Published on

Published in: Technology, Education
1 Comment
1 Like
  • pls guys follow the link n vote for us...
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. Brain Gain:promoting research and innovation An initiative for better INDIA Team: DESHIANS Team coordinator: Manisha Nair Maqsood Ali, Isha Pahuja, Pooja Jayara, Sunita Karki Deshbandhu college, Delhi university
  2. 2. Beginning of scientific research era INDUS VALLEY CIVILISATION- planned settlements like- use of drainage,sewerage,irrigation ,water storage (3000BC), canal irrigation by 2600 BC, standardization(using of weights for weighing), gauging devices for construction and measurements, calibration was also found in the measuring machines, world’s first clock dock & Lothal etc. VEDIC PERIOD-use of large scale constructional plans, cosmological drawings , and cartographic material was known, religious text and drawings written from ink , veterinary medicines, mention of leprosy in Atharva Veda, cataract surgery was known with a special JABAMUKHI SALAKA . SATAPATHA BRAHMANA- 9th century ,contains rule for ritual geometric construction. BAUDHAYANA- 8th century, contains example of simple Pythagorean triplets , Pythagorean theorem. VEDANTA JYOTISA- earliest Indian astronomical text. Metal currency was minted in India before the 5th century BC. Coins of silver and copper were. ARTHASHASTRA- construction of dams , bridges, stupa, pagoda,torii, rock cut step wells, wells, stepped ponds,. ATOMISM- vaishekshika school was founded. KANADA- proposed that atoms are indivisible and eternal. WOOTZ- Damascus steel COMMON ERA- glass was being used like molding ornaments, decorating Pascal triangle, Binomial coefficients, Binomial theorem ,binary numbers, use of multiplication sign, negative numbers used , first to establish “law of signs ” ,decimal number system, Pell’s equation , trigonometric functions of sine and versine (ARYABHATA), Rolle’s theorem (BHASKARA II), indigo dye , cashmere wool , jute cultivation
  3. 3.  In search of better working environment and pay package on account of unemployment.  This concept of taking education in a country but earning for another is known as brain drain.  Foreign countries get cheap and hardworking labour in this manner.  UNESCO has defined brain drain as, "An abnormal form of scientific exchange between countries, characterised by a one- way flow in favor of the most highly developed countries” BRAIN DRAIN
  4. 4. • Trained/Certified teachers. • School level curriculum builds on each year. • Extra-curricular activities. • Good infrastructure provided in graduation level for research and project works. • Lack of motivation • Lack of investments for research in institutions of India • Emphasizing on quantity rather than on quality • Lack of opportunities among young scholars • Research not valued as a part of teaching by some institutions of India Differences amongst Indian and foreign education system.
  5. 5.  38% of Doctors in America are Indians.  12% of Scientists in America are Indians.  36% of NASA employees are Indians.  34% of MICROSOFT employees are Indians  28% of IBM employees are Indians.  India produces an estimated 178,000 qualified software engineers every year. If they practiced their trade at home, India’s programmer shortage—estimated at 145,000 and growing—would be wiped out in a few months.  Four of out every ten Indian software developers are now working in the U.S.  Several of India’s small software companies have been forced to shut down—not for lack of business but because they couldn’t find enough employees.  In 1998, the renowned Indian Institute of Technology sent 30 percent of all of its graduates to the United States, including 80 percent of its computer science graduates.  India ranks 34 in global spending on research with 0.9% only. Facts about India and Indians!
  6. 6. MAJOR FACTORS Push factors  Political instability of a nation  Lack of opportunities  Health risks  Terrorism  Population explosion  Corrupt population system Under employment.  Economic under development.  Low wage/salary.  Lack of research and other facilities.  Lack of freedom.  Discrimination in appointment and promotion.  Unsuitable institution.  Desire for a better urban life.  Desire for higher qualification and recognition.  Better career expectation.  Lack of satisfactory working conditions Pull factors  Better economic prospects.  Higher salary and income.  Better level of living and way of life.  Better research facilities.  Modern educational system and better opportunity for higher qualifications.  Prestige of foreign training.  Intellectual freedom.  Better working condition and better employment opportunities.  Relative political stability.  Presence of a rich, scientific and cultural tradition.  Availability of experience/supporting staff.  Frequent chances of a lucky break in life.  Technological gap.  Allocation of substantial funds research.
  7. 7. Brain gain • Needs a mix of high quality basic research • Backed by quality engineering, applied research , and a strong manufacturing infrastructure as said by R. Chidambaram , PSA to the GOI • By enhancing academic-industry interaction • By increasing interactions between industry and research and development advisory groups such as CAR(Centre for Automotive Research) and CAG(Core Advisory Group) • Technology foresight analysis including strategic technologies(nuclear, space and defense related), environmental security(energy, food, nutritional, health and water security), advanced materials(electronics, network connectivity, micro small and medium enterprises)and cyber security • By exposing students entering into professional careers to challenging opportunities • By attaining leadership positions in technological scenario as said by R. Nithyananda , Chairman of Board of governors , NIT-T .
  8. 8. Improving research quality  Huge increase in funding  Technical man power supplies for IT and global research community  Reduce spending of public money on higher education and research for non performing institutes  All institutes should be graded and judged as per their performance and public monitory support should depend on that(UGC has started this but less cooperation is seen)  Introduce strict accountability of public money for any research in any institutes and should be mentioned in an open source  Private institutes and universities must follow a minimum standard to give degrees  Increase spending substantially on primary an higher school education both qualitative and quantitative  Increase the salaries of university teachers as per with lectures and put stringent quality control while recruiting teachers  Physical infrastructures like school building , standard of school labs and library, some internet connected computer should be provided  Provide increase opportunities for students in rural and semi-urban areas  Exam pattern should be changed and to put more emphasis on original thinking and problem solving rather than emphasizing data base quiz formats.  Basic education should be done in the mother language for better understanding along with English subject.
  9. 9. Convert brain drain into brain gain by Dr. Manmohan Singh • Revising the value of doctoral and post-doctoral fellowships and forming of schemes that would cover all research scholars with some funding. • “A national policy for data sharing and accessibility has also been formulated. The Protection of Intellectual Property Bill, focusing on sharing revenue from intellectual properties with researchers, will be taken up for discussion in Parliament very soon,” he said. • “Under the Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired Research (Inspire) scheme, we will soon be announcing the name of at least one science awardee per school in the age group of 10-15 in the entire country. • need for greater “autonomy from red tape and local politics”. • “encourage scientists of Indian origin currently working abroad to return to our country, including coming to our universities or scientific institutions for a short period. In this way we can convert the ‘brain drain’ of the past into a ‘brain gain’ for the future. This will require special incentives.”
  10. 10. Recent Improvement- Reverse Brain Drain • After the IT sector , Medical sector is witnessing Reverse Brain Drain • Reasons: (1)ample opportunities, (2)competitive salaries, (3)job satisfaction, (4)Work-Life-Family balance, (5)better infrastructure and (6)learning experience.
  11. 11. Views Budget allocation and scientific research encouragement should be there. The price money is not so important than improving our country. We want a better India for future studies and research so that we don’t have to look for fellowship in other countries Encourage student at school level to join smaller research projects so that we can promote all young students into researchers and may be India will emerge as the strongest power by 2050. Prof. Pankaj Singh, HOD, Physics Dept., DBC,DU Dr. IK, professor at DBC, DU Deshians, Our team