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  1. 1.  “Any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women and girls, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivations of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life”.
  2. 2.  More violent forms, such as  femicide, acid attacks, ritual rapes and murders,  gang rapes, abductions, defilement and forced early marriages,  Military sexual slavery, rape as a weapon of war, trafficking in women and girls and  ill-treatment of widows have become more widespread.
  3. 3.  In spite of treaties, (the Protocol to the the African Charter) conventions, legislation and policies against some cultural practices the situation of women in Africa continue to be vulnerable to harmful traditional practices and customs such as FGM and widow inheritance, which expose them to the risk of HIV and AIDS
  4. 4.  There is a palpable feeling that legislation alone is not enough to achieve equality in Africa, that it is not sufficient to change perceptions, or cultures of sexism – the types of cultures which are permissive to gendered violence happening. Even with an increasing number of women in parliament in some of the countries and increasing legislation to prevent discrimination and violence on the basis of gender, a culture of masculinity prevails. Why is that? Unequal power relationships continue
  5. 5.  Obtaining data on violence against women – use these to show the economic and social cost of VAW as well as emotional and psychological impact on the affected person  It is important that the extent, nature and root causes of such violence are well-documented. By analyzing such information, concrete steps can be taken, both legal and charitable, to reduce the occurrence of such violence and reduce its effects.
  6. 6.  Increase access to opportunities for women- empower women to avoid abusive relationships - empower women, free them to leave behind abusive relationships  Build capabilities of women- including physical capabilities/ create awareness/ prevention programmes/ crisis counselling & support groups
  7. 7.  Make ending VAW every one’s concern; everyone’s business: The boys in your life need your time and energy. Your son, grandson, nephew, younger brother, your male colleague. The boys you teach, coach and mentor. All need you to help them grow into healthy men. The girls in your life what are you teaching them above all what do they see!
  8. 8.  THE UN has identified violence against women and girls "the most pervasive" human rights violation that we know today. Statistics from the world over, paint a clear picture of the social and health consequences of violence against women.  According to the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), violence against women is a major cause of death and disability for women aged 16 to 44 years
  9. 9.  The economic costs are considerable. Such violence impoverishes not only individuals, but families, communities, and governments, and stalls economic development of each nation
  10. 10.  Why we need empowerment:  Why we need empowerment Educational problems Society Gender prejudice Low confidence Lack of unity Problem related with health Poverty and Ignorance Traditional barriers  Educational problems:  Educational problems Social, cultural, Environmental Beneficiaries Schemes ?  Society :  Society Family, Dowry , Parda system  Lack of unity:  Lack of unity Women Vs Women  Problem related with health:  Problem related with health Social, Cultural and Gender differences  Poverty and Ignorance:
  11. 11.  Poverty and Ignorance  Gender prejudice:  Gender prejudice Suppressing the Women  Low confidence:  Low confidence Parsi theater  Traditional barriers:  Traditional barriers  What makes us different:  What makes us different Biological factor Chronic illness Dyslexia X Factor 
  12. 12.  Largest democracy in the world  Land boundaries with Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, China, Nepal and Pakistan  Area: 3,287,590 (slightly more than one-third the size of US)  Coastline: 7,000 k.m.  Population: 1,065,070,607 (Growth rate of 1.44%)-second largest population in the world  Sex ratio: 1.07 male (s)/female  Life expectancy at birth: 63.25 years (male) and 64.77 years (female)  Ethnic groups: Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3%  Religions: Hindu (81.3%), Muslim (12%), Christian (2.3%), Sikh(1.9%), Others (2.5%)  Languages: 18 major languages; 216 languages in total and several thousands dialects  Literacy: 59.5% (total population); 70.2% (male); and 48.3% (female)
  13. 13. Education  Literacy › Gender gaps:  Differences across states (Kerala has highest female literacy; Rajasthan, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh have the lowest)  Differences between rural and urban areas  Parental preference for boys going to school  Higher dropout rate among girls Female Male 1971 22% 46% 1991 39% 64% 2003 48% 70%
  14. 14. Education › Gender gaps in higher education  About 1 percent of total women population has college education  Women account for a third of the students at college/university level  In engineering and business, the proportion of female students is much smaller  In education, nearly half of the students are women
  15. 15. Barriers to Female Education › Poverty: one-fourth of India’s population lives below the poverty line (2002) › Social values and parental preferences › Inadequate school facilities › Shortage of female teachers: 29 percent at the primary level and 22 percent at the university level (1993) › Gender bias in curriculum
  16. 16. Employment › Difficult to get an overall picture of employment among women in India  Most women work in the informal sector › Women accounted for only 23 percent of the total workers in the formal sector in 1991 › The number of female workers has increased faster than the number of male workers › Female unemployment rates are similar to male unemployment rates
  17. 17. Barriers to Female Employment › Cultural Restrictions  Hierarchical society (caste system)  Purdah system: the veiling and seclusion of women › Discrimination at Workplace  More prevalent in fields where male competition is high  Less prevalent in fields where competition is low › Lack of employment opportunities
  18. 18. Empowerment  Social Empowerment › Education  There is no direct relationship between education and work force participation; but may affect their participation in household decision making › Economic Independence:  Economic independence does not imply significant improvement in social standing  Culture and tradition play an important role  A small fraction has opened up towards Western values
  19. 19.  Economic Empowerment › Property Rights  Patriarchal society › Economic Decision Making  In the household  In businesses
  20. 20.  Political Empowerment › Representation in democratic institutions › Government reservations policy for women: the constitutional amendment of 1990s
  21. 21. Women specific Legislations  Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956  The Maternity Benefit Act 1961  The Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961  Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986  The Commission of Sati (Prevention)Act, 1987  Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005
  22. 22. Health & Nut. Education Water & San. Skills Technology Credit Political Participation Marketing Asset base
  23. 23.  Implementation of Laws like › Equal remuneration › Minimum Wages › Factories Act  Infrastructure for women like › Water and sanitation at workplace › Creches › Working Women Hostels › Transport services › Security