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An Approach to Improve
Indian Sanitation
Team Details:
Deepali Kansal(Team Coordinator)
Shashank Gupta
Vikrant Yadav
Jogin...
Current Strategy (1999-2012) : TSC-Total
sanitation campaign
India aims to meet UN Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of ha...
Health Impacts Social Impacts
Economic
Impacts
Environmental
Impact
•Productivity losses
•Expenditures due to illness and
...
SOLUTION:
OBA-OUTPUT BASED AID
OBA is a results-based financing mechanism
under which service provision is contracted to
a...
DESIGN
Challenges
SP Selection
Who?
•Private Enterprise
•NGOs/CBOs
•Public Utilities
How?
The amount of risk that can
be s...
Construction +
Operation &
Management
Service
Provider
Community
Toilets(2)
Biogas &Bio-
fertiliser
Plant(3)
IEC group
(De...
SOURCE/AID DONOR:
•World Bank and the Global Partnership on
Output-Based Aid (GPOBA),a multi-donor
facility -pilots the us...
What makes OBA Approach SUPERIOR:
Monitoring &Impact Evaluation(M&E)
EVIDENCE BASED IMIS-Real Time Monitoring
Objective: T...
Awareness
Accountability&
Sustainability
Transparency
People’s
participation
Communication Strategy
•Campaigning to “chang...
GP
Block
District
State
Central
Ministry of Drinking Water
& Sanitation( MoDWS )
•NRDWP-National Rural Drinking Water
Prog...
The Table below gives the Percentage share of the allocation for different components of
an OBA Project-Aid donor share & ...
 Ref :slide1,fig1:Joint monitoringprogramme-wssinfo.org
 http://www.mdws.gov.in/sites/upload_files/ddws/files/pdf/IEC%20...
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DTURevolutionist2013

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DTURevolutionist2013

  1. 1. An Approach to Improve Indian Sanitation Team Details: Deepali Kansal(Team Coordinator) Shashank Gupta Vikrant Yadav Joginder Pratap Singh Vibhav Jain 1
  2. 2. Current Strategy (1999-2012) : TSC-Total sanitation campaign India aims to meet UN Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of halving the proportion of people with inadequate sanitation from 2000 levels Failures Lack of capacity to implement a demand-driven approach Regular real time monitoring not available  Incentives for BPL households break community spirit leading to neglect of APL & other backward communities  Inadequate focus on hygiene promotion and SLWM Lack of Coordination with related departments like health, education, women Salient Features Build about 57 million individual household sanitary latrines (IHHLs)only for Below Poverty Line (BPL) households Offers fiscal incentives in the form of a cash prize to local governments that achieve 100% open defecation free (ODF) status Total funding from the centre and state tunes to Rs. 14600 crore as per the 12th 5 year plan An estimated 55% of all Indians close to 600 million people still do not have access to any kind of toilet!BUT 2
  3. 3. Health Impacts Social Impacts Economic Impacts Environmental Impact •Productivity losses •Expenditures due to illness and mortality,medicines, health care and funerals •Water treatment costs •Losses in fisheries •Productivity Losses •Loss in tourism •6.4% of GDP spent on sanitation related problems •Only 27% of Indian waste water Is being treated •¾ of India’s surface water resources are polluted-80% of the pollution is due to sewage alone •Value of land being affected if sanitary conditions are not acceptable •Outdoor air quality is also known to be affected •Diarrhoeal diseases, acute respiratory infections •1/5th of all deaths among Indian children under 5 years due to inadequate sanitation •Rampant worm infestation and repeated diarrhoea result in widespread childhood malnutrition •Cancer causing arsenic and fluoride found in the contaminated groundwater •700k manual scavengers still make their living this way •SC/STs suffer from poor household sanitation. •30 % of marginalised women travel long distances to access public facilities are sexually assaulted •Lack of privacy & bath in open spaces •HighGirl school drop out rates -almost 25% •Skin diseases contracted during menstruation leading to expensive treatment In rural areas, 74% of the rural population still DEFECATES in the open! ADVERSE IMPACTS OF POOR SANITATION 3
  4. 4. SOLUTION: OBA-OUTPUT BASED AID OBA is a results-based financing mechanism under which service provision is contracted to a third party, usually a private sector operator, and subsidies are paid to the provider after the delivery of specific outputs. FEATURES OF OBA •Subsidies at an efficient level •Designed as case-by-case basis keeping sustainability in mind • Projects continually monitored & improved upon. •Results focused-all stakeholders have strong incentives to deliver service Subsidy OBA vs. Traditional AidOBA SUCCESSFUL MODELS SENEGAL: Providing subsidies for on-site sanitation facilities in poor urban areas, led to the construction of 63k new on-site sanitation facilities in a demand-driven manner, benefiting more than 4 lakh people b/w 2002 -08 PRODES program in Brazil: Utilities get a subsidy if wastewater gets treated; Giving incentives to connect new customer as this would increase the overall amount of wastewater that arrives in the treatment plant Subsidy Fund Financial intermediary Contracting authority Service provider Output Delivered = connection installed , services delivered Targeted beneficiaries Not yet connected Aid Donor SubsidyPre-finance Independent Verification Agent Proposed OBA Structure Inputs Service Provider Service Beneficiary Inputs Service Provider Service Beneficiary Public Finance Aid Donor 4
