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  1. 1. Manthan Topic : Boosting Skillsets : Increasing the employability of youth Abhishek Das Karishma Sahoo Subhro Shankha Mukherjee Rahul Roy Monisha Debnath Team Details : College Name : Institute of Business Management, National Council of Education Bengal, Jadavpur University 1 Bharat – In Search Of Excellence
  2. 2. Current Demography of India 72.2% of the population lives in some 638,000 villages 27.8% in about 5,480 towns and urban agglomerations The literacy rate of India as per 2011 Population Census is 74.04%, with male literacy rate at 82.14% and female at 65.46% According to a NASSCOM report, each year over 3 million graduates and post-graduates are added to the Indian workforce. Only 25% of technical graduates and 10-15% of regular graduates are considered employable by the industry. Nearly 85% of graduates are not employable, while 75% of engineering graduates are not employable. As per the NSS 66th round survey : As on January 2012 , the workforce at the all-India level, was about 472.9 millions (rural men - 234.6, rural women - 101.8 million; urban men -- 109.2 million and urban women - 27.3 million). More than half the population (52%) is self-employed, while 18% work as regular wage/salaried employees and 30% as casual laborers. More people are self-employed (56%) and work as casual laborers (35%) in rural India. In Urban India, it is the waged/salaried (43%) who constitute a majority. They are followed by the self- employed (42%) and casual laborers (15%). Nearly half the population (49%) is engaged in agriculture, while 24% are working in secondary sector and 27% in tertiary sector. Male (655,875,026) Female (614,397,079) Total Population (1,270,272,105) 0-14 years (29.3%) Male (187,386,162) Female (165,345,284) 15-24 years (18.2%) Male (116,019,042) Female (103,660,359) 25-54 years (40.2%) Male (249,017,538) Female (235,042,251) 55-64 years (6.8%) Male (41,035,270) Female (40,449,880) 65 years and over (5.6%) Male (31,892,823) Female (35,225,003) 2
  3. 3. Unemployment From the view point of the topic, we are assuming those people as “unemployed” who posses a minimal qualification of higher secondary education, with a legal age of employment, willing to get into a paying job which is governed by a valid contract. Thus unemployment is defined here as an idle state of those people. Sectors of Employment Manufacturing Sector Steel Industry Cement Industry Automobile , Etc. Service Sector Telecom Sector IT - ITES Education, Etc. * Industries mentioned above are not exhaustive. 3
  4. 4. Competence Issues • Lack of basic skill development like communication skills, smartness etc., at the school level • Extremely poor writing skills • Knowledge outside given academic curriculum extremely poor. Academic knowledge also lacks proper depth of conceptual understanding • Lack of proper basic technical knowledge at school and college level • Theoretical teaching styles in schools and colleges without proper guidance as to why the subject is being taught and what are its implementation Temperament Issues • People lack enthusiasm of a low pay job • A major part of the youth spend a lot of time in preparing and hunting for government jobs • General aversion to competition due to lack of confidence • Lack of clarity of what job one wants to do and why • Strong affinity towards doing a desk job prevalent in certain regions of the country Other issues • Students not attending classes in colleges – resulting is lack of knowledge and confidence • Lack of proper career counselling among youth • Rural orthodox mentality • Relocation issues Causes of Unemployment 4
  5. 5. Remedies For Skillset Upliftment Remedies COMMUNICATION SKILL ENHANCEMENT TRAINING AWARENESS OF JOB AVAILIBILITY SKILL NEED IDENTIFICATION Education Training YOUTH SKILLSET Counseling 5 1. Vocational training to enhance communication skills among youth. 2. Developing skill upgrading programs with affordable course fee. 3. Regular counseling for preparing the masses regarding current market conditions. 4.The government should initiate awareness regarding the type of skill requirements in today’s society. REMEDIES
  6. 6. SKILL NEED IDENTIFICATION Computer Basics English Communication ComputerBasics In today’s working conditions and technological advancements, the knowledge of basic as well as a specific specialization of different computer application is becoming a necessity. EnglishCommunication As the whole working parameters are set in English language, therefore an individual must possess the primary knowledge of English to at least read and write and understand in English. Skill s are a requirement for finishing a job, but one must learn those skills which would actually help in completing his/her task. Skills should also be learnt according to the choice of an individual . So that, when they are working , they get their job satisfaction. Learning unnecessary skills is a waste of time and money. Each should learn what they wish to do in their future i.e. learning computers or receiving vocational training or technical training for their own future benefits. Without proper guidance, our youth can misjudge in choosing their career resulting in waste of time, money and human efforts. 6
  7. 7. TRAINING • India has been a land of entrepreneurship with largest number of self employed. About 52% of Indians are self-employed, about 55% in rural communities and 41% in urban areas. The main reason behind it is illiteracy and unskilled work-force. • Training is one of the primary means of building up competence and effectiveness of people in general all over the world. Youths in developing countries like India face difficulties due to rapidly changing and turbulent environment. Training prepares to deal with the complexities of real life – the pressures, the limited resources, the choices and uncertainties, the conflicting motives etc. TRAINING Modification of Behavior, Attitudes and Beliefs Modification of Knowledge and skill as per skill need Application of Knowledge in Real-Life Situation  Bookish-knowledge and award of degrees through formal education without effective training-systems would not make people skilled and employable .  Need of Modification of behavior, attitudes and beliefs is necessary so as make the youth employable at harsh and tough environment.  Proper training as per skill need analysis must be given to them along with vocational and basic technical skills.  They must be taught how to apply the knowledge they posses in the practical real-life situations. 7
  8. 8. 2. A National Vocational Policy should be formulated. The policy should establish equivalence for degrees, diplomas and certifications in the vocational education sector for lateral and vertical mobility across various learning sectors that is, secondary, vocational and higher education. 3. Vocational Stream should be introduced at 8th Grade which may provide both conventional and vocational stream of education at secondary level. 4. Private Participation from Industry and other players must be encouraged. Industry participation must be at all levels especially in Governance, Curriculum Design, Placements and Funding, Monitoring Outcome. Industry participation is also required for creating production oriented Research and Innovation Labs. 5. Teachers training is an important aspect for ensuring quality education in vocational stream. 6. Introducing programs to provide VET in affordable rate to the poor economy class and students from rural areas. 7. Setting up institutes at remote areas of villages/rural areas or making arrangements of hostels for the students coming to urban cities for taking up VET. In India, we believe that education is the key to the task of nation-building. It is also a well-accepted fact that providing the right knowledge and skills to the youth can ensure the overall national progress and economic growth. Recommendations regarding Vocational Education: 1. A national level Board for vocational education should be established, called as National Board for Vocational Education which plays a major role in : a) developing a national TVET(Technical and Vocational Education and Training) system and national strategies with respect to vocational education b) ensuring close interaction between industries and TVET providers c) developing effective training market for public and private needs d) enhancing efficiency and productivity of TVET providers The curricula for vocational education and training must be influenced by following factors : •Different types of labor market regimes •Different modes of VET •Different degree of autonomy in curriculum design •Different types of curricula •Different modes of stakeholder involvement in curriculum design “Training is just a bridge. The end is jobs and employability” Vocational Training 8
  9. 9. Awareness of Job Availability 1. Organizing job fairs at various district levels ensuring participation of all concerned colleges. 2. Posting notices related to availability of jobs at college campuses and educational institutions. 3. Proper Information and idea given about various available job roles to eradicate perceptual errors about jobs at school and college levels. 4. To educate the youth on dignity of labor thus encouraging them to apply for various types of jobs along with preaching and practice of proper work culture. Correct Information about jobs Dignity Of labor JOBS Educational Institutes Job fairs Parents Media YOUTH 9
  10. 10. Implementation of Remedies Design of Curriculum in schools and colleges. Ensure proper attendance in schools and colleges. Skill Enhancement of faculties in colleges and schools . Recruitment of fresh faculties with proper required skillset. A conscious design in curriculum to be included in junior schools and high schools for improvement of verbal and written communication skills. Career counsellor to be appointed at higher secondary and graduation level. At higher secondary level and graduation level education institutes must ensure that all students interacts with career counsellor. 10
  11. 11. JOBFAIR To be held at metro, non-metro & district capitals. To be held once in every quarter. To be promoted by Government. HRD ministry to organize and ensure participation of maximum organization covering widest range of industries. Participation of colleges and other educational institution to be ensured in these Job Fairs. JOB FAIR HRD MINISTRY Supply of trained and employable manpower from educational institutes and colleges Demand of manpower from participating organizations Employment 11
  12. 12. References :  The Hindu Business Line, May 9, 2013  Few articles from The Times of India  ILO Report on Unemployment 2013  NSS 66th round survey  CENSUS Reports  Latasinha’s Weblog  NASSCOM Reports    Report on Second Annual Employment & Unemployment Survey (2011-12) by GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF LABOUR & EMPLOYMENT - LABOUR BUREAU - CHANDIGARH 12