As per the JMP Estimates 2012 about 67% of India’s population
defecate in open.
As per UNICEF there are 61.7% stunted children in India more than
anywhere else in the world.
The government estimates that 20% of children under five are too
thin for their height and 43% are underweight for their age. UNICEF
India said that the link between sanitation and malnutrition has
been largely overlooked describing it as a blind spot.
Over 200,000 children under the age of 5 die from diarrhoea every
year in India which is caused by dirty water and inadequate
70% of women don’t have access to a toilet. Inadequate sanitation
forces women in both rural and urban areas of India to defecate in
the open, leaving them vulnerable to sexual violence. Lack of
toilets or maintenance of them also creates health hazards.
48% of girls drop out of second level education. (UNICEF)
Percentage of Households having NO LATRINE
The Data from World
Bank showed that lack of
adequate sanitation in
India resulted in an annual
loss of $ 53.8 billion in the
year 2006. This was
equivalent to 6.4% of GDP
in the year 2006. Even
today Govt. is spending
INR 212 billion per year on
treatment of these health
Census of India 2011 - Availability and Type of Latrine Facility: 2001-2011
No.of habitations with
insufficient quantity of
portable drinking water
No.of habitations with
sufficient quantity of
portable drinking water
Habitations Uncovered Partially Quality Affected
As On Covered Fluoride Arsenic Iron Nitrate Salinity Total
1.4.2013 16,64,186 0 3,75,871 23,512 5,339 64,213 3,867 24,570 1,21,501
By 2010, 92% of the population had access to an improved source of water, which brought down the proportion of the
population without such an access from 31% in 1990 to 8% in 2010. Still Over 96 million people have no access to safe water.
In many parts of India, women have to travel several Kms to get access to drinking water. Many girls dropout from school for
Lack of safe drinking water is
responsible for various
water borne diseases. 1000
children die everyday from
For 2011-12, a budgetary allocation of Rs. 9350 Crore was
provided in the Budget Estimate for National Rural
Development Water Programme. This was revised to Rs.
8500 at the Revised Estimate (RE)Stage.
Formation of “Durga
formation of “Prayas”
groups with equal
participation of women
Development of MIS
STRATEGY FOR PROPER SANITATION (RURAL)
• Nukkad Natak.
• Projector Movie based
• Channelising positive
through religion and
• Health Hazards.
• Washing Hands with
• Disposal of child faeces in
• Spreading the idea of
“Total Sanitation” to
facilitate the use of Toilet
Complexes by lower
• Child friendly Toilets for
girls and boys with water
• Distribution of 2 soaps per
month per child for
primary and secondary.
• Distribution of “Nirmal”
• Groups involving 4-5 families.
• 50% or more Women in the group.
• Collection of Rs. 100/- from each
family per month by group leader.
• Also Easy loan at no rate of interest
• Utilisation of excreta as manure
from “Ecosan” toilet.
• No difficulty of emptying the pit.
• Villages with more Prayas Groups to
be given priority for better water
supply electricity and mobile
• Distribution of free SIM cards with
talk time of Rs200 to each family as
• Appreciation of the group socially in
• Training of 5 masons from each
village for constructing Ecosan
• Constructing the Toilet at
appropriate distance from houses.
• Construction of 2 “EcoSan” Toilet
among 4 families with Govt. and
Group sharing of 70:30.
• In the long term focusing on
individual toilets for each home.
• Use of Human and animal Excreta
• “ Kachra” trolleys are to be provided
in every village by Gram Panchayat.
• In villages with sufficient cattle ,
biogas plants are to be constructed.
• Encouraging the villagers to sell
cow dung cakes to biogas plant.
• Public Toilets connected by sewage
network to biogas plants.
• Biogas produced can be
commercialised as cooking fuel by
govt. by selling it.
• The waste product from biogas
plant can be used as fertiliser
through vermin composting which
would be given to villagers at no
• A centralised MIS system is
necessary to monitor the no. of
prayas groups and functioning of
• In govt. constructed toilet
complexes maintenance can be
ensured by MIS system.
• Training of 2 villagers and providing
them the job of data entry operator
for MIS system in each block.
