Implementation of the solution
Impact of the solution
Challenges of mitigation factor
Scope of the broad problem
The scope of agricultural should cover the problems of the rural people and the
institutions needed to solve their problems.
The role of agricultural economists as teachers, researchers and policy analysts and
suggests some measures for performing these roles.
Scope of Agriculture
India is known as “Land of Villages”. Near about 67% of India’s population live in villages. The
occupation of villagers is agriculture. Agriculture is the dominant sector of our economy & contributes
National Economy: In 1990 – 91, agriculture contributed 31.6% of the National Income of
India, while manufacturing sector contributed 17.6%.
Total Employment: Around 65% population is working & depends on agriculture . Nearly
70% of the rural population earns its livelihood from agriculture and other occupation
allied to agriculture. In cities also, a considerable part of labour force is engaged in jobs
depending on processing & marketing of agricultural products.
Industrial Inputs: Most of the industries depend on the raw material produced by
agriculture, so agriculture is the principal source of raw material to the industries. The
industries like cotton textile, jute, paper, sugar depends totally on agriculture for the
supply of raw material.
• Food Supply: During this year targeted food production was 198 million tons & which is to be
increased 225 million tons by the end of this century to feed the growing population of India.
• State Revenue: The agriculture is contributing the revenue by agriculture taxation includes direct tax
and indirect tax. Direct tax includes lands and surcharge on land revenue, cesses on crops & agriculture
• Trade: Agriculture plays an important role in foreign trade attracting valuable foreign exchange. The
product from agriculture based industries such as jute, cloth, tinned food, etc. contributed to 20% of our
export. Around 50 % of total exports are contributed by agriculture sector. Agriculture products like tea,
coffee, sugar, oil seeds, tobacco; spices, etc. also constitute the main items of export from India.
• a steady supply The primary causes of the move to agriculture was an increasing population whose
more complex community needed fixed shelters and of food.
• Lack of facility
Reason for selecting specific problem
.The increasing pressure of population on land is an important demographic factor responsible for low yield
.Shortage of finance, marketing and storage facilities are also responsible for agricultural
backwardness in India.
. Indian agriculture is a gamble in the monsoon. If monsoon becomes favourable, we have a
good crop; otherwise agriculture is affected by drought, flood and cyclone.
.poor technique of production
.inadequate irrigation facility
•Community Markets for Conservation : promoting rural livelihoods
around a business partnership to achieve conservation
•Improvement in agriculture & technology
•Protection from radiation
•Reduction of present state of degradation & loss of productive
farmland due to erosion, salinization ,water logging & nutrient
•Raising the crop yield on current agricultural land.
• Improving the distribution of agricultural products to water
• Reformation of policies relating management, allocation, and
• Retention of trees as crops to protect water and soil
• Provision of governmental guidance and regulation
• Farmers school
• Use of chemistry in agriculture
• Plantation agriculture
• Cloning agriculture
• It is necessary to try to give farmers of adapted plants in this
period of rainy crisis and to make sensitive the farmers in their
• It is necessary to create activities young countrymen to shrink
the drift from the land and allowing them to reduce the sale
of the harvests for the financial needs of the families.
• Merits of these proposed solution
What are the Advantages of agricultural technology?
Well, the new chemicals and pesticides are a disadvantage as they pollute water
systems etc. Advantages are that people have developing farming technology in
such a way that it will
• what are the advantages of food technology?
• According to the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT), scientists began to gain
a better understanding of vitamin function in the 1920s. Soon, food
technologists were able to measure
what are the advantages of cloning in agriculture?
• A cloned plant can yield a thousand new plants from one parent plant.
This means that farmers can produce more crops without a lot of seeds.
Cream of the Crop report shows how organic dairies are good for both farmers
and the economic
In making fertilisers which are chemical compounds or salts to increase
fertility of soil.
we can check pH of soil by means of universal indicator hence can use
suitable fertiliser to neutralise soil because plants grow best in neutral soil.
chemical compounds like ethene is used to ripen unripe fruits.
It is necessary to modernize agriculture that is to replace the hoes by plows otherwise if possible
by tractors which will facilitate the work of the farmers and give them courage in their rural works
• Implementation of the solution
• Participation of stakeholder can take place in different places of the project cycle and at different levels of
society, and take many different forms. These can range along a continuum from contribution of inputs to
predetermined projects and programmes, to information sharing, consultation, decision-making, partnership and
empowerment. Participation is both a means and an end. As a means, it is a process in which people and
communities cooperate and collaborate in development projects and programmes. As an end, participation is a
process that empowers people and communities through acquiring skills, knowledge and experience, leading to
greater self-reliance and self-management.
• Development agencies have only recently recognized the need for monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of
participation in development projects and programmes.
Government always try to help them by developing new latest technology they always implement latest
technology , to improve production level by providing fertilizer they organize camp for them which is free of cost
in which they get knowledge about mix farming & seasonable farming & get knowledge about seeds in those
camp they get fully knowledge
related to agriculture in these camp organize regularly they also tell how we can protect agriculture from
Agriculture loan are provided
Today, many agricultural economists proclaim corporate contracting as farmers’ only means of gaining access to
the technology, capital, and markets they will need to be competitive in the 21st century
• . Many agricultural lenders have heeded the economists, requiring their loans for production of specific
commodities to be accompanied by production contracts.
• Most agricultural contracts are short term, from batch-to-batch for poultry and livestock and year-to-year on
crops. Longer-term contracts typically have easy escape clauses for the corporation, allowing for culling of
“inefficient” producers or closing of “unprofitable” processing facilities. A producer who loses his or her contract
may be left with large outstanding loans on production facilities that have no alternative economic use. of
Growing awareness health and environmental risks associated with large-scale confinement livestock and poultry
operations increase the economic and legal vulnerability of the contract producer. The financial and
environmental risks of contract production may be far greater than lenders have been led to believe.
