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  1. 1. MANTHAN TOPIC: PROVIDING SOCIAL WELFARE TO INFORMAL SECTOR WORKERS Indian Welfare Systems: State & Corporate Responses (Women in Informal Employment) Team Details
  2. 2. The economic reforms began at 1990s made India as Emerging Giant but in BRIC it lags behind in we come up with a solution “Develop and expand basic welfare provision with respect to social investment” India’s provision of welfare Formal sector welfare system Informal sector welfare system Total labor in INDIA Formal sector Informal sector • Life Expectancy • Adult Literacy • Education
  3. 3. Social security Contingency Formal Sector Workers (Public and Private sector employees) Informal Sector Workers Suggested model for informal sector workers Medical Care Free treatment in hospitals. Free drugs or reimbursement for drugs Treatment in public hospitals. Free supply of drugs to a limited extent through Primary Health Centers. Reimbursement for drugs and treatment in Government and cooperate hospitals. Sickness Benefit Medical leave on full pay for public sector workers. Sickness leave under the Employee State Insurance (ESI) Act for private sector workers Nothing. Life Insurance has to be provided . Volunteer service to be brought into awareness in such conditions. Maternity Benefit Maternity leave on full pay for public sector workers. Maternity benefits under ESI Act or under Maternity Benefits Act. Minimal maternity benefits under social assistance scheme under National Social Assistance Program(NSAP) and only in certain states Reimbursement of maternity bills and assurance by Government for the entire education & hygiene development of child. Employment Injury Benefit Benefits under EST Act, Payment of Gratuity Act and Workmen’s Compensation Act. Social assistance from welfare funds for those engaged in hazardous occupations, only in certain States. Complete responsibility towards their family till they get source to sustain life. Invalidity Benefit Benefits under EST Act, Payment of Gratuity Act and Workmen’s Compensation Act. Pensions for physically handicapped, but only in certain States. Pensions should be implemented in all states and schemes should be developed in order to build self confidence in them. Old-Age Benefit Pension and gratuity under Employees’ Provident Fund & Miscellaneous Provisions Act (EPF & MPAct) and Payment of Gratuity Act. Old-age pensions provided for NSAP, only for the destitute poor. Pension rate should be increased to sustain their life and volunteer service towards them should be developed.
  4. 4. Education Health Education Infrastructure: defined as the building, funding, running , and /or adopting of schools and/or learning centers from nursery through higher education. Health Infrastructure: defined as the building, funding, running, and/or adopting of hospitals and/or health centers. Vocational Training Links: define as the running and/or funding of vocational training schools and/or work experience programs in the same industry as the corporation. Health Education/Awareness: defined as the running and/or funding of campaigns and/or education programs in the areas of HIV/AIDS, mother and child nutrition, polio, malaria, leprosy, cancer, and/or tuberculosis. Education Resources: defined as the donation of school materials, such as books, notebooks, writing utensils, school uniforms, computers, and technology supported education curriculums. In addition it encompasses the provision of teacher training, career guidance, and student scholarships Health Outreach: defined as the running and/or funding of medical camps, mobile health units, telemedicine, and/or ambulances. In addition, it encompasses to the training of health personnel and provision of vaccinations, medications, and/or treatment for: polio, malaria, leprosy, cancer, HIV/AIDS and/or tuberculosis.  These categories were selected because they represent social investments for the future and are required for sustained economic growth.  ‘Education’ and ‘Health’ received the most search hits when individually combined with the search terms of ‘corporate social responsibility’ and ‘India’.  The terms ‘running, funding, and/or adopting’ were employed because this is the language used by the selected corporations in discussing their corporate social education and/or health initiatives.  Corporations utilized the term ‘adopting’ in relation to adopting a government run school or health facility; however, they did not specify if ‘adopting’ meant funding and/or running specifically.
  5. 5.  Worldwide, millions of workers have never had or are losing access to their rights to social benefits through work – retirement funds, maternity benefits and reproductive health services, compensation for work-related accidents and diseases.  Employers and owners of capital are offloading responsibility for social coverage onto workers, conditions of work are hazardous and precarious, with little regulation of the working environment, and very little social protection, poor conditions of work are associated with poor health and lowered incomes Further, systemic country-level or global risks – such as the global financial crisis/economic recession – have specific, often severe, impacts on those engaged in informal work. We sees the lack of access to social protection as a long term structural problem that will have especially harsh consequences for the working poor, especially women, in the informal economy. ?????WHAT IS NEEDED????? A system-wide approach to social protection that is designed to handle a wide range of contingencies or shocks for all strata of the population and workforce, through a range of financing mechanisms. The approach should be based on the fact that the informal workforce contributes to the overall economy, that social protection for the informal workforce is an investment, not just a cost, and that the risks of the informal workforce cannot be addressed solely through short-term safety nets or targeted social assistance. Policymakers should recognize that, as one important plank of formalization, the informal workforce needs to be integrated into social insurance, in addition to social assistance, schemes.
  6. 6. GOALS AND OBJECTIVE Investigate and highlight the risks faced by the working poor in the informal economy, and particularly the risks faced by women workers. By investigating how common contingencies affect informal workers in particular, how systemic shocks affect informal workers in particular, and how the nature of informal work creates shocks and risks specific to informal workers. Short and Medium Term Long Term It aims to identify, document, and promote innovative approaches to providing social protection to informal workers, extending the coverage of existing schemes or developing new schemes It seeks to promote a new approach to social protection that provides protection for systemic shocks and common contingencies for both formal and informal workers, and that integrates informal workers into social insurance schemes as well as social assistance. IMPLEMENTATION
  7. 7. Network of programme implementation Act as a bridge between, on the one hand, organizations of informal workers and their allies, and on the other, those in government and in the private sector who influence economic and social policies that impact on the working conditions of informal workers Help improve national statistics on the social protection coverage of all workers, formal and informal Undertake analyses of economic and social policies that include informal workers and identify the features that make for successful inclusion of informal workers Promote social protection programmes that can go to scale, are sustainable, and include informal workers themselves in the design and implementation of the programme Influence a change in orthodox thinking about the informal economy, and about social protection, so that there is greater recognition that most of the working poor are engaged in the informal economy; that one reason they remain poor is that they do not have access to affordable social insurance or adequate social assistance; that economic growth and social protection are indivisible; and that much more can be done to integrate informal workers into mainstream social protection schemes
  8. 8. Projects can be assigned in the scheme Occupational Health and Safety The places of work of the majority of the world’s workers are not covered by the discipline and practice . We can embarked on a research and advocacy programme which seeks to answer the question: what would a new, more inclusive to look like that is inclusive and protective of informal workers, and especially poorer women amongst them? The programme is working in Brazil, Ghana, Peru and Tanzania. We use a variety of research methods, including participatory research, institutional mapping, and policy dialogues, and will be exploring ways of influencing training, and improved modules in labour force surveys. Inclusive Social Policies for Informal Workers In this advantage of the new space for broader social policy that opened prior to, and was reinforced by, the global financial crisis. It investigates the links between economic and social policies, looking at labour as a produced factor of production, and will spell out implications of this for social policy, using a gender lens and informal worker lens. Involve significant stakeholders, and that identify the potential role and responsibilities of owners of capital. Increasing the Voice of Informal Workers in Social Policy Development It seeks to build enduring forums where informal workers can participate in policy development and negotiation, where in they can raise their voice for justice. Involvement in International Networks, Alliances and Campaigns The Social Protection Programme participates in networks, alliances and campaigns as a way of influencing policy
  9. 9. Challenges and Risks Concept Risks Government or corporate do not see the viability of funding this model. Volunteer enrollment minimal Need more professional groups to analyze the scheme Implementation challenges Difficulty in integrating with government infrastructure and Institutions Process with no corruption. Association of people who legitimately deserves the scheme. segment of survival activities Mitigation factors  Alliances and campaigns as a way of influencing policy Building up centers for Social Protection Volunteer network and integration with center government. Advertising/ Awareness Campaign
  10. 10. Appendix References Government of India, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Department of Secondary and Higher Education (2005-06), ‘Annual Report 2005-06’, (NOIDA: Educational Consultants India Limited National Commission for Enterprises in Unorganized Sector (2006), Social Security for Unorganized Workers Report. Accessed on March 14, 2009, The Two Indian Welfare Systems: State & Corporate Responses, Jameela Pedicini