STRATEGY FOR PROPER SANITATION (URBAN)
• Spreading Awareness about
sanitation in slum areas through
advertisements and Loudspeaker
• Construction of Toilet and Bath
Complexes near slum areas with
Govt. and NGO sharing
• Construction of pay and use
toilets in public places with
proper maintenance by private
• Regular cleaning of drainage lines
of all wards and maintain the
data through MIS system.
Proper Disposal of Solid and
• Waste collector Rickshaws of private
organisations to collect the waste
products visiting every alternate day.
• Encouraging the people to separate the
perishable and non perishable goods by
providing them appropriate amount for
recyclable and reusable goods.
• Perishable goods to be collected in
excavated area and then selling it as
• Non biodegradable wastes like plastics
can be used in construction of
polyblend roads, land fillings etc. which
will be sold by private organisation to
• Waste water treatment by using plants
like Arcata Marsh for waste water
Other Effective Measures
• Imposing fine for defecation and
urination in open space to be
collected by private
• Promoting use of sucker tanks
for emptying the septic tanks.
• Construction of Waste
segregation units outside the
• Establishing Consumer
Water Supply in Rural
• Establishment of Pump Houses and use of
Ultrafiltration technique-”Purioin” in villages
with infected water . It costs around 5 paise
per litre. ( Developed by National
• Special treatment for arsenic, fluoride, iron etc.
if found in excess.
• Providing Water Pipelines through that Pump
House in different parts of the village, special
care to low caste groups.
• Providing Pipeline Connection near the
“Prayas” Group Families.
• “Durga Samiti” for raising awareness,
monitoring the construction and operation of
water supply and collection of some fund from
• Encouraging the use of drinking water through
pipes by promoting it as “ Amrit Water”.
Supply of water only for 2 hrs in a day.
• Maintaining data of water quality and filtration
technique through MIS.
• A separate small pond construction for
cleaning of animals.
• Construction of Bathrooms and concrete
washing floors for washing of clothes near
local ponds and rivers.( where available)
• Providing a drainage network for
discharging the waste from above into a
pit at a safe distance from the water body
so that water would be gradually filtered
and absorbed in the soil.
• Making it mandatory for the people not
to pollute the surface water source by any
means. Bathing and other activities
should not be allowed at hand pumps.
• The one found guilty should not be
allowed in any social activity of village.
• “Durga Samiti” will monitor these
• Conservation of surface water is our
For Urban Areas
• Suggestions for Govt.-
• Rain Water Harvesting should be
made compulsory in every state
• Providing public taps in slum
areas with regular monitoring.
• Using Pressure Gauges in supply
lines to detect the leakage of
• Construction of sewage network
in existing cities wherever
• Regular monitoring of discharge
Design For Above Strategy
RECRUITMENT MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION
•Survey to understand the requirements of
•Recruitment of Volunteers for “ Durga
Samiti “ of 6-10 members comprising
atleast 50% women.
•Recruitment preference to be given to
educated persons and those having
thorough knowledge about their village.
•Recruitment of 5 persons on daily wage
basis for collection of solid waste, cleaning
and maintenance. Training of 4-5 masons
for construction of Ecosan Toilets.
•Recruitment of 1 data entry operator per
block and 1 pump operator per village.
•A jeep will collect the wastes from villages
to urban waste segregation plant twice a
month. ( arranged by private firm)
•“Durga Samiti” will monitor the working of
workers and provide its report to our
•Training of members of Durga Samiti by
a team visiting every village to spread
awareness among the people about
sanitation and drinking water.
•They will also be trained to monitor the
working of workers in villages and about
MIS operator in blocks who will visit the
village per month to collect necessary
•Raising Awareness for Durga Samiti and Prayas groups
through newspapers, radio , SMS , social media and
also through Panchayat meetings. Distribution of
“Nimral” Booklets in rural schools.
•Posters/ banners to be put up in villages about SIM
card scheme and suggesting the need for sanitation
and drinking water.
•Giving the tender to a private
organisation to collect wastes from
houses and also for waste water
•They will also arrange for 1 jeep per
block for collection of waste.
