Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. STEPPING STONE ENHANCING THE QUALITY OF PRIMARY EDUCATION Ankit Kumar Ashutosh Deshpande Ashish Saurav Avinash Kumar Rachit Gupta Students of IIFT Kolkata
  2. 2. PRIMARY EDUCATION RIGHT NOW • To provide equal opportunity and create conditions in which even the disadvantaged sections of the society can attend school • However, what has increased is ONLY the intake of teachers and government expenditure, NOT the student enrolment or retention or the quality of throughput • Twin objective of improving health and education of poor children; however, India today lags in both - malnutrition and quality • As a matter of fact, reading level, simple arithmetic (basic subtraction & division ) standard and overall quality of students are all witnessing a downward slope • Budgeted Expenditure on Education (1,12,250 Cr., i.e. 1.6% of GDP in 2010- 11) has seen more than three-fold increase in a decade (34,000 Cr. In 2000-01) • However, rate of enrolment in govt. schools is decreasing in comparison to private schools
  3. 3. CURRENT MALAISE AFFECTING THE SYSTEM Paucity of teachers and quality of training facilities currently available for them Absenteeism of poor governance and oversight to monitor performance of existing teachers Socio-cultural factors like discrimination against the girl child, prevalence of child labor and cast differences play a major role in hindering the access to quality primary education 95.2% of schools do not meet the RTE infrastructure indicators Less than 10% government schools have a girl’s toilet in place
  4. 4. THE CURRENT STATE • Reading levels: More than half of all children in Standard V are at least three grade levels behind where they should be. For Standard V in government schools, the percentage of children unable to read Standard II level text has increased from 49.3% in 2010 to 58.3% in 2012, whereas the percentage of all children enrolled in Standard III who cannot read a Standard I level text has increased from 57.6% in 2010 to 67.7% in 2012. • Inference: Children were promoted to higher standards even when they did not cater to the basic skills required. • Possible Solution: Hence examinations should be taken seriously and students should be given adequate training before they are promoted to the next standard. • Basic arithmetic skills: 2012 was the year of mathematics. But it has been a bad year for basic arithmetic for children in India. In 2010, of all children enrolled in Standard V, 29.1% could not solve simple two-digit subtraction problems with borrowing. This proportion increased to 46.5% in 2012. The proportion of all children enrolled in Standard V who could not do division problems has increased from 63.8% in 2010 to 75.2% in 2012. In rural India as a whole, few years ago, about two-thirds of all children in Standard V could not do simple division; this is now at three-fourths. • Inference: Mathematics skills of Indian children is extremely poor and need special emphasis and training • Possible Solution: Special emphasis should be given to impart training in mathematics, which is the most important subject taught in the school, be it by arranging extra lectures or inculcating innovative ways for teaching mathematical concepts (using toys, chocolates).
  5. 5. PUBLIC - PRIVATE DIVIDE • Private school enrolment: At the all-India level, private school enrolment has been rising since 2006. The percentage of 6- to 14-year-olds enrolled in private schools rose from 18.7% in 2006 to 28.3% in 2012. The increase is almost equal in primary (Standard I-V) and upper primary (Standard VI-VIII) classes. Since 2009, private school enrolment in rural areas has been rising at an annual rate of about 10%. If this trend continues, by 2018, India will have 50% children in rural areas enrolled in private schools. • Inference: Private institutions have a qualitative edge because of the monetary advantage they have. Hence public schools need to be equipped with the right infrastructure so as to make them competitive and change the perception that private schools can only provide holistic development of the child. • A better approach: The government must bring in policies favouring public schools and teachers. India faces a crunch of 6.89 lacs teachers. This gap can be filled by qualified yet unemployed youth of rural and semi-urban areas. The pool of teachers could be taken from the 20 lacs unemployed graduates in the country. 0 1000000 2000000 3000000 4000000 5000000 6000000 7000000 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 AxisTitle Enrollment in Govt. & Private Schools: Std 1-7 Govt. School Private Schools
  6. 6. CAPITALIZING ON THIS PUBLIC-PRIVATE DIVIDE • Solution Proposed - IMPROVING PRIMARY EDUCATION THROUGH PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP WHY • Students shifting towards private schools gradually • India undergoing urbanization at the rate of 2.5% How • Instead of injecting funds to govt. schools and ‘forcing’ bad schools on to the students, try taking help from private players • Using private school as mentors for government ones What • This will improve accountability, quality and net output-worth • Scholarship and other incentives will keep the students motivated
