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  1. 1. Innovative Model to Enhance present Urban Conditions Team Details : Dibyanshu Tibrewal (Dehradun Institute of Technology) Apar Singhal (Dehradun Institute of Technology) Jyoti Pundir(Dehradun Institute of Technology) Sonali Bhowmick(G.L.N.A Institute of Technology , Mathura) Vibha Ghavri(The Hindu College ,Delhi) Team Motto : To Pro e oursel es Worthy e ough to get the opportu ity of o tri uti g to the De elop e t of our atio . JAI HIND !!
  2. 2. 18.9 18.7 54.1 32.5 % of Slum Population Chennai Delhi Greater Mumbai Kolkata Fact Past :- The Census of India, 2001 estimates that 27.81 percent of total population lives in urban areas of the country. A Technical Group was constituted by the Ministry of Housing & Urban Poverty Alleviation in 2006 to assess the urban housing shortage. The Group estimated that at the end of the 10th Five Year Plan (2007-08), the total housing shortage in the country was 24.71 million. Present :- The Technical Group constituted by the Ministry in 2006 to assess the urban housing shortage has estimated that the total housing requirement during the 11th Plan period (2007-2012) would be 26.53 million dwelling units including the housing shortage of 24.71 million dwelling units at the beginning of 11th Plan. No estimates as to housing requirements in the next ten years are available with the Ministry.
  3. 3. NUMBER OF MIGRANTS BY PLACE OF BIRTH Category Migrations by Place of birth Percentage A. Total Population 1,028,610,328 B. Total Migrations 307,149,736 29.9 B.1 Migrants within the state of enumeration 258,641,103 84.2 B.11 Migrants from within the districts 181,799,637 70.3 B.12 Migrants from other districts of the state 76,841,466 29.7 B.2 Migrants from other states in India 42,341,703 13.8 B.3 Migrants from other countries 6,166,930 2.0 Source : Table D1 India, Census of India 2001. What is giving Rise to Slums in Urban Areas? As observed from the table it is deduced that the major cause for this problem is that the migration of rural people to urban areas is very high in hope of a better lifestyle. As more and more people are migrating neither there is an expansion in urban area nor the rural area is developing . The main reason for this migration is that the rural area provides agriculture based seasonal employment and lack of other employment opportunities . This condemns the people to a state of perpetual poverty. Thus, cities are getting overburdened and municipalities are not being able to provide accommodation forcing migrants to live in make-shift homes or slums . Increase in slums is dete io ati g the ig a t’s li i g o ditio s a d also deteriorating the development by making people trapped in poverty loop . Lesser the slums better will be the progress of people in terms of lifestyle and also contribute to a ds ou atio ’s goal to e o e a de eloped nation . Causes in spotlight : • Lack of employment opportunities. • High rate of rural to urban migration. • Lack of area to accommodate the migrants.
  4. 4. The $300 House Low-cost, the $300 figure being largely arbitrary but a useful means of anchoring expectations. Self-built or self-improvable, because that both lowers the cost and works to reduce the potential for corruption capturing donor aid. Low-tech, because we want the slum dwellers themselves to build or improve or expand their house, as this will generate income for them and reduce the risk of value capture by landlords and rent-seekers. Local materials, preferably those that can be found or bought very cheaply (e.g. cement, masonry, bamboo). Greener than what would otherwise be built, because the home ecology (water, sanitation, even air quality from pollutants like paraffin or kerosene stoves) incubates the future's adults (that is, children). Replicable, since the slums are proliferating faster than any government's or formal sector's capacity to cope. Each $300 House can be a change point where high-tech meets low- tech, low-cost-building efforts in harmony with the financial and political ecosystem changes. We cannot have a healthy global economy without healthy cities, and we cannot have healthy cities without tackling slums. The idea is to upgrade the slum areas into housing suited well enough to accommodate the population healthily . Below is a glimpse of the model of the 300$ house as given by HBR . The reason to choose this model is because the people living in slums would not have to displace and instead convert their own make-shift homes into a home suited to Urban Life . Apart from this the model also provides a greater economic feasibility to the Government .
  5. 5. To regulate the activity of providing housing to Slum infested population there will be a need of an organization directly in control of the government . Creating an organisation directly under the Government will ensure the development of Slums into ia le Ho es . The o ga izatio ill ot o ly adhe e to Go e e t’s a ti ities ut ould also e su e Uniform Development. Organisation Head Development Controller Civil Engineers Construction Manager Finance Controller Regional Finance Reporter Structure of the Orga izatio odel hich ill regulate the go er e t’s o e to reduce slum .
