Manthan Topic- Brain Gain
Promoting Research and Innovation
What is Research and Innovation?
• “Systematic investigation towards
increasing the sum of knowledge.”
(Chambers 20th Century Dictionary)
• “An endeavor to discover new or
collate old facts by the scientific
study of a subject or by a course of
critical investigation.”(The Concise
• “An innovation is something original,
new, and important - in whatever field
- that breaks in to a market or society.”
• ‘Innovation’ differs from ’invention’ in
that innovation refers to the use of a
better and, as a result, novel idea or
method, whereas invention refers
more directly to the creation of the
idea or method itself.
Role of innovation and research in country growth
• Innovation: The New Mantra for Science and Technology Policies in India
• “Science is more essential for our prosperity, our security, our health, our
environment, and our quality of life than it has ever been before.” - President
Barack Obama, April 27, 2009.
• Research is important for clinicians because it links the clinical experience and
evidence base to the laboratory which lends itself to statistical and trend
analyses, collaboration, discovery and ultimately to positive impacts on
patient diagnosis, care and safety.
• "We are a non-profit hospital, built from compassion for the poor and suffering.
For us, the cheaper the products, the greater the number of patients we can
treat. The purpose of our research is to identify low-cost methods and
technology for healthcare, so we can reach out to as many of the needy as
possible," says AIMS's medical director, Dr Prem Nair.
Present Indian Scenario
• Despite India having better scientific research institutions, R&D and innovation
capabilities are lower than other BRICS countries, according to the Economic
• Citing the global competitiveness report for 2012-13, the economic survey pointed
out that India despite being ranked ahead of other peers when it came to market
knowledge, technology and creativity, the country ranked poorly when it came to
other metrics such as institutional support, human resources, research infrastructure
and business sophistication.
• In 2011, the total number of patent applications for in India was estimated to be
37,000, according to controller general of patents, designs and trade marks,
ministry of commerce and industry data. In comparison, despite a slowdown in its
economy, California, in 2011 filed 30,750 patents.
• “There is potential but the momentum needs to be sustained and not left hanging,”
said Gopcihand Katragadda, Managing Director, GE India Technology Centre.
• China registers over a 100 patents for a million people as compared to five for
India. US, with 707 patents for a million people, is among top scientific countries in
the world after two Asian research giants Japan and South Korea with over 1,000
patents for a million people.
• The so-called emerging economic power is not even close to several nations with
slower economic growth rate . Sri Lanka registers three times more patents for a
million people as compared to its northern neighbour India. Even Thailand has
more patents and researchers per million people than India.
Initiatives to promote R&D
• Interaction between researchers in natural sciences and social sciences.
• The principle of differential remuneration based on performance and output
to be followed to reward those who perform well and chastise those who do
• Current teaching methodologies at school, college and university level do
start inculcating scientific temper in the students.
• Research topics of long term relevance and importance to be taken up and
well supported by the government.
• Our country should set up a National Science and Social Science Foundation
(NSSSF) which will look at all knowledge as one seamless entity.
• Changing government mind-set and explore its role as an innovation enabler.
• Inter-disciplinary studies in Science & Technology are to be undertaken in
order to encourage new approaches and methodologies.
• Decreasing education cost for doing Phds and providing scholarships to
motivate students to go for R&D.
• To revitalise research in universities and give an impetus to public funded
research, enacting a legislation that would give universities and research
institutions ownership and patent rights over inventions arising out of
government funded research.
Challenges and Risks Mitigation Factors
• It takes a very long time for any
• Mindset of people is hard to change.
• Government policies change with
changing government every 5 year.
• Large sum of capital to be invested.
• Chances of success in first try are least
• Insufficient current research institution’s
• The government could retain the right
to a non-exclusive, non-transferable,
irrevocable paid up license to
practice the invention throughout the
• For universities and research
institutions, revenue generating
incentives lie in ownership and control
over the fruits of research generated
out of government funds. This should
encourage filing patents in their own
name and entering into
commercialization processes with
• Decreasing gap between the culture
of academe and the realities of the
• Reports of National Knowledge Commission
• Recommendations of National Knowledge Commission
• Census data of India and other countries.