing them food grains at a highly subsidized rate
of RS 2 per kg. for wheat and Rs. 3 per kg for Rice.
Role of PDS in Fortification
Common goal to reach poor and hard to reach people
at an affordable cost.
System in place and we need to piggy back.
Supply fortified atta in place grains is all that we need
Wheat fortification most practical fortified with iron,
folic acid, vitamin A, in that priority.
Rice fortification and sugar fortification are also
Challenges of Fortification in PDSs
PDS for really poor people?
Fight corruption and ensure that the real targeted
population gets it.
Ensure that it is not Re-circulated in the open market.
Who would bear the cost?
How shall the quality will be maintained?
Technology transfer to Appropriate authority
Accountability between Civil supply, Health, Social
Welfare, whose jurisdiction?
should it be mandetory?
Challenges of Fortification
* What food to fortify?
* What nutrient to use for fortification?
* Most of the wheat atta are not produced
centrally and so small chakkis will have to be
• How much amount of nutrient element:
depends upon the available dietary source that
is so variable in indian population.
Problems in PDS:-
As per the survey conducted by ORG-MARG
commissioned by CAG for assessing the perception of
beneficiaries about the PDS, generallythere was
dissatisfaction among the cardholders.
They reported problems of inability to obtain ration
cards, charging of higher price, infrequentopening of
the FPS, frequent stock-out situations, under-weighing
by the FPS owners, inferior quality of food grains
supplied through the PDS, nonawareness of their
entitlement, and non-existence of grievance-redress
This study also found that the cardholders were facing
the problems like (1) leakage, (2) under-
weighment, (3) poorquality, (4) non-availability of
(5) non-controlled articles.
Problems in PDS:-
16% Poor qulity &
23% Non availablity of
27% non-availablity of
21% non- availablity of
Opinion to make PDS more effective:-
• Increase the margin to society and salary to salesmen
• Reduce the number of cards per FPSs
• Notice Boards in all FPSs
• Vigilance committees