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  2. 2. Needs Food Electricity Other Forms Of energy Hygiene •Drainage •Maintenance Security Employment Primary Education Potable Water Transport Healthcare These core areas, need special emphasis in order to plan our future cities, and to try to meet all these demands of the population with a higher degree of proximity Factors to consider while designing Future Cities
  3. 3. Need Fulfillment Macro Need Fulfillment Micro Need Fulfillment Country Zone State Region City Locality A Single Home Macro Micro The aim of this approach would be to enable the masses to shift from macro need fulfillment to micro need fulfillment, as much as possible. A simple procedure would be to try and have as many needs of a single home fulfilled on each level and to carry minimum number of requisites to the next level.
  4. 4. A Single House should be made capable of Generating some amount of electricity Use Rain Water Harvesting coupled with filtration techniques to generate potable water Generate small amount of food using small “Kitchen gardens” The Idea is to provide cheap sustainable technology to the masses to empower them to meet a part of their own demands. This should be central to the idea of the establishment of a Future City. Steps to be taken:- Provide Appropriate Tech at affordable prices for the masses to be able to harvest renewable sources of energy and rain water at the same time. Spread Awareness about Long terms gains on such investments Engineer properly foolproof designs to implement on large scales Upgrade Transmission Lines and Check pilferage to increase efficiency of old energy generation processes Establish a network for flow in and out of electricity and harvested water from homes to a local reservoir-Like Andhra Pradesh Solar Power Schemes Electricity/Energy and Micro need fulfillment at home level Outline of Scheme 1)Power generated should be used by that house.surplus power to be turned over to the grid,in return,power credit to be given 2)Power credit used to buy power in times of low solar power generation/higher needs. 3)Wind power to be factored in and used with time
  5. 5. In 2006 between the domestic, agricultural, and industrial sectors, India used approximately 829 billion cubic meters of water every year, which is approximately the size of Lake Erie. By 2050 demand is expected to double and consequently exceed the 1.4 trillion cubic meters of supply. Thus Future Cities should be equipped to deal with water demands of this stature. Reduce •Reduce use of water at micro levels,through National Awareness Programmes •Reduce wastage of water, through awareness and technical upgradation. Reuse •Install Local Water Treatment Plants to reuse water from local sources/Rainwater •Install Regional Treatment plants,to purify waste water from industries etc.,for domestic/agricultural uses Harvest •Implement Schemes for nationwide household water harvesting, analogous to MNRE Solar City Programme •Implement Water credit Schemes, analogous to solar power credit schemes International Approach For Future Water Management 1)Desalinisation Plants-1 in every 2 people live near a coast so desalinisation plants make for a great way of potable water generation.National Level Research should be funded to find cheap,and sustainable processes of desalinisation 2)Water Market-saving just 5-10% of agricultural irrigation in upstream watersheds could satisfy a city’s entire water needs .Farmers should profit from the water they save(to motivate them)by being able to “sell” it in one way or the other. Governments should help establish Water Markets like in Murray-Darling Basin,Australia. Or Deals between irrigation regions and cities. Potable Water Micro-Level Water Governance For Future Cities 1) Community outreach program to involve people for water conservation.eg-San Antonio Water System’s Program 2)Government sponsored incentives, free consultation, and rebates for citizens to conserve water 3)Water Treaties with local farmers, motivating them with benefits and/or financial assistance in lieu of water conservation on their part. This water is an excellent local water resource 4)Setting up of Government Institutes for Agricultural/Irrigational water conservation technology.
  6. 6. Mobility By 2050, India will add another 497 million to its urban population, and the estimated transit demand by 2021 is likely to increase by over 2½ times. These estimates lay bare glaring deficits in the current level of public transport. Inadequate and inefficient transport infrastructure will prevent the economy from realizing its full growth potential, and increase the cost of transport. Forming the National Urban Transport Finance Corporation(NUTFC), which would be a non-banking financial institution(NBFC) formed for providing loans to mass transit agencies Engineering New-Age Public Transport systems using high rise Mono rail systems, Underground Metrorail,and efficient surface transport network(Preferrably e- transport) Providing subsidies on owning and maintaining e-cars. Funding Research for public e-transport. Conversion of all Government and Public Transport vehicles to electric car forms by a fixed time frame Providing incentives to companies following “Walk to work”priniciple wherein companies give accomodation to employees within walking distance of the office Aerospace LandWater Future Integrated Transport System 1)Reduce demand for transport using “virtual transport”- Telecommunication,E- commerce etc. Improve efficiency Set-up institutions to monitor and regulate Future Transport 2)Provide for seamless and high quality intermodal transport-sea to rail, land to air etc. Fine-tune use of all modes to achieve efficient and time saving transport techniques 3)Provide funding for and set up organizations to create quiet,clean,environment friendly,highly efficient and safe modes of transport. 4)Creation of National Vision For Transport 2050 and Nationwide Infrastructure to improve future transport
  7. 7. Security-With a 212% increase in total cognizable crimes in India from 1953 to 2006,security will be a major factor that will decide the form of our future cities Year Total cog. crimes under IPC Murder Kidnap ping Robber y Theft Burglar y 1953 6,01,96 4 9,802 5,261 8,407 147,37 9 20,529 2006 18,78,2 93 32,481 23,991 18,456 91,666 56,641 % Change in 2006 over 1953 212.0 231.0 356.0 120.0 −38.0 176.0 Current Security Concerns • Shortage of 0.5 million police officials • MIT Research shows lack of trust on Indian police • Outdated equipment/infrastructure • Inefficient crime punishment procedure ,increasing pending cases • Inept crime prevention system Security Measures For Future cities Procurement and Installation of CCTV cameras, wherever feasible. Setting-up of special control rooms to monitor such CCTVs Setting up of National Police Training Institutes and Police Watchdog organizations in major cities, to train and monitor police personnel respectively Restructure National Police training to include formal education of appropriate level, and sensitization courses to create sensible. Trained and educated officers. Revise pay for the police forces, and create funds for infrastructure and equipment, to bring pride into police services Train Local Personnel to act as ad-hoc security officials for each locailty, ensuring constant surveillance in each area Increase Patrols in selected places across cities Induction of region specific Helpline numbers for speedy response