Human Resource Development is an important factor in capacity building and
improving the overall efficiency of functionaries involved in implementation, monitoring,
evaluation, research and extension programmes. Training is a major component of Human
Resource Development. Systematic training, planning, management and its implementation
by making best utilization of resources available within the country helps in bringing about
desirable changes in knowledge and upgrade skills of extension functionaries associated
with the process of agriculture development. The training infrastructure has been created to
meet out the training requirements of all levels of extension functionaries, farm youth and
farmwomen. Looking into the importance of training in capacity building of extension
experts and farmers, this scheme is selected for the strengthening of extension services and
dissemination of agricultural technology to the farming community.
Funding opportunities under the Common Agricultural Policy
Direct payments support farmers' incomes without being linked to production in return
for them respecting standards of food safety, environmental protection, animal welfare
and keeping the land in good condition.
Rural Development funding helps to improve competitiveness for farming and
forestry, to protect the environment and the countryside, to improve the quality of life
and diversification of the rural economy and to support locally based approaches to rural
Impact of the solution
• Scalability is a desirable property when an organisation or a technology needs to be effective
on a large scale
• Increased Demand for Agricultural Products: An increased use of bio-fuels and a changing diet
in developing countries require significant higher levels of agricultural production.
• Sustainable Development: Making agriculture sustainable requires large scale innovation as it
involves a large number of farms in a wide range of social, economic and physical environments.
The increasing demand for agricultural products entails both challenges and opportunities for
• Food Quality Management: Managing food quality requires collaboration between all parties
involved in the food chain. As food manufacturers obtain their raw materials from a large
amount of farmers SCALE is an important issue in managing food quality.
• Corporate Responsibility: Companies often obtain raw materials like coffee, tea or cocoa from
a large amount of smallholders.
Farmers face a variety of market and production risks that make their incomes volatile from
year to year.
In many cases, farmers also confront the risk of catastrophe, as, for example, when crops are
destroyed by drought or when assets and lives are lost to hurricanes and floods. These risks are
particularly burdensome to the poor, including many small farmers. Unless adequately
managed, they can slow economic development and poverty reduction and contribute to
humanitarian crises. Covariate risks, especially those that involve catastrophic losses, pose
special difficulties and costs. Past attempts by governments and relief agencies to help manage
covariate risks have been costly and often ineffective.
Although monitoring costs are relatively small compared to other cost
items within a REDD system, they should be shared not only among
countries but also among sectors, because an integrated monitoring
system would have multiple benefits for non-REDD management.
Overcoming initialization costs and unequal access to monitoring
technologies is crucial for implementation of an integrated monitoring
system, and demands for international cooperation.
• Our market solutions for agriculture and nutrition
provide innovative products and services that help
increase the quantity, quality, safety, and
sustainability of our food supply.
• We leverage our strengths in biology, chemistry and
biotechnology along with our knowledge of the food
value chain to improve grower productivity and
create innovative food sources, feed ingredients, and
materials that help improve food safety. We also
develop insecticides, fungicides, and high-value, low-
• Agriculture is perhaps the most outstanding issue and
challenge for the sustainability objective to
resolve. To attain the ‘sustainable development’ goal
requires urgent actions on three fronts; The
ecological, the social and the economic. Urgency is
required as there is a big crisis and possible calamity
developing in this all-important sector, on which
depend the livelihoods of most of the world’s people
as well as the food needs of everyone
Social Impact and Economic & political impact on agriculture
• The economic impact of agriculture is reported to be $55 billion annually, with the industry providing more
than 357,000 jobs across the state. For every job within the agricultural and forestry sector, another 1.5 jobs is
supported as an indirect economic benefit and impact. The annual economic impact results from $2.9 billion
in direct agricultural output; $26 billion in value-added industrial output; and an additional $26 billion
generated from other agriculture-related business output
• These developments include genetic advancements in the livestock industry, bio-tech agronomic
advancements the use of GPS technology in agricultural equipment, and the use of agricultural bi-products in
alternative fuel sources. In essence, natural resources were provided to mankind; with time, mankind’s
knowledge pertaining to feeding the world has developed in such a way that has ultimately helped to produce
food & fuel more efficiently.
• In case of education of women in rural area no one accept that the house women study and give decision in
their work and they sit with them & work with them.
• The mentality of old man is women can work only in 4fall she is not permitted to work out of house.
Latest technology is costly which is import by other country today decrease in cost of rupee it is not easy to
purchase modern technique.
NEW TECHNOLOGIES AND THEIR IMPACT ON AGRICULTURE,
ENVIRONMENT AND THE FOOD INDUSTRY
Today’s agriculture food sector has to simultaneously face critical challenges from a variety of sources.
Globalization increases competition but also involves higher risks in food safety or quality
This development coincides with increasing pressures on the agriculture food sector to intensify process
controls and to improve on quality, food safety, the tracking and traceability of products throughout the
supply chain, and the environmental consequences of its operations. None of these challenges can be met
by individual enterprises or enterprises of a certain stage in the supply chain as, e.g., farms, alone.
The close dependencies between all levels of food production require joint initiatives and new approaches
One of the major barriers to development has been the poor performance of its agricultural sector. For a
variety of reasons, the Green Revolution that transformed much of Asia never occurred in Africa.
Lack of good quality fertilizer
lack of light facility,water facility & transport in rural area.
Not familiar with technology due to lack of knowledge.
The effects were a stratified social order, division of labour, and a greater reliance on the storage of food,
and growing more than the growers need