  5. 5. DESIGN Challenges SP Selection Who? •Private Enterprise •NGOs/CBOs •Public Utilities How? The amount of risk that can be shifted to SPs depends on their ability to pre-finance outputs: PREFINANCING : •Micro-finance Institutions • Financial institute like WDCO, National Bank of Agriculture and Rural Development • Micro credits from NGOs •Backward region grant fund by Panchayati Raj Ministry •Split the SP’s remuneration between an up-front payment (block grant) &performance-based payment •Package services to attract larger Operators •Identify alternative financing sources: Cross-subsidies from other users /services Direct contributions from sectors benefiting from improved sanitation (e.g. hotels) Revenue generated from re-use OBA Related Challenges ? SPs may not have the necessary business and management skills to meet reporting and performance verification requirements Sol. Provide business support services and assistance to formalize the services ? The viability of the schemes may be in question once the initial source of subsidy, provided within a pilot OBA scheme stops Sol. Set-up a domestic OBA sanitation facility in the form of a “challenge fund”‖ with a secure source of subsidies to provide ongoing subsidies Reconnaissance: Transact &Social Mapping •Transact mapping -location and distribution of resources, landscape •Social (sketch) mapping -village’s layout, infrastructure, demography, health patterns, sanitation details. 17% Others 47% Competi tive Bidding 23% Increme nt Provider 13% Multiple SPs Incumbent SPs have good knowledge of the service area &can rely on existing cash- flows Human Personal Social Nature Physical Financial 5
  6. 6. Construction + Operation & Management Service Provider Community Toilets(2) Biogas &Bio- fertiliser Plant(3) IEC group (Demand Creation &Promotion) Demonstration Toilets Latrine Workshops Corpus Fund Collection(1) Distribution of Wealth Cards •Beneficial in places with no sewerage connection •Reduces construction cost of sewers,water point etc •Easy maintenance •Tackling the Disposal issue •Recycling reuse of waste- source of manure/fertiliser •Biogas-a renewable fuel 100% ODF Status Employment to community members Subsidised Manure/ Fertiliser to Farmers Integration with MGNREGA Scheme (1) Co-financing projects by Communities : Determine Overall Ranking based on Transact & Social Mapping(discussed in slide-5) Distribution of SEWA CARD i.e. •Green Card-Poor households •Violet Card-Women,Disabled,Elderly ,Minorities •Red card-Rich households Raising of “Corpus fund” –a pool of community resources (2)Community Toilet Technology: •The toilet is kept clean for 24 hours of the day •With bathing, laundry and urinal facilities •Type of LATRINES: •Ventilated Improved Pit latrine •Pit latrine with slab/covered latrine •Traditional Pit latrine without slab/open pit •Hanging toilet •Bucket latrine •Existing model-Sulabh shauchalaya complexes (3)Excreta-based Biogas & Biofertilizer Technology: •Building Biogas plant in conjuction with the community toilet •Source of renewable fuel for cooking and electricity generation+manure •This lacks in septic tank system(currently used) An acid test for the community members to see if the can set their differences apart & work together MODEL OF FUNCTIONING of SERVICE PROVIDER 6
  7. 7. SOURCE/AID DONOR: •World Bank and the Global Partnership on Output-Based Aid (GPOBA),a multi-donor facility -pilots the use of OBA financing •Government of India budget allocation •PPP-Public-Private-Partnership TYPES OF SUBSIDY: •One off subsidy: Given only after target is achieved •Transitional Subsidy: Fill the gap between the user ability/willingness to pay & tariff cost recovery •On-going subsidy: When the gap is continuous DISBURSEMENT TRIGGER: •Subsidies should be given at certain fixed intervals and not in lumpsum to increase risk transfer to the SP. Graph shows a proposed model of the disbursement plan: Advantages of OBA: Increased Transparency, Accountability,Increased Engagement of private sector capital & expertise , Encouraging Innovation & Efficiency by leaving the service , Increased Sustainability of public funding SUBSIDYEXPLICIT TARGETING MECHANISM of Subsidies: •Geographic Targeting- Intended beneficiaries concentrated in certain geographical areas •Proxy Means tested Targeting- Assessing wealth & social indicators •Community based Targeting- Collaboration with the local community 7