  6. 6. Like this different cities having slums will be Targeted and the Slum Region will be developed simultaneously. Once the Project is completed in a particular Region , new Slum Region would be selected. To reduce the obstruction of Money Flow the Regional Finance Reporter will keep Tab on the project. The Civil Engineers comprising Graduates or 4th year Students will monitor the viability of construction . The construction manager initiates the projects and hires workers from Slum areas only. The Development controller lays down project requirements to construction manager. The Financial Controller regulates the flow of finance in project and co- ordinates accordingly. The Organisation head gives instructions to the Development Controller and Finance Controller . The Government gives instructions to the Organisation Head. The Region in the City having Slum area is selected.
  7. 7. Civil Engineers Comprising of the graduates or 4th year freshers. Will be selected on the basis of Examination . They ill keep a tra k of o stru tio a ager’s a ti ities . Main aim would be to ensure that the materials used in construction is according to the instructions laid by the Government. Construction Manager Will regulate the construction to be carried out. Will Hire workers from the Slum area itself . He will ensure that the work is completed properly before the Deadline mentioned by the Indian Government. Financial Reporter He will keep an account of the finance flow. He will ensure that every penny that the Government gives for the Project is utilised on the project only . Will keep giving weekly reports on finance used/needed for the project to the Finance Controller.
  8. 8. Money Human Resource Technology Energy Money : It will be funded by the government on the basis of Region to be covered. Human Resource : Availability of labourers from Slum areas will provide employment opportunities for them and Cheap labour for the Government. Technology : In order to implement the $300 house project quality technology is to be implemented keeping in mind the feasibility also . Energy: The Energy requirements can be fulfilled by ensuring the supply of electricity to all the houses created in the project.
  9. 9. Strength : It will ensure that the no Slum Region is left out. Weakness : It is dependent on Government for its Funding completely. Opportunities : It will create employment opportunities and improve Life-Style. Threat : Government may stop funding at the Time of Recession. S.W.O.T On coming across the proposed model one might ponder about the Merits and the Demerits of the proposed model . For ease of that the S.W.O.T analysis of the model has been given below .
  10. 10. Social Challenge : Slums are not homogeneous, and there many diverse vested interests that exist in slums. In addition to the poor who are simply looking for a decent place to live, there can be criminal elements who take advantage of the informal space, or landlords who make small fortunes renting out shacks to people over time. All of these interests must be properly understood and brought into the planning process. The best way to do this is through negotiated development, in which people participate in negotiating their rights and understand that all the different interests have rights that need to be brought into the equation. In some cases, for example, slum upgrading projects have failed because there are people in the community ho elie e they o ’t ualify fo a upg adi g p og a e e ause they a e ot itize s o eside ts of the country. Environmental Challenge : In upgrading the Slum areas there will be use of Machinery which might disrupt the Environment balance so in order to ensure that the Environment remains unaffected by the development there should be eco-friendly construction ensuring that the wastes from the construction are not littered but disposed properly and the recyclable ones are recycled properly . Time Challenge : The natural factors as well as health of the workers might not always be up to the mark thus disrupting the Time in which the Project is to be completed . To ensure this is done properly the workers should be provided with best possible Hygiene and also regular tab on Weather Forecasts can be kept in order to plan the work to be done correctly in Time .
  11. 11. If The Model is implemented then within a year it will be able to bring down the slum population by 6 percent which means that if included in 5 year plan it will have a drastic impact in upgrading the Slums . Note :- The 6 percent decrease is calculated considering all the challenges that will be encountered and can Hike by leaps and bounds if the challenges are overcome hastily. 18.9 18.7 54.1 32.5 % of Slum Population (Before Impact) Chennai Delhi Greater Mumbai Kolkata 12.9 12.7 48.1 26.2 % of Slum Population (After Impact) Chennai Delhi Greater Mumbai Kolkata THE MODEL WOULD BE EFFECTIVE ENOUGH TO BE ABLE TO ENHANCE THE ACTIVITY OF SLUM UP GRADATION
  12. 12. http://indiamicrofinance.com/housing-shortage-urban-india.html http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_causes_of_slums_in_India_in_general http://www.geocases2.co.uk/sp_figure10.htm  http://censusindia.gov.in/Census_And_You/migrations.aspx http://blogs.hbr.org/cs/2010/10/the_300_house_the_financial_challenge.html http://worldpopulationreview.com/population-of-india/ References