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  1. 1. Future Cities: Ensuring world class civic amenities in urban India Transportation Team: Ganesha (IIM Ahmedabad PGP II Students) Amit Ajit Agarkhed Anirban R Choudhury Anubhav Sinha Manish Chandran Sangram K Maharana Drinking Water Sanitation 1
  2. 2. The growing burden on our cities Urban, 17% 1951 Urban, 31% 2011 42.5% of population will be urban, by 2025 - K. Laxmi Narayan, Social Demographer Current Problems in Cities Access to clean water Transportation Electricity Housing Sanitation 58% to 73% Average access to Urban population Rs 600,000 Cr Is the annual loss India bears due to congestion - TOI 6% Urban population has no access to electricity. Most industries have their own generators 94% Cities do not have proper sewerage network 80% Households living in congested houses The presentation focuses on cities with large number of economic hubs • Growth of such cities have been impeded by • Lack of transportation / high congestion • Low access to clean water • Sanitation is closely related to access to water. So partially this will be covered by the presentation • Electricity and Housing are considered not to be a major issue as of now. The scope of the presentation: Improving congestion and access to clean water
  3. 3. Transportation Solution: Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Influence Zone: Maximum of 2000 meter wide belt on both sides of major public transport corridor designed for multiple usage except those that are polluting. The goal is to have low carbon high density sustainable cities. • The government has to incentivize and/or penalize to encourage such layout • Cluster size will depend on the capacity/ bottleneck of the transportation system • Private players may resist and old layout may impede the implementation Non-motorized transport: Dedicated lane for non motorized transportation has to be developed. • Government cannot force conversion from motorized transport to non- motorized transport • Government can just make the lane and the availability of road will force people to convert by themselves • Later PPP can be brought up to facilitate two wheeler sharing business • Old layout may impede the implementation Requires high state intervention Requires low state intervention
  4. 4. Transit oriented development: what needs to be done Major transport nodes like metros and bus stops within walk able distance Creation of variety of street level activities including hawkers for greater security and enjoyment Provision of adequate amenities like public toilets, resting seats Disperse high traffic volumes from major arterial streets to multiple human- scale streets Provision of shortest direct route to pedestrians to Station and shopping/industrial complexes Ensure reliability frequency and affordability of public transport systems Dis-incentivize private motor vehicles’ use as through enforcement measures like appropriate costing of private parking space Fully dedicated right of way for buses, integration with metro rail network Promotion of cleaner fuels and vehicle technologies Integrated long term land use and transport planning Community involvement in city development Increase FAR to increase population density of influence zones and prevent urban sprawls Develop Pedestrian friendly environment: Improve road Connectivity and network density: Inducing more use of public transport : Adopting People-oriented planning :
  5. 5. Non Motorized Transportation (NMT) Encourage NMT as complement to current transportation options in specific area bound locations. Availability of safe lane is crucial for conversion of passengers from motorized transportation to NMT. The lane must be located at a large volume and high traffic cluster areas In a country like India, this public property must have limited access so that the lane is not over utilized. The proliferation in cycle usage may increase other negative externality such as traffic jam in major roads, more traffic accidents Boundaries and guards must be created Outside residential area, Government has to rely on private bodies to facilitate provision of cycles. It is not recommended to have cyclists ride cycles a long distance which may increase and slow down traffics in major roads The government should have policing system, to reduce theft, vandalization and safety issues. These can also be reduced by use of technology such as tracking devices, CC TV. But these may not be possible at the current city state Development of lane: Excludability: PPP: Policing the usage:
  6. 6. Benefits Benefits Low financial requirement: The current project of TOD in Bangalore shows that the lane development ha required 0.6 million INR per kilometer. Reduction in traffic in major roads: This will also reduce number of vehicles in the major road. This will decrease accidents. Reduction in fuel consumption: The use of cycle will decrease demand of motorized vehicles used for daily usages and hence fuel consumption More safe city: Eyes on road will improve safety in the city Development of local economy: Influence zone will increase employment and safety enhancing the local economy. Social Benefit • More safe city • Reduce in accidents • The social cost of transportation will reduce Economic Benefit • Low budget requirement for infrastructure development • The development of TOD will benefit in local economy Environmental Benefit • Less fuel consumption • Less carbon emission