  8. 8. What makes OBA Approach SUPERIOR: Monitoring &Impact Evaluation(M&E) EVIDENCE BASED IMIS-Real Time Monitoring Objective: To check where the facilities that have been created are being optimally utilized or not. PERFORMANCE REPORT Issue Output indicators Coverage area Area to which facilities are catering to and whether the targeted area is having easy reach to the facilities Demand promotion Number of households using community latrine following demand promotion and no of communities becoming open-defecation free Utilization Extent to which staff & equipment capacity has been utilised Interventions Interventions that have been happening under the project. Eg-Installation of new equipment Environmental impact Impact on the catchment area, pollution; Attractiveness of the area to the residents Impact on staff and clients Views of implementation & management e.g. what advantages and disadvantages people of a reformed facility are having Treatment Volume of waste collected and treated to required standard Disposal Volume of productive agricultural input generated &sold to farmers or gas created Special needs Requirement of special facilities to be created. E.g. Toilets for disabled Model of Output Indicators to Trigger OBA Subsidies 8
  9. 9. Awareness Accountability& Sustainability Transparency People’s participation Communication Strategy •Campaigning to “change mindset of people” •Focus on active involvement of marginalized groups like SC, STs, women and minorities •Dealing with bridging the digital divide, gender divide and knowledge divide Training for construction of toilets may be organized for beneficiaries, members of Women's Self Help Groups ,Youth Groups & Masons •Door to door campaign •Sanitation and Health Padyatras •Street theatre &plays, folk songs •Development of IEC materials like hoardings, banners, posters, to be displayed on ,Schools,Anganwadis, Railway stations, Primary Health Centres, Post office and PRI offices Construction of toiletsAssessing People's Perception OUTCOME: Demand Promotion + Generation + Sustainable Behaviour Change What makes OBA Approach SUPERIOR: Information Education & Communication (IEC) Strategy 9
  10. 10. GP Block District State Central Ministry of Drinking Water & Sanitation( MoDWS ) •NRDWP-National Rural Drinking Water Program •Officers of Women and Child Development, Health & Education •Make part of the existing schemes: National Rural Health Mission Bharat Nirman Scheme •NGOS & CBOS •PHED-Public Health & Education Department •DWSM-District Water and Sanitation Mission(District Sanitation Cell) •District Support unit •SWSM-State Water and Sanitation Mission •WSSO-Water Sanitation & Support Organisation •Communication & Capacity Development Unit (CCDU) •KRC-Key Resource Center •Village Water and Sanitation Committee Community Volunteers •SHGs, Anganwadi workers •BRC-Block Resource Center •Block Support Unit CONVERGENCE OF STAKEHOLDERS for IEC & M&E External Agencies - WHO, World Bank, Water Sanitation Portal, Indian Sanitation Portal, UNICEF, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) and Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Coordination & Integration with Existing Institutions is required due to : •Budget constraint •Precious time lost in setting up new infrastructure •Better Awareness about the issues/problems of the beneficiaries Pre-existing data & Surveys: •National Sample Survey •Demographic and Health Survey •Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey •National Census •National Sample Survey 2002 •World Health Survey •Study on global Aging & Adult health, WHO 10
  11. 11. The Table below gives the Percentage share of the allocation for different components of an OBA Project-Aid donor share & beneficiary contribution towards each component. In the case of Union Territories, the State share under the OBA will be borne by the Govt. of India. TSC Component-Wise earmarking and funding pattern S.NO. Component Amount earmarked as percent of the OBA project outlay Contribution (%) AID DONOR Beneficiary/ Community 1. IEC & StartUp Activity including Motivational Awareness & Educative Campaigns, Advocacy etc. Up to 25% 100 0 2. Community Toilet Up to 20% 80 20 3. Excreta-based Biogas & Bio- fertilizer Technology: Up to 20% 80 20 4. Administrative charges including training, staff, support services Less than 5% 100 0 5. Monitoring & Evaluation Up to 20% 100 0 6. Miscellaneous Expenses Up to 10% 100 0 Proposed Project Funding 11
  12. 12.  Ref :slide1,fig1:Joint monitoringprogramme-wssinfo.org  http://www.mdws.gov.in/sites/upload_files/ddws/files/pdf/IEC%20guidelines%20PDF.p df  http://tnrd.gov.in/schemes/tsc.html  http://www.slideshare.net/GPOBA/results-based-financing-mechanisms-experience- from-output-based-aid  http://www.wsp.org/sites/wsp.org/files/publications/OBA_Sanitation_Framework.pdf  https://www.wsp.org/sites/wsp.org/files/publications/WSP_OBA_sanitation.pdf  http://www.unicef.org/wash/files/15._OBA_for_Sanitation.pdf  http://planningcommission.nic.in/reports/peoreport/peo/rep_tscv1_2205.pdf  http://www.indiawaterportal.org/sites/indiawaterportal.org/files/Ministry%20of%20Dr inking%20Water%20&%20Sanitation%20Agenda%20for%2026th%20sept%20meeting% 202011.pdf REFERENCES 12

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