  7. 7. PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP  Public Private Partnership – involve reputed and known players  Government should reduce the spending on govt schools and instead redirect these funds to private schools  Each govt school be assigned a private mentor  Improve the reach of private schools to remote areas Public Private Partnership Assign a private mentor to each government school Optimum batch size Scope of accountability increases Provide incentives to such schools • Optimize the batch size of the primary students – A teacher should not be overloaded with students. Not more than 40 students in a class. More number of students reduces the efficiency of a teacher • The extra responsibilities of election duty, population count ,etc dilutes the focus of a teacher and results in inefficiency. Pedagogy focus – Only Teaching
  8. 8. Public Private Mentorship Model for Rural Areas GOV. Private School + Competitive Gov. School (KVs) GOV. SCHOOL1 GOV. SCHOOL2 GOV. SCHOOL3 GOV. SCHOOL4 Retired School Teacher Headmaster NGOs Village Pradhan VILLAGES of INDIA District Education Authority State Education Minister Classrooms & Library Girl’s Toilet Trained Teacher Top Talent Infrastructure Exams Talent Pool Quality Education Fair Scholarships I&B Ministry MAA Chetna Abhiyan LOKPAL MODEL Grading Mechanism Door to Door Awareness Educational Campaign Incentive Competitions Reduce Dropout
  9. 9. MODUS OPERANDI PUBLIC PRIVATE MENTORSHIP MODEL o Government to identify good private (as well as competitive govt. like Kendriya Vidyalays) schools and to assign them responsibility to mentor government schools o Above identified schools will look into the infrastructure (only 10, quality of education being imparted, examination module and identification of local talent pool o The ‘lokpal’ model adopted brings good citizens (retired teachers, head masters, NGOs in education sector) under the umbrella of this mentorship model; their prime task will comprise creating awareness (through door-to-door campaigns) and motivating parents to send their wards into school o Another important task of such above said citizens will be to supervise, audit & prepare an exhaustive list of improvements/feedbacks required for smooth & better functioning of the schools – this will keep a check on the system; in turn, the government will be providing remuneration o ‘Maa Chetna abhiyaan’ should be run by the I&B ministry to make mothers educated and aware so tht she can impart sound basic knowledge to her kids as a mother is the first teacher for a child o Under this abhiyaan educational & awareness programmes will be telecasted 24*7 on ‘Gyan Darshan’ (a new, separate channel of DD) for the mothers
  10. 10. PUBLIC PRIVATE MENTORSHIP MODEL FOR URBAN AREAS GOV. Private School + Competitive Gov. School (KVs) GOV. SCHOOL1 GOV. SCHOOL2 GOV. SCHOOL3 GOV. SCHOOL4 Urban Areas Classrooms & Library Girl’s Toilet Trained Teacher Top Talent Infrastructure Exams Talent Pool Quality Education Fair Scholarships Grading Mechanism  In urban areas, majority of students are already in private schools  Hence mentoring government schools here is not that cumbersome for private schools  The ‘lokpal’ model is really not required here  Besides, at the present rate of urbanization, more & more good schools are coming up
  11. 11. REAPING THE BENEFITS – working out the financials  Cost benefit – Currently gov. spent Rs. 1,12,250 crore annually on elementary education in 2010-11 – Enrolment of student in gov. school= 74,22,000 per year – Avg. fee of a Private School for primary education: Rs 2000/ month – Basic amenities ( bags, books, uniform, food) – 2000 approx/ month – Educational officer ( for disbursement of funds from govt to private schools) – 1 educator officer for 500 students Salary given to him/her = 50,000 per month Per month cost / student for disbursement of funds = 100 – Other expenses(Miscellaneous) = 1000/ month – Total cost = 5100 rs/ month – Annual cost of scholarship needed to send 74,22,000 students to private schools= 74,22,000*5100*12=4542 crore – Even giving scholarship till 10th std will cost 10*4542 crore = 45420 crore < 1,12,250 crore (the money spent by the gov.) – Government should only focus on spending and let private schools manage the education (by mentoring government schools) – Cost difference = current govt spending – Calculated cost = 112250 crore – 45420 crore = 66830 crore – Remaining 66830 crores can be used to build new infrastructures and renovate existing govt infrastructures and for overhead and unknown expenses  To create awareness among the parents about the importance of education, endorsement by a celebrity can be done ( Amitabh Bachchan for Polio Eradication)  Generally poor children don’t get any help from their uneducated parents at the home, learning programmes can be aired through Doordharshan in the evening (check penetration of TV )
  12. 12. CHALLENGES AND THE WAY FORWARD • Penetration of private schools in rural areas • Possible Solution: The model shall be implemented in urbal areas on experimental basis and if successsful can be replicated in rural areas. Rapid rate of urbanisation (avg 2.5 % yearly) would also speed up the cause. Also the government can target Affordable private schools ( APS) for improving the level of elementary education • Efficient educational officer • Possible Solution: The educational officer should be such that he is neither affiliated to any government body nor should be anointed from the private school. The work can be delegated to a private organization for better management.
  13. 13. REFERENCES • www.agastya.org • www.livemint.com • annual stats of education report (aser) -2012 • financial express - editorials • azeem premji foundation • www.idfc.com • indianstat.com • E&Y report on Indian education sector • Ministry of HRD • www.pratham.org