  7. 7. • Public Good: Treated as a public good, the focus has shifted from water conservation and rational usage • Pricing: Most cities have a flat pricing structure which does not distinguish consumption of poor and rich • Non revenue water1(NRW): In urban areas, NRW accounts is estimated to be close to 40%-60% • Accountability: The accountability between institutions responsible for planning, financing, development, O&M is non-existent. • Lack of policy reforms: Lack of a robust PPP framework has resulted in limited private players participation Water Problem: the time bomb is ticking…. • Per capita water availability is expected to decline by 26% by 2025 & 36% by 2050 relative to 2001 levels. • At the present, urban water service is riddled with problems of limited coverage of house to house connections, inadequate supplies and poor quality. PROBLEMS GALORE: 1 Non revenue water: Difference between the amount of water put in the distribution system and the amount billed to the customer • Incremental Block Tariff (IBT): Rate per unit of water incrementally increases with consumption. • This attaches an economic value to the good and hence rational consumption. • This helps solve the issues of pricing and water being treated as public good • Metering: Ministry of Urban Development report states that 50% of the meters are defunct. Ensuring 100% installation will help reduce NRW losses. • Decentralization: would help adapt better to variations in local conditions, water availability & capacity. • Sustainable technologies: Wastewater treatment, rainwater harvesting, wetland restoration, Water centric design FINDING A WAY OUT:
  8. 8. Solving the water problem Benefits: Ensuring that proper metering devices are installed would help reduce the leakage and hence the NRW significantly. Implementation issues: High costs associated with replacing defunct and installing new meters in every household. Apart from the meters, relevant control systems need to be in place to monitor water flows Benefits: Using meters, the usage of individual households can be tracked. Incremental tariff would deter indiscriminate use of water by the rich Implementation issues: Given the populist policies pursued by the Gov., political will be initiate such a change might be limited. The impact on poor can be restricted by creating step increases based on their average consumption Benefits: Reduction in per capita consumption, lower strain on environment, restoration of ecology and larger community benefit. Implementation issues: The mind-set of the regulatory bodies is still oriented towards centralized big-pipe systems, the community is risk-averse and it acts as a barrier to adoption at small- scale level Benefits: Sustainable model with principles of recycling, waste-reduction, adaptability and multi- functional systems. Implementation issues: The biggest roadblock is the lack of futuristic vision in India. Inability in terms of technical competence and hard-system capabilities also hinder the progress in developing such designs. Metering Incremental tariff Decentralization Water centric design
  9. 9. Blend of decentralized system with current centralized network for sustainable water infrastructure Approaches to decentralization: • Water-efficient appliances • Storm water retention and use • Decentralized waste water treatment, reuse and resource recovery Impact of decentralization: • Reduction in per capita water consumption • Restoration of ecosystem • Larger community benefit of infrastructure system Barriers StructuralChanges • Regulations support traditional infrastructure • Distorted pricing mechanism • Risk Aversion • Conventional attitude and expectation • Utilities oriented around big-pipe infra • Integrated planning, funding, regulations and design • Expanding role of private sector • Link professional practices with community participation • Stimulating continuous innovation New Paradigm – Decentralized Water Infrastructure
  10. 10. All policies must follow “The Four Pillars” of Sustainable Infrastructure • Better Management – shift utility management beyond compliance to sustainability and improved performance • Full Cost Pricing – pricing structure that recovers full cost of providing the services over long-term • Water Efficiency – Promote water efficiency, use of efficient product and services • Watershed Approach – Cost effective alternatives: source water protection, water quality trading, storm water and waste water management A Water-Centric Designs Water systems that mimic and work with nature Multiple sustainability objectives: • Public health & safety • Restore natural landscape Principles of nature that can be adapted: • Modular units, bottom up • Multi-functional • Recycles, use and reuse • Adaptability and No-waste Water at the center of sustainable design & principles An example : Dockside Green, Victoria Development concept based on Integrated Resource Management with waste water treatment and disposal that will enhance environment quality • Closed loop cycle to minimize operating cost • Re-claimed water supply for flushing, irrigation Change of perspective in measuring levels of service (Sustainability Focus) • Shifting from compliance to existing regulations to integrated resource and community benefits • Shifting from customer satisfaction perspective to multiple stakeholder decision making process New Paradigm – Sustainable Infrastructure & Water-Centric Designs
  11. 11. Reference • Energy Scenario and Vision 2020 in India • Urban Sanitation in India: A Snapshot • 2011/Water_Report.pdf • • • 20on%20New%20Water%20Paradigm.pdf • ms_fullcost_pricing_case_studies.pdf