•The working record will be maintained
by our MIS team
Govt. /Corporate/NGO support
• Cell phone Companies will be benefitted by distribution of
SIM cards. So their contribution is expected.
• Soap Manufacturing companies are also expected to provide
their share for distribution of soaps in schools.
• NGO and Govt. support is expected for construction of
public toilet complexes and public taps in slum areas.
• Govt. will have to provide fund along with private sector for
construction of waste segregation plants and waste water
• Govt. fund is required for construction of bathrooms and
cattle wash pond. Also for establishing pump houses. 6
We will form a Committee for the application of above Strategy
Collection of sanitation
and drinking water
data of every village.
volunteers of “ Durga
Training of Members
of “ Durga Samiti”
Managing the Funds
Data of MIS
Central MIS Team
( 5 Members)
( 5 Members)
Team ( 5 Members)
Maintenance of MIS
To monitor the whole
process and working of
Private org. in cities.
To manage the funds from govt.
,NGO, and corporate sector. Issue
of tenders for private org. for
collecting waste from cities and
waste water treatment plant.
Central Team at State Level
Team at District Level
Director 1X8 lpa
(5 X 15 lpa )
District Team (24X 3 lpa)
IT hardware Cost
IT Software Cost
We require amount of Rs 10 per month per child for distribution of soaps. We expect Rs 100/- for distribution of SIM
cards. Total amount depends on the Population of each area. In Urban areas contribution is expected from govt. for
construction of waste segregation and treatment plants. In each caseTotal amount is to be shared 50:50 among Private
Institutions and Govt.
People will start using public toilets as their maintenance is
ensured by MIS system. Solid Waste collection by rickshaws and
segregation of solid waste will ensure hygiene in cities as well as
In villages, People will get manure from excreta by using
Ecosan toilets. Open defecation will reduce and will finally
end. Beneficial in areas with water scarcity. No problem of
emptying the pit.
By formation of Prayas groups and providing promotional offer of
SIM cards and water supply line weightage , they will adopt this
Safety and privacy of women will be ensured. Girls will not dropout
Distribution of soaps in primary and secondary school will generate a
habit among the children for washing hands with soaps. It will also
motivate their parents to adopt the same.
Proper sanitation will reduce the expenditure on health sector. It
will also reduce the Infant Mortality rate .
Use of Ultrafiltration Membrane will ensure supply of safe drinking
water to rural areas.
Due to defecation in open, the surface runoff entering the
water bodies contain faecal coliform bacteria largely
responsible for water borne diseases. It will be prevented.
Construction of cattle wash ponds and Bathrooms and cloth
washing areas will prevent the pollution of natural water
Rain water harvesting has not been made compulsory in every
state. So there is excess pressure on the water supply lines
Providing water supply lines in the vicinity of community will
save the time for women and girls who have to walk distances
for collecting water
Use of pressure gauges in city water supply lines will prevent
leakage and stealing of water. Waste water treatment plant will
reduce pressure on ground water sources.
CHALLENGES AND MITIGATION FACTOR
• People may not understand the
need of water fit for drinking.
• Some people may refuse to
accept good sanitation habits.
• Difficult to make people agree
for financial contribution
• Initial cost is high.
• Private Companies may not
agree to contribute.
•Pumping of water may be costly
in some areas.
•Maintenance of data in MIS
•Relating these problems to their social
respect and status.
•Creating awareness among people by
conducting social gatherings and
• Convincing the people that they
will be getting manure from
• In the long term it will contribute
to a cleaner and healthier society
• Convincing the companies that
their share will help to advertise
•In such cases we would filter the water
from hand pump using purioin and give
it for drinking purpose
•Training of operators by skilled
• Ecosan toilets for 2,000 people in Tamil Nadu - Wherever the Need India:
• Water. (n.d.). India. Retrieved from http://water.org/country/india/
• UNICEF. (n.d.). Water, Environment and Sanitation. Retrieved from
• Documents & Reports: http://www.mdws.gov.in/documentreports/term/50 ,
• Home - Indian Biogas Association :http://www.biogas-india.com/
• Water Supply Engineering- by S.K. Garg
• Data and case studies from MDWS.