  8. 8. Primary education The Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) ranks India almost at the bottom of the pack in terms of math and English literacy. This, according to its test, is attributed to the “lack of application-oriented math in schools". Future Cities will need to address the demand for uniform high quality education across all cities Problems •Low scores on PISA indicate wrong methods of learning/incomplete concepts •99 percent of the 7.95 lakh teachers who appeared for the latest Central Teacher Eligibility Test, a benchmark for teacher eligibility, failed to clear the exam. This is largely due to the outdated B.Ed degree system. •Lack of Quality Education institutions in every city Solutions •Formation of Centralized testing institutions to test students across all cities and across all boards of education •Establishment of National Teacher Training institutions with branches in every state, to ensure quality training of teachers •Proper implementations of RTE coupled with expanding current schools to accommodate more students Employment By 2030, India will be the country which will have the largest working age population in the world and possibly the youngest population too. Unemployment rate in India has increased. It is 2% in rural areas and 3% in urban India. The unemployment rate per 1,000 population is at 27, while it was 25 two years ago. As on January 1, 2010, the number of unemployed was 9.8 million. By January 1, 2012, it has increased to 10.8 million. Future Cities: Provision for Employment within one’s city A second energy revolution in India,(for renewable energy)could generate 1.5 million jobs according to a report by Greenpeace India. Keeping this in mind, Future cities should exploit all possible renewable sources of energy in/around the city to generate employment Generation of Region specific jobs. Setting up of local Employment agencies to help people search for appropriate jobs Preferential employment of locals for ad-hoc local projects to save time and money
  9. 9. Healthcare-With a staggering population to handle, Future Cities should be well equipped to keep their residents healthy Establishment of State-of-the-Art Hospitals in all major cities Establishment of Local Emergency Helpline numbers for speedy response Ingenious location of hospital, central to a city, for easy serviceability and reachability Deployment of Eminent Doctors in each city using a centralized deployment scheme Access to health and social services Clean ,green areas for exercise, leisure Public Sports complex/stadium Recreational facilities Agencies to check intra city pollution Food-By 2050,India’s Population will be 1.69 billion, whilst China’s will be 1.31 billion. This gives reason for Future Cities to try to be as much self sufficient in terms of food, as possible. Food security solutions for Future Cities 1)Convert wasteland near Cities to farmland to meet the city’s specific demands 2)Encourage “Kitchen Gardens” and “Urban Farming” methods, to generate small amounts of food. 3)Sustainable Development-Conversion of valuable farmland to urban sprawls should be stopped. Shelter for the growing population should not be at the cost of Food Dependency
  10. 10. Maintenance Park Maintenance Street Maintenance Storm Drain System Maintenance Fleet/Equipment Maintenance Hygiene/ Maintenance Future cities: Maintenance and Hygiene 1)The City Municipal Authorities should have specialized departments catering to each of the above needs of a city’s maintenance 2)Design and planning should be done by able engineers and architects. Cues may be taken from the Indus Valley Civilizations wherein the roads where designed along the natural direction of winds, so that the roads would be swept clean by the winds 3)Cities should have a separate Hygiene Evaluation department which would oversee the work of all other organizations with respect to the city’s hygiene Specialized Departments Park Maintenance-The Park Maintenance section's primary mission is the maintenance of the City's park and open space assets. Like-litter removal, restroom maintenance, turf management, landscape maintenance, tree maintenance, irrigation system maintenance. Street Maintenance The Street Maintenance Section's primary mission is the maintenance of the City's transportation assets. Year-round activities include a street sweeping, sign maintenance and installation, inclement weather response, community event support Storm Drain Maintenance-Should be a dynamic department whose main aim would be to keep a city’s roads from getting flooded. Fleet/Equipment Maintenance-The main aim of this department would be to maintain the vehicle fleet/equipment of the city maintenance departments and the like. It's scope can be widened to maintain public transport vehicles.
  11. 11. Communication-Future Cities should be prepared to cater to the communication needs of a huge population. Effective Communication would ease transport burden due to “Virtual Transport” Capabilities Steps • Establishment of city wide Wi-Fi Networks to enable internet access for all, analogous to the MIT Roofnet program • Establishment of Government Videocommunication services at prominent locations in the city,analogous to Cisco’s Video communication Services Benefits • Cheap internet access for all can also earn valuable revenue for the Government • Wi-Fi Connectivity everywhere. • Would help to curb unnecessary transport due to high quality video interface solutions for business/enterprise works Communication Internet Wired Phones Video communication Cellular phones
  12. 12. REFERENCES 1.CENSUS REPORT 2011 2.BM.(2011). IBM Helps India’s Wave Inc Build Smarter Township.Retrieved from https://www-03.ibm.com/press/us/en/pressrelease/36054.wss 3.McKinsey Global Institute. (2010). India’s Urban Awakening: Building Inclusive Cities, Sustaining Economic Growth. Retrieved from http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/urbanization/urban_awakening_in_india 4.Dhar, A. (2012, April 6). India will see highest urban population rise in next 40 years. The Hindu. Retrieved from http://www.thehindu.com/news/india-will-see-highest-urban-population-rise-in-next-40- years/article3286896.ece 3.Forbes 4.